BECK index

North & South America

Chronological Index of Events

to 1865

World Chronology to 1830
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1950
Chronology of Europe to 1830

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(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)

c. 40-8,000 Asian land bridge allowed migration to America. Mayans
c. 11,000 Clovis people hunted mammoths with spears. Mayans
c. 5,000 Corn (maize) was grown in Mexico. Mayans
c. 4,000 Beans were grown in Mexico. Mayans
c. 4,000 Peru grew llamas, corn, potatoes, and cotton. Mayans
c. 2700 Pyramids were built in Peru. Mayans
c. 1500 Olmecs lived near Gulf of Mexico. Mayans
c. 900-200 Chavin culture grew coca in Peru. Mayans
c. 850 Corn farming improved in Peru. Mayans
c. 550 Zoque built pyramids in Chiapas. Mayans
c. 50 Mayans used hieroglyphics.

c. 250 Tikal Mayans began building large pyramids.
c. 300 Teotihuacan had about 80,000 people. Mayans
378 Mayan Tikal ruler conquered Uaxactun.
378 Smoking Frog began ruling Uaxactun. Mayans
c. 450 Ohio river valley people built mounds. Northern America
562 Mayan Caracol ruler Lord Water defeated Tikal.
578-628 Butz Chan ruled Mayan Copan.
615-83 Pacal ruled Mayan Palenque.
628-95 Smoke Imix ruled Mayan Copan.
631 Mayan Caracol ruler Lord Kan II defeated Naranjo.
631-81 Six Tun Bird Jaguar ruled Mayan Yaxchilan.
659 Mayan Palenque ruler Pacal made war on Yaxchilan.
679 Petexbatun sacrificed Tikal ruler Shield Skull. Mayans
681-742 Shield Jaguar II ruled MayanYaxchilan.
682-734 Ah Cacau ruled Mayans Tikal.
695 Mayan Tikal captured Jaguar Paw of Calakmul.
695-738 Eighteen Rabbit ruled Mayan Copan.
698-727 Shield God K ruled Mayan Petexbatun.
710 Naranjo ruler Smoking Squirrel raided the Yaxha. Mayans
711 Mayan Tonina captured Palenque king Kan Xul II.
738 Quirigua ruler Cauac Sky sacrificed 18 Rabbit. Mayans
c. 750 Teotihuacan was smashed and burned. Mayans
761 Mayan Tamarindito sacrificed 4th Petexbatun king.
c. 800-1400 Mound builders had cities in Mississippi Valley. Northern America
808 Last date was recorded in Mayan Yaxchilan.
810 Last date was recorded in Mayan Quirigua.
822 Last date was recorded in Mayan Copan.
849-1221 Itza Maya occupied Chichen Itza.
889 Last date was recorded in Mayan Tikal.
c. 900 Zapotec centralized government ended. Mayans
c. 950 Toltecs became prominent in valley of Mexico.
1004-07 Thorvald Erikson explored northeastern America.
1030-63 Eight-Deer ruled the Mixtecs. Toltecs
c. 1168 Toltec Tollan was destroyed.
c. 1200 Pueblo people lived in Mesa Verde. Anasazi
1325 Tenochtitlan was founded in Mexico. Aztecs
1358 Tlatelolco was founded in Mexico. Aztecs
1371-1426 Tezozomoc ruled Tepanecs. Aztecs
1372-91 Acamapichtli ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1391-1414 Huitzilihuitl ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1395 Mexica and Tepanecs conquered Tlaxcala. Aztecs
c. 1400 Hopi lived peacefully north of Mexico. Anasazi
1409-18 Ixtlilxochitl ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1414-26 Chimalpopoca ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1418-72 Nezahualcoyotl ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1426-28 Maxtla ruled Tepanecs. Aztecs
1427-40 Itzcoatl ruled the Aztecs.
1428 Aztecs destroyed Tepanec Azcapotzalco.
1438-71 Pachacuti ruled Inca empire.
1440-68 Moteuczoma Ilhuicamina ruled the Aztecs.
1441 Ah Xupan Xiu led revolt that destroyed Mayapan. Mayans
1444 Aztecs defeated Chalca and sacrificed 500.
c. 1450 Quiché Mayans reached their maximum power.
c. 1450 Mohawk Hiawatha began Iroquois federation.
1451-54 Tenochtitlan suffered famine. Aztecs
1465 Aztec empire annexed Chalco.
1469-81 Axayacatl ruled Aztec empire.
1471-93 Topa Inca ruled Inca empire.
1472-1516 Nezahualpilli ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1478 Tarascans defeated the Mexica. Aztecs
1486-1502 Ahuitzotl ruled Aztec empire.

1492-1504 Columbus colonized, explored Caribbean.
1493 Pope Alexander VI gave America to Spain. Columbus
1493 Syphilis appeared in Europe. Columbus
1493-1526 Huayna Capac ruled Inca empire.
1494 Spain and Portugal made Tordesillas Treaty. Columbus
1495 Columbus enslaved 1,600 Tainos.
1496 Oaxaca Zapotecs revolted against unfair trade. Aztecs
1500 Colon brothers were sent to Spain in chains. Columbus
1500 Portuguese Cabral discovered South America. Brazil
1502-09 Ovando governed Española (Haiti). Caribbean
1502-20 Moteuczoma Xocoyotl ruled Aztecs. Mexico
1505 African slaves were brought to Española. Caribbean
1509 Ponce de Leon colonized Puerto Rico. Caribbean
1509-23 Diego Colon governed Española. Caribbean
1511 Velazquez and Narvaez conquered Cuba. Caribbean
1511 Montesinos criticized conquest at Santo Domingo. Caribbean
1511 Noronha sent 35 slaves from Brazil to Portugal.
1512 Laws of Burgos were promulgated. Caribbean
1513 Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean. Panama
1514 Spain devised Requirement to warn natives. Caribbean
1516 Las Casas was appointed Protector of Indians. Caribbean
1517 Pedrarias had Balboa beheaded. Panama
1517 Velazquez sent Cordoba to explore Yucatan. Mexico
1517 Contract to import 4,000 African slaves was made. Caribbean
1519 Smallpox wiped out Tainos on Española and Cuba. Caribbean
1519-21 Cortes led the conquest of Mexico.
1522 Carlos V confirmed Cortes as governor.
1524 Cortes promulgated ordinances for New Spain.
1524 Spaniards fought over Honduras and Nicaragua. Central America
1524-33 Francisco Pizarro explored and invaded Peru.
1524-41 Alvarado conquered Guatemala, killing 4 million. Central America
1526-32 Huascar and Atahualpa fought Inca civil war. Incas, Peru
1527 Slaves revolted on Puerto Rico. Caribbean
1527-41 Montejo subjugated Yucatan. Mexico
1528 Narvaez began exploring Florida. Soto
1530 Carlos V banned making Indians slaves. Mexico
1531 Cult of the Virgin began in Guadalupe. Mexico
1532 Quiroga founded a hospital in Mexico City.
1532 Martim Afonso de Sousa founded Sao Vicente. Brazil
1533 Francisco Pizarro took gold and killed Atahualpa.
1533 Mexico bishop Zumarraga exposed Guzman.
1534 Pedro Alvarado invaded Ecuador. Peru
1534, 1541 Cartier explored St. Lawrence River.
1535 Francisco Pizarro founded Lima.
1535 Carlos V assigned Peru to Pizarro and Almagro.
1535-50 Viceroy Mendoza governed Mexico.
1536 Pope Paul III defended American Indians. Las Casas
1536 Manco organized an Inca rebellion. Peru
1537 Almagro took Cuzco from Pizarrists. Peru
1537 Las Casas used peaceful conversion in Vera Paz. Caribbean
1537-57 Irala governed Paraguay.South America
1538 Hernando Pizarro defeated and killed Almagro.
1538 Quesada met Chibchas and founded Bogota. New Granada
1539-42 Soto explored from Florida to the Mississippi.
1540-42 Mixton War enslaved 5,000. Mexico
1540-42 Coronado led expedition north to Kansas.
1541 François authorized colonization of America. Canada
1541 Almagrists assassinated Francisco Pizarro.
1541 Valdivia founded Santiago in Chile. Peru
1542 Spain's New Laws tried to reform encomiendas. Peru
1542 Alonso Alvarado defeated Almagrists at Chupas. Peru
1542 Cabrillo explored the California coast. Mexico
1544 Las Casas became bishop of Chiapas.
1545 Rich silver deposits were discovered at Potosi. Peru
1545 800,000 natives died of a new plague in Mexico.
1545-46 Natives wiped out Bahia and Sao Tomé in Brazil.
1546 Gonzalo Pizarro defeated and killed Viceroy Vela.
1548 Gasca defeated and executed Gonzalo Pizarro.
1549 Tomé de Sousa was first royal governor of Brazil.
1549 Nobrega led first Jesuits to America in Bahia. Brazil

1550 Las Casas debated Sepulveda on Indians.
1550 Valdivia founded Concepcion in Chile. South America
1550 Zapotecs rebelled against Spanish rule. Mexico
1550-64 Viceroy Velasco governed Mexico.
1551 Lima ecclesiastical council condemned coca. Peru
1552 Las Casas published 8 tracts on colonial reform.
1553-54 Giron led a revolt in Cuzco but was defeated. Peru
1553-58 Caupolican led Araucanian revolt in Chile. South America
1556 Nobrega wrote Conversion of the Heathen. Brazil
1562 European diseases infected natives of Bahia. Brazil
1562-75 Ibarra conquered northwest Mexico.
1565 Menendez massacred Huguenots at Fort Caroline.
1566 Inca Titu Cusi signed a treaty, became Christian. Peru
1568 Hawkins fought Spaniards at San Juan de Ulua. Caribbean
1569 Ercilla began publishing his poem La Araucana. South America
1569-82 Viceroy Toledo governed Peru. Peru
1572 Francis Drake attacked Panama. Central America
1574 Moya brought the Inquisition to Mexico.
1574 Toledo organized forced labor in Peru.
1576-80 Epidemic killed two million natives in Mexico.
1580 Garay planned city of Buenos Aires. South America
1585-87 Raleigh sponsored colony at Roanoke.
1586 Drake with 19 ships raided Cartagena. New Granada
1587 Caldera mediated treaties with Chichimecs. Mexico
1591-93 Inquisition purged Jewish influence in Brazil.
1593 Jesuits came to Chile.
1594 Raleigh explored the Orinoco River. Guiana
1596 Drake destroyed Santa Marta. New Granada
1598.6 Clifford led attack on Puerto Rico. West Indies
1598 Araucanian horsemen defeated Spaniards. Chile
1598-1608 Oñate explored and governed in New Mexico. Northern Mexico

1600 Silver-mining Potosi had 150,000 people. Peru
1602 French formed the Canada Company.
1602 Parker attacked and captured Puerto Bello. Central America
1607 Plymouth Company colony was abandoned.
1607 Jamestown began; Pocahontas saved Smith.
1608 Felipe III allowed Jesuits into Rio de la Plata.
1608 Champlain founded Quebec.
1608-97 Missionary Vieira worked for reforms in Brazil.
1609 African slaves revolted at Veracruz. Mexico
1609 Hudson explored Hudson River for the Dutch. New Netherland
1610 Spanish Inquisition came to Cartagena. New Granada
1610 Yaquis made peace with Spaniards in Sonora. Northern Mexico
1610 Indians rebelled at Durango. Mexico
1611 France sent Jesuits to Canada.
1611-16 Dale and Gates governed Jamestown strictly.
1612 Bishop Trejo founded Jesuit college at Cordoba. Rio de la Plata
1612 Valdivia implemented reforms in Chile.
1612 Virginia Company was granted Bermuda. Jamestown
1612 Jamestown charter was revised; lottery began.
1613 Argall destroyed French colonies in Canada.
1614 Amsterdam company founded New Netherland.
1614 Rolfe exported tobacco, married Pocahontas.
1616.2 Champlain mediated Huron-Algonquin peace.
1616 Groenewegen founded Kykoveral by Essequibo. Guiana
1616 Rolfe and Pocahontas visited England.
1618 Raleigh was executed to satisfy Spain. Guiana
1619 Virginia elected first Assembly.
1619.8 Dutch sold 20 Africans in Jamestown. Virginia
1620.11.21 41 Pilgrims signed the Mayflower compact.
1621.3 Pilgrims and Wampanoag Massasoit made treaty.
1621 Dutch West India Company was chartered.
1621.10 Pilgrims, Wampanoags celebrated thanksgiving.
1621-23 Viceroy Gelves reformed Mexico.
1621-56 Bradford governed Plymouth almost every year.
1622.3.22 Powhatans and others killed 347 settlers. Virginia
1622 King James banned selling weapons to Indians. Plymouth
1623 Dutch and Walloons built Fort Orange. New Netherland
1624.5 Dutch fleet captured Salvador in Bahia.
1624 British formed the West Indies Association.
1624 Archbishop Serna excommunicated Gelves. Mexico
1624 Champlain made peace with the Iroquois.
1624-28 Mohawks battled and defeated Mahicans. Iroquois
1625 English colonists landed at Barbados. West Indies
1625 Charles made Virginia a royal colony.
1626 Felipe IV ordered offensive war in Chile.
1626 Minuit purchased Manhattan Island. New Netherland
1626 Pilgrims bought out their stockholders.
1627 Richelieu founded Company of 100 Associates. Canada
1628 Piet Heyn captured lucrative Spanish fleet. Dutch, Mexico
1628 Endecott began the colony of Salem. Massachusetts
1629.3 Charles granted Massachusetts Bay to Puritans.
1629 Tavares' slave raid took 5,500 Indians in Guaira. Brazil
1629 Araucanians captured Pineda. Chile
1630 Dutch fleet occupied Recife and Olinda.
1630 Winthrop began Massachusetts Bay colony.
1632 Récollet Sagard published a Huron dictionary. Canada
1632-75 Cecil Calvert was Maryland proprietor. Calverts
1633-34 Smallpox wiped out Massachusetts Indians. Connecticut
1634 Spaniards invaded Providence Island. West Indies
1634 Champlain founded Three Rivers.
1635 Dutch and Brazilians fought Sugar War.
1635 Massachusetts required church attendance.
1636.1 Salem banished Roger Williams. Massachusetts
1636 Harvard College was founded. Massachusetts
1636-38 Massachusetts, Connecticut fought Pequots.
1637 Massachusetts expelled Anne Hutchinson.
1637-44 Maurits governed Pernambuco for the Dutch.
1638.3 Williams and Hutchinsons founded Rhode Island.
1638 Minuit founded New Sweden by the Delaware. New Netherland
1638 New Haven and Hartford elected governments. Connecticut
1639 Plymouth freemen elected representatives.
1640-68 Portugal fought Spain for independence. Brazil
1641.3 Rhode Island government was elected.
1642 Maisonneuve founded Montreal. Canada
1642 Massachusetts annexed New Hampshire.
1643.3 Virginia required Anglican conformity.
1643.5 Confederation of New England formed.
1643 Mohegans defeated the Narragansetts. New England
1643 Williams wrote about American Indians.
1643-45 Kieft's War killed 1,600 Indians. New Netherland
1644.3 Parliament granted Rhode Island a charter.
1644.4.18 Indians killed 500 settlers in Virginia.
1644 Megapolensis published a book on Mohawks. New Netherland
1644 Williams published Bloudy Tenent of Persecution.
1644.10.14 William Penn was born in London.
1644-48 Dutch traded guns to Mohawks for furs. Iroquois
1645 Pessicus led Narragansett attack on Mohegans. New England
1646 Ward published Simple Cobler of Aggawam. New England
1646-47 Massachusetts fined Dr. Child for petitions. New England
1647-48 Dutch privateers took 249 Brazilian ships.
1647-64 Stuyvesant governed New Netherland.
1648 Plymouth colony paid off its debt.
1649 Maryland protected free exercise of religion.

1650 Anne Bradstreet's poetry was published. New England
1650 Pynchon published The Meritorious Price. New England
1650 Hartford Treaty divided Long Island. New England, New Netherland
1651 British Navigation Act protected shipping. Virginia
1651 English began colonizing Guiana.
1651 Dutch arrested English colonists in Delaware. New Netherland
1651 Eliot founded Natick for Christian Indians. New England
1651.10 Massachusetts took over Maine. New England
1651-95 Juana Inés wrote poetry, plays, and essays. Mexico
1652 Barbados Charter included elected assembly. West Indies
1652-54 First Anglo-Dutch War was fought. New England, New Netherland
1652-60 House of Burgesses governed Virginia.
1653 Jesuits returned to Sao Paulo. Brazil
1653 Most Iroquois made peace with the French.
1654.1 Dutch surrendered Recife to Portuguese.
1654 Swedes captured Fort Casimir from Dutch. New Netherland
1654-57 Williams was president of Rhode Island.
1655 Admiral Penn took Jamaica from Spaniards. West Indies
1655 New Amsterdam imported African slaves. New Netherland
1655 900 Indians invaded Manhattan. New Netherland
1655.9 Dutch ended New Sweden colony. New Netherland
1656.5 Mohawks massacred Hurons at Isle of Orleans. Iroquois
1656 Dutch and Jews occupied Cayenne. Guiana
1657-65 Massachusetts persecuted Quakers. New England
1658 Mohawks drove missionaries out of Onondaga. Iroquois
1658 Holyoke published Doctrine of Life. New England
1659 French founded St. Domingue on Haiti.
1659-76 John Winthrop Jr. governed Connecticut. New England
1660-77 Berkeley governed Virginia again.
1661 Vieira was expelled from Brazil.
1661 Rio de Janeiro executed tax rebel Barbalho. Brazil
1661, 1663 Eliot published the Bible in Algonquian. New England
1662 Portugal took over the Brazil Company.
1662 Connecticut stopped hanging witches. New England
1663.2 Louis XIV took over the Company in Canada. French
1663 Charles II granted Carolina to 8 supporters.
1663 Dutch fought the Esopus tribe. New Netherland
1664 Colbert chartered French West India Company.
1664 Puerto Rico began granting slaves asylum. West Indies
1664 Duke of York granted New Jersey to proprietors.
1664.9.5 Dutch surrendered New Netherland to English.
1664, 1676 French took Cayenne back from the Dutch. Guiana
1664-68 Col. Nicolls governed New York benevolently.
1664-88 James was proprietor of New York.
1665-67 Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought.Virginia
1666 Pirates raided Costa Rica and Maracaibo. Central America, West Indies
1667 Breda Treaty gave New York to English.
1667 Breda Treaty gave Surinam back to Dutch. Guiana
1667 Breda Treaty gave Acadia back to French. Canada
1667 Iroquois League and French made peace. Canada
1667 Hurricane destroyed 10,000 houses in Virginia.
1668 Peace between Spain and Portugal opened trade. Brazil
1668-71 Morgan's pirates raided Panama. Central America, West Indies
1669 Penn in prison wrote No Cross, No Crown.
1669 Locke wrote Fundamental Constitutions. Carolina
1670 English founded Charles Town, South Carolina.
1670.9 London jury acquitted Penn and Quakers.
1671 Plymouth made Metacom surrender his arms.
1671 Penn was imprisoned six months for preaching.
1672 George Fox preached in Maryland.
1672-74 Third Anglo-Dutch War was fought. New York
1672-82 Frontenac governed Canada.
1673 Marquette explored the Mississippi River. Canada
1673 Spaniards fortified San Agustin, Florida. Georgia
1673.8 Dutch took over New York for six months.
1673-95 Zumbi led quilombos revolt in Brazil.
1674 Stapleton convened Leeward Islands assembly. West Indies
1674-80 Governor Andros favored New York City.
1674-82 Joseph West governed Carolina.
1674-83 Quakers controlled West Jersey.
1674-88 Laval was first bishop of Quebec. Canada
1675.6 Metacom’s War in New England began.
1675 Popé and others were tried in Santa Fe. Northern Mexico
1675 Quakers began settling in West Jersey.
1675.9.9 New England called out 1,000 militiamen.
1675-76 Metacom’s War killed 3,600.
1676.2 1,500 Indians raided Massachusetts. Metacom's War
1676.5.10 Governor Berkeley declared Bacon a rebel.
1676.8.12 Metacom was killed at Mount Hope.
1676.9.19 Bacon’s Rebellion burned Jamestown.
1676.10.26 Bacon died of dysentery.
1676-81 Randolph investigated New England colonies.
1677.1 Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia ended.
1677.12 John Culpepper led revolt in North Carolina.
1678 Dominicans formed university in Guatemala. Central America
1679 New Hampshire became a royal province. New England
1680 Buccaneers sacked Caracas. New Granada
1680.8 Popé led a united attack on Santa Fe. Northern Mexico
1681.2.24 Charles II granted Pennsylvania to Penn.
1681 Pope Innocent XI sanctioned Bethlehemites. Central America
1682.4 La Salle claimed Louisiana for Louis XIV.
1682.4 Penn wrote "Frame of Government."
1682.12.4 First Assembly of Pennsylvania met.
1683.6 Penn signed treaty with Lenni-Lenape.
1683 Van Horn and Laurent raided Veracruz. Mexico
1683-85 New York developed a democratic Assembly.
1684 Senecas besieged Fort St. Louis. Canada
1684.10 Massachusetts charter was judged forfeited. New England
1685 Louis XIV's Code Noir regulated slavery. West Indies, Canada
1685, 1690 Slaves on Jamaica revolted. West Indies
1686.8 Spaniards destroyed Stuart's Town in Carolina.
1686-89 Andros governed New England Dominion.
1687.3.19 La Salle was murdered in Louisiana.
1687 Denonville went to war against the Iroquois. Canada
1687 John Wise led tax resistance in New England.
1688 Barbados adopted a slave code.South Carolina
1688 Mennonites of Germantown protested slavery. Pennsylvania
1689.4.19 Massachusetts arrested Governor Andros. New England
1689.5 Leisler took over New York.
1689 Privateer Casse attacked Surinam and Berbice. Guiana
1689-97 King William's War fought French. Canada, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania
1689-98 Frontenac governed Canada during war.
1689-1714 Maryland was a royal colony.
1690.2 French and Indians destroyed Schenectady. Canada
1690.5 Phips of Massachusetts captured Port Royal. Canada, New England
1690.10 British attack on Quebec led by Phips failed. Canada, New England
1691.3 New York governor Sloughter removed Leisler.
1691 William granted Massachusetts a new charter. New England
1692 High grain prices caused a riot in Mexico City.
1692 Salem Witch Trials hanged 19 people.
1692-97 Fletcher governed New York corruptly.
1693 New York supported Anglican ministers.
1693 Penn wrote plan for European peace.
1694 Penn wrote about people called Quakers.
1695 College of William and Mary was founded. Virginia
1696 Louis XIV cancelled beaver permits. Canada
1696 Board of Trade formed for Navigation Acts. Massachusetts, Pennsylvania
1696-98 Spaniards conquered Tarahumaras. Northern Mexico
1697 Ryswick Treaty tried to end piracy. West Indies
1697 Salvatierra founded a mission in Baja California. Northern Mexico
1698 Brazil's long gold rush began.
1698-1700 Scottish colonists failed in Panama. Central America
1698-1727 Samuel Cranston governed Rhode Island.
1699 Iberville founded Biloxi in Louisiana. Canada
1699 Woolen Act banned colonial exports. Massachusetts
1699 Virginia law required church attendance.

1700 Sewall published The Selling of Joseph. Massachusetts
1700 New York banned Catholic priests.
1701.5.23 Captain Kidd was hanged in London. Massachusetts
1701 Connecticut began college that became Yale.
1701.7 Cadillac started a trading post at Detroit. Canada
1701.8.6 38 chiefs made treaty with French Canadians. Canada
1701.10.28 Penn granted Charter of Privileges.
1702 Cotton Mather wrote Magnalia Christi Americana.
1702 New Jersey was unified as a royal colony.
1702.9 South Carolina governor Moore burned San Agustin.
1702-13 Queen Anne's War. Canada, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina
1702-38 New Jersey was under governor of New York.
1703 Jesuits introduced printing in Rio de la Plata.
1703 La Hontan wrote New Voyages to North-America. Canada
1703-25 Rigaud de Vaudreuil governed Canada.
1704.2.29 French and Abenakis attacked Deerfield. Canada, Massachusetts
1704 Weekly Boston News-Letter began. Massachusetts
1705 Massachusetts raised duty on imported Africans.
1706.1.17 Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston.
1706 South Carolina established Anglicans.
1707 John Williams published Redeemed Captive. Massachusetts
1707 New York arrested Presbyterian Makemie.
1707-24 Saltonstall governed Connecticut.
1708 Spain allowed slaves to purchase their freedom. West Indies
1708 French privateers raided the Essequibo colony. Guiana
1708 Indian agent Nairne made peace with Choctaws. South Carolina
1709 Selkirk was rescued from Juan Fernandez Island. Chile
1709 Louis XIV banned selling beaver to English. Canada
1709 English expedition against Canada failed. Massachusetts, New York
1710 Cotton Mather published Essays to Do Good.
1710.9 Nicholson's forces captured Port Royal. Canada, Massachusetts
1710-22 Col. Spotswood governed Virginia.
1711.8 British naval attack on Quebec failed. Canada, Massachusetts
1711.9 5,800 French captured Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1712 Massachusetts banned importing Indian slaves.
1712 New York slave rebellion was suppressed.
1712 South Carolina founded the first land bank.
1712.11 Cassard's pirates raided Surinam and Berbice. Guiana
1713.3 Carolinians and Indians defeated Tuscaroras. North Carolina
1713 Utrecht Treaty gave slave trading to British. Mexico
1713 French ceded Acadia to England. Canada, Massachusetts
1714 English conformity law required oaths. Pennsylvania
1714 Calvert proprietors of Maryland were restored.
1715 Tuscaroras went north, joined Iroquois league. North Carolina
1715 South Carolina fought the Yamasees.
1716.1 Cherokees signed a treaty with the English. South Carolina
1717 John Wise wrote Vindication of the Government.
1717 Alabamas helped French build Fort Toulouse. Louisiana
1718.3 Chief Brims united the Creeks at Coweta. South Carolina
1718 Joao V approved selling Indians in Sao Luis. Brazil
1718 Bienville founded New Orleans as a capital. Louisiana
1718 New York allowed Jews to be naturalized.
1718.11 Virginia navy killed Blackbeard.
1718-32 Woodes Rogers governed the Bahamas. West Indies
1719 Louisiana began importing African slaves.
1719 South Carolina Assembly replaced proprietors.
1720 Maryland had 80,000 people and 25,000 slaves.
1720-21 John Law created a French financial bubble. Canada
1721.5 South Carolina became a royal colony.
1721 Cotton Mather advocated smallpox inoculation. Massachusetts
1721 Cotton Mather published Christian Philosopher.
1722 Weekly Jamaica Courant began publishing. West Indies
1722 Gaceta de Mexico began its monopoly on news. Mexico
1722 Franklin wrote Silence Dogood secretly.
1722-24 Dummer's War fought Abenakis in Maine. Massachusetts
1723 A Belgian set up a printing press in Cuba.West Indies
1723 Pennsylvania issued £45,000 in paper money.
1724 Meneses founded the Brazilian Academy. Brazil
1724 Louisiana excluded Jews and Protestants.
1725 University of Caracas was founded. New Granada
1726-46 Beauharnois governed Canada.
1727 Colden wrote History of the Five Indian Nations. Iroquois
1727 Franklin started the Junto discussion group.
1727 Maryland Gazette began publishing. Maryland
1727-49 William Gooch governed Virginia.
1728 Dominicans began a university at Havana. West Indies
1728 Caracas Company was given a trade monopoly. New Granada
1729 Franklin wrote "Busy-Body." Journalism
1729 Franklin wrote on paper money.
1729 Franklin bought the Pennsylvania Gazette.
1729 North Carolina became a royal colony.
1729-31 French and Choctaws fought Natchez. Louisiana
1730 Almeida began regulating diamond mining. Brazil
1730 Mompo led a revolt in Asuncion. Rio de la Plata
1730 Virginia passed Tobacco Inspection Act.
1730-41 Jonathan Belcher governed Massachusetts. Massachusetts
1731 Barbados Gazette began publishing. West Indies
1731 Viceroy Armendariz executed Antequera. Rio de la Plata
1731 Louisiana became a royal colony,
1731 Franklin's Junto began first circulating library.
1732 Brazil restricted women from emigrating.
1732 George II granted Georgia a non-profit charter.
1733.2 Oglethorpe led settlers south of Savannah River.
1733 British passed the Molasses Act. Massachusetts, New York, Virginia
1733 Virginia had 88,000 Europeans, 42,000 Africans.
1733-58 Franklin published Poor Richard’s Almanac.
1734 Escandon pacified Sierra Gorda in Mexico.
1734-52 Johnston governed North Carolina.
1735.4.3 Georgia banned importing slaves and alcohol.
1735 Jury acquitted publisher Zenger in New York.
1736 Franklin became Assembly clerk.
1736 Parks began publishing weekly Virginia Gazette. Virginia
1736.12 Franklin founded Union Fire Company.
1736, 1739 Bienville attacked the Chickasaws. Louisiana
1737 Franklin became deputy postmaster.
1737.9 Walking Purchase took land from Delawares. Pennsylvania
1738 Bogota got its first printing press. New Granada
1738 Whitefield came to Georgia.
1739.9 Slaves rebelled near Charles Town.
1739.10 England declared war on Spain. West Indies, Rhode Island, South Carolina
1740.5 2,000 English and Indians attacked San Agustin. Georgia
1740 Whitefield preached in New England. Great Revival
1740 South Carolina had 39,000 African slaves.
1741 English attacked Cartagena. Massachusetts, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina
1741 Zinzendorf's Moravians founded Bethlehem. Pennsylvania
1741-57 William Shirley governed Massachusetts. New England
1742 Edwards wrote about the revival of religion.
1742 Franklin invented a more efficient stove.
1742 Cherokees, Catawbas, and Iroquois made treaty. South Carolina
1742.6.22 Spanish fleet attacked St. Simons Island. Georgia
1742.7 Georgia repealed prohibition of alcohol.
1743 Stephens succeeded Oglethorpe in Georgia.
1743-53 Admiral George Clinton governed New York
1743-56 James Glen governed South Carolina.

1744.3 France and England declared war. British
1744.6.28 New England captured Louisbourg.             
1744 Franklin founded American Philosophical Society.
1744 Jonas Green revived the Maryland Gazette.
1744-48 King George’s War fought the French. New England
1745, 1747 70 ships going to Martinique were captured. French West Indies      
1746 College of New Jersey began at Princeton.
1746 North Carolinans refused to pay taxes.
1746-51 William Johnson was New York’s Indian agent.
1746-52 La Jonquiere governed the French.
1746-55 Viceroy Güemes prospered in Mexico.
1747.5 British navy defeated La Jonquiere’s 5 ships. French
1747 Spaniards fought Comanches. Mexico
1747.11.17 Franklin’s “Plain Truth” advocated defense.
1747-49 La Galissoniere governed the French
1747-57 Jonathan Belcher governed New Jersey.
1748 Joao V ended ransom expeditions in Brazil
1748.10.18 Treaty gave Louisbourg back to the French
1748-49 Creoles began protesting Caracas Company. New Granada
1748-49 Pennsylvania made treaties with Indian tribes.
1749.3 George II approved grant to the Ohio Company.
1749 Peru had two major Indian revolts.
1749 Franklin wrote on education, began Academy.
1749.8.2 Iroquois gave Croghan 200,000 acres by Ohio. French
1749-52 Edward Cornwallis governed Halifax. New England
1749-53 Franklin experimented with electricity.
1750.1 Mayhew preached right to representation. New England
1750.1 Portugal and Spain agreed on borders of Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1750 Smallpox killed 40,000 in Belem. Brazil
1750 Georgia repealed its anti-slavery law.
1750-77 Jose I ruled Portuguese empire with Pombal. Brazil
1751.8.15 Franklin appealed for a hospital. 
1751-58 Robert Dinwiddie governed Virginia
1752.4 Franklin started first fire insurance company.
1752-55 Duquesne governed the French
1752-72 Gravesande directed Essequibo & Demerara. Guiana
1753 Chile monopolized tobacco.
1753 French built forts in Ohio valley. Canada
1753 Dinwiddie sent Washington to Fort Le Boeuf. Virginia
1753-73 Franklin was deputy postmaster of America.
1754.5.28 Washington led attack on French
1754.6 English colonists met at Albany. New York Franklin
1754 Spain and Portugal agreed to dominate. Brazil  Guiana
1754 New York City public library began. 
1754.7 Washington surrendered Fort Necessity. English-French War
1754.8 Virginia House authorized £20,000 for defense.
1754.11 British authorized £1,000,000 for war on French.
1754, 1762 Woolman wrote against slavery. Pennsylvania
1754-56 Guarani War moved Jesuit missions in BrazilRio de la Plata
1755.1 Georgia’s first elected Assembly met.
1755.4 Virginia deported 1,150 Acadians to England.
1755.6.16 British defeated French Acadians.
1755 Brazil restored Indian rights. 
1755 Cuba established a general post office.
1755 Connecticut Gazette began publishing. New England
1755 Mitchell published map of Mississippi Valley. Virginia
1755.7.9 French & Indians defeated Braddock’s British.
1755.7 Cherokees sold 360 square miles to England. 
1755.11.25 Pennsylvania passed Franklin’s Militia Act. 
1755-60  Viceroy Ahumada tried to reform Mexico.
1756.4.14 Pennsylvania declared war on Delawares. 
1756.5.17 England declared war against France. English-French War
1756 Connecticut had 3,587 slaves.  New England
1756 James Davis published North Carolina Gazette.  
1756 Gov. Morris broke into Philadelphia warehouses. Sugar Tax
1756.8 Montcalm and French captured Fort Oswego.
1756-60 Lyttelton governed South Carolina
1756-63 War increased British debt to £122,603,336. Sugar Tax
1757.2 Pennsylvania sent Franklin to London. 
1757 Brazil abolished Indian slavery. 
1757 Pennsylvania spent £127,000 on military.
1757.8 French captured Fort William Henry. 
1758.2 Loudoun asked northern colonies for 6,992 men. French
1758.3 New England voted to raise 13,800 soldiers.  French
1758.5 8 ships from France ended Canadian famine.  French
1758 Viceroy Cevallos moved Indians across Uruguay. Brazil
1758 University in Chile began teaching law. 
1758 English deported 5,637 French prisoners. 
1759.7 Edmund Atkin made a treaty with Choctaws.  Carolinas
1758.7.26 France surrendered Ile Royale and Ile St. Jean. French
1758.7.26 English took over Fort Niagara.  
1758.7.31 French abandoned Fort Carillon. French
1758.10 Penn restored Iroquois land in the west. Pennsylvania
1758.11.25 English took over destroyed Fort Duquesne. Virginia
1759.2 Pennsylvania taxed land for £100,000. 
1759 Bahia founded Brazilian Academy. 
1759 Canada’s war expenses reached 30 million livres. French
1759 English colonies raised 17,000 to invade Canada.
1759 Cherokees and Creeks declared war on English.
1759.9.18 French surrendered Quebec to the English.  
1759-88 Carlos III ruled Spanish empire.  Rio de la Plata New Granada
1760 Brazil expelled 600 Jesuits. 
1760 British Navy captured 30 smuggling ships. Sugar Tax
1760.9.8 French surrendered Montreal to the English
1760-61 South Carolina fought Cherokees.  
1761 Spain and Portugal made Treaty of Pardo. Brazil
1761 Smallpox killed 94,000 in Puebla and Mexico City.
1761 Spaniards killed 400 Comanches at Taos. North Mexico
1761.11 King Canek led by Mayan revolt. Mexico
1761.12.17 Cherokees made peace with South Carolina
1762 Spaniards invaded Brazil, besieged Colonia. 
1762 James Johnston became Georgia’s printer. 
1762 James Otis Jr. wrote vindicating legislature. New England
1762.8 Delawares met with Iroquois at Easton.  Pontiac
1762.11.3 France secretly ceded Louisiana to Spain. British Canada
1762-63 British invaded and occupied Cuba
1763.2.10 Spain gave Florida to England in treaty. Mexico Georgia
1763.2.10 France ceded New France to England.   New England Sugar Tax Canada
1763.3 Delaware’s Neolin prophesied new religion. Pontiac
1763.4 Boston merchants opposed tax on molasses. Sugar Tax
1763.4.27 Pontiac held a war conference.  
1763.5.7 Pontiac tried to take Fort Detroit. 
1763.5 Indians took over three forts. Pontiac
1763 Rio de Janeiro became Brazil’s capital. 
1763 England annexed Dominica, Tobago, Grenada. West Indies
1763 England devalued New England’s money. 
1763 13 colonies debt was £2,097,000. Pontiac
1763 American economy went into a depression. Sugar Tax
1763.7 General Amherst used smallpox against Indians. Pontiac
1763.7 Grenville ordered Customs officials to colonies. Sugar Tax
1763.8.6 Chief Pontiac was defeated at Bushy Run. Canada
1763.8 British took over West Florida from Spaniards. Western Frontier
1763.10.7 George III reserved west for Indians. Virginia Pontiac Western Frontier
1763.10 Pontiac ended war against English. 
1763.10 Rhode Island merchants opposed Sugar Act. 
1763.11.10 Creeks ceded land to Georgia.  
1763.11 South Carolina gave Indians gifts. 
1763.12 Patrick Henry called George III a tyrant in court. Virginia
1763-64 African slaves revolted in Berbice, Guiana

1764.1.27 New York City merchants urged protests. Sugar Tax
1764.2 Franklin persuaded Paxton Boys to go home.
1764.4.5 England passed Revenue Act (Sugar Act). West Indies Sugar Tax
1764 Gazette de St. Domingue began publishing. Haiti
1764 Currency act banned paper money in colonies. Sugar Tax
1764 Otis wrote Rights of British Colonies AssertedSugar Tax
1764.8.10 Gov. Murray established two courts for Canada.
1764.10.31 North Carolina Assembly opposed British tax. Sugar Tax
1764.11.4 Gov. Hopkins read Rights of Colonies Examined. Sugar Tax
1765.1.14 Pitt called for repeal of the Stamp Act.  
1765.3.22 British Stamp Act became law.  
1765.5 Croghan convened Indian congress at Fort Pitt. Western Frontier
1765.5.15 British Quartering Act passed. Stamp Act
1765.5.30 Patrick Henry spoke against the Stamp Act
1765.6.8 Massachusetts urged a congress in New York. Stamp Act
1765.6.24 Newport Mercury published Henry’s resolutions. Stamp Act
1765 Quito revolted against prohibition of alcohol.  Peru New Granada
1765 13 English colonies had 1,750,000 people. Stamp Act
1765.8.14 Loyal Nine in Boston hanged Oliver in effigy. Stamp Act
1765.8.17 Croghan held Indian conference at Detroit. Western Frontier
1765.8.26 New York Stamp Distributor McEvers resigned. Stamp Act
1765.8.27 Newport mob attacked Distributors’ houses. Stamp Act
1765.9.19 New Jersey bar refused to use stamps. Stamp Act
1765.10 9 colonies attended congress in New York. Stamp Act
1765.10 Dulany wrote on the propriety of imposing taxes.Stamp Act
1765.10.31 200 New York merchants boycotted English. Stamp Act
1765.11.1 American newspapers stopped publishing. Stamp Act
1765.11.14 400 Philadelphia merchants boycotted English. Stamp Act
1765.11.25 New York Gazette published without stamps. Stamp Act
1765.12.6 200 Boston merchants stopped British imports. Stamp Act
1765.12 Dickinson warned Pitt 13 colonies would unite. Stamp Act
1765-71 Visitador Galvez reformed Mexico’s finances.
1766.1.14 Pitt called for repeal of the Stamp Act.
1766.1.17 London merchants urged repeal of Stamp Act.  
1766.2.13 British Parliament questioned Franklin. Stamp Act
1766.2.22 Commons voted to repeal the Stamp Act.  
1766.3.27 Commons voted to reduce tax on molasses. Stamp Act
1766.6.28 Grand Vicar Briand arrived in Quebec. Canada
1766 Bland wrote on the rights of British colonies. Stamp Act
1766-70 Guy Carleton governed Canada
1767.2 Carlos III expelled Jesuits. Rio de la Plata Mexico
1767.6.24 Viceroy Croix ordered Jesuits in Mexico arrested.
1767.6.29 Townshend Revenue Act was enacted. 
1767.10.1 Parliament suspended New York Assembly. Townshend Actss
1767.11.20 Townshend duties went into effect. 
1767.12.4 Newport adopted non-consumption. Townshend Acts
1767.12 Dickinson published Letters from a FarmerTownshend Acts
1768.1.20 Massachusetts legislature opposed taxes.  Townshend Acts
1768 13 English colonies demanded representation. Townshend Acts
1768.10.1 700 British soldiers came to Boston. Townshend Acts
1768.11.3 Iroquois ceded land in Fort Stanwix treaty. Western Frontier
1769.1.2 American Philosophical Society elected Franklin. Townshend Acts
1769 Jose Basilio da Gama wrote poem O UraguaiBrazil
1769 Colonies made non-importation agreements. Townshend Acts
1769-84 Serra founded and led California missions.
1769-84 Jonathan Trumbull governed Connecticut. Confederation
1770.1.31 426 women in Boston pledged not to use tea. Townshend Acts
1770.3.5 British soldiers in Boston killed five in a mob. Townshend Acts
1770.4 England repealed Townshend duties except tea. 
1770 Murray brought Universalism to New England. Townshend Acts
1770.7.6 George III ordered martial law in Massachusetts. Tea Tax
1771.5.16 Militia fought Regulators in North Carolina. Western Frontier
1771 Jose I took over Brazil’s diamond mines. 
1771 Connecticut prohibited the slave trade. Tea Tax
1771-79 Viceroy Bucarelli promoted missions, education. Mexico
1772.6.9 100 Sons of Liberty boarded the GaspeeTea Tax
1772 Scientific Academy subsidized in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1772.11.2 Sam Adams began correspondence committees. Tea Tax
1772-80 Jauregui governed Chile.  
1773.5.1 England passed the Tea Tax Act.  
1773 Pope Clement XIV abolished the Jesuits. Brazil
1773 Charleston imported 8,000 slaves. Townshend Acts
1773 Quebec annexed Indian territory. Canada
1773.9 Phillis Wheatley published her poems. Townshend Acts
1773.10 Daniel Boone led settlement of Kentucky. Western Frontier
1773.11 Gov. Dunmore granted veterans western land. Western Frontier
1773.12.16 Bostonians dumped British tea in the sea. Tea Tax
1773.12.27 Worcester formed American Political Society. Tea Tax
1774.1.29 British Parliament lectured Franklin. Tea Tax
1774.3.31 George III approved the Boston Port Bill. Tea Tax
1774.4 Quebec Act annexed land north of the Ohio. Western Frontier
1774.5.17 Rhode Island delegates proposed a congress. Tea Tax
1774.5.28 Virginians recommended an American congress. Tea Tax
1774.6 9 colonies endorsed the continental congress. Tea Tax
1774 Benezet wrote The Potent Enemies of America. Tea Tax
1774 Wilson wrote on the authority of Parliament. Tea Tax
1774 Jefferson wrote on the rights of British America. Tea Tax
1774 Ann Lee and Shakers came to New York. Tea Tax
1774 Hearne established Fort Cumberland. Canada
1774.9.3 General Gage fortified Boston. Tea Tax
1774.9.5 First Continental Congress met at Philadelphia. 
1774.9.6 Worcester Convention banned British courts. Tea Tax
1774.9.27 Continental approved non-importation.  
1774.10.9 Dunmore led Virginians against Indians. Western Frontier
1774.10.11 Massachusetts formed Provincial Congress. Continental Congress
1774.10.14 Continental Congress stated “Rights and Grievances.” 
1774.10.26 Massachusetts formed a militia. Continental Congress
1774.12 Franklin in England tried to avert civil war. Continental Congress
1775.2.1 Pitt’s plan for reconciliation was defeated. Continental Congress
1775.3.23 Patrick Henry asked for liberty or death.  Continental Congress
1775.4 11 colonies elected delegates to Continental Congress.  
1775.4.19 British attacked Lexington and Concord. British War
1775.4.23 Congress voted to raise 13,600 men. British War
1775.5.1 British offered Virginia slaves freedom to fight. British War
1775.5.1 Quebec Act went into effect. Canada
1775.5.10 Georgia joined the Congress. British War
1775.5.10 Allen’s volunteers took Fort Ticonderoga. British War Canada
1775.5.10 2nd Continental Congress met in Philadelphia. British War
1775.5.29 Congress sent Jay’s letter to Canada. British War
1775.6.12 British declared martial law in Massachusetts. British War
1775.6.15 Congress elected Washington commander. British War
1775.6.17 Americans defeated British on Breed’s Hill. British War
1775 New Englanders were excluded from fisheries. Canada
1775.7.5 Congress adopted a petition to George III. British War
1775.7.12 Congress created 3 Indian departments. Frontier
1775.7.26 Congress elected Franklin postmaster general. 
1775.8.23 George III ordered rebellion suppressed. Congress
1775.9.25 Allen was defeated & captured at Montreal. Congress Canada
1775.11.7 Gov. Dunmore declared martial law in Virginia. Congress
1775.11.13 Americans took over Montreal. Congress Canada
1775.12.31 Americans were defeated at Quebec. Congress Canada
1775-77 John Hancock was president of Congress. British War 1777
1776.1.10 Paine published Common Sense
1776.3.17 British army left Boston. Congress
1776.4.6 Congress declared free trade. 
1776.5.4 Rhode Island declared independence. Congress
1776.5.15 Virginia proposed debating independence. Jefferson
1776.5 10,000 British soldiers arrived in Canada. Canada
1776.6.7 R. H. Lee proposed independence. Declaration of Independence
1776.6.12 Virginia adopted Mason’s “Declaration of Rights.”Declaration of Independence
1776.6.15 Arnold’s army abandoned Montreal. Canada
1776.6.29 Virginia convention adopted a constitution. Declaration of Independence
1776.7.4 Congress approved independence unanimously. Declaration of Independence
1776.7 Americans attacked Cherokees. Frontier
1776.8.27 British defeated Americans on Long Island.
1776.9.8 Washington advised defensive war.
1776.9.22 British hanged Nathan Hale as a spy.
1776.12.20 Congress met in Baltimore. 1776
1776.12.26 Washington captured 918 Hessians in Trenton. 1776
1776-78 Paine published American Crisis1776 1777 1778-79
1776-83 British army occupied New York City.
1777.1.1 Washington ordered army not to plunder. 1777
1777.1.9 Cartagena’s royal library was opened to public. New Granada
1777.1 Legislative Council met in Quebec. Canada
1777.2 Congress allowed price controls to help the poor. 1777
1777.3.7 Shawnees attacked Boonesborough. Frontier
1777 Viceroy Cevallos invaded Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1777 Vermont abolished slavery. Confederation
1777.8.6 400 Iroquois and Brant attacked 800 Americans. Frontier
1777.9.26 Howe’s British army entered Philadelphia. 1777
1777.10 Men rebelled against conscription in Baltimore. 1777
1777.10.17 Burgoyne surrendered 5,791 men at Saratoga. 1777
1777.10.31 Congress elected Henry Laurens president. 1777
1777.11.15 Congress adopted Articles of Confederation. 1777
1777.12.17 Franklin made alliance with France. 1777
1777-95 George Clinton governed New York. Confederation
1778.5.4 Congress ratified treaties with France. 1778-79
1778.5.8 Governor Carleton dismissed Chief Justice Livius. Canada
1778.6 Tories and Iroquois defeated Americans. Frontier
1778.6.17 France declared war on England. 1778-79
1778 Free trade was implemented in Venezuela. New Granada
1778 Spain banned miscegenation in colonies. Mexico
1778 2,500 American soldiers died at Valley Forge. 1778-79
1778 Chief Blackfish led invasion of Kentucky.  Jefferson
1778.7.4 Virginians led by Clark captured Kaskaskia. Canada
1778.7.8 French fleet arrived at Delaware Bay. 1778-79
1778.9.17 United States recognized Delaware nation. Frontier
1778.10.19 Hamilton criticized war profiteering. 1778-79
1778.10.2 Governor Haldimand granted land to Iroquois. Canada
1778.12.9 Congress elected John Jay president. 1778-79
1778.12 British Navy took over St. Lucia.  West Indies
1778.12.17 British and Indians took over Fort Vincennes. Frontier
1778-84 Viceroy Vertiz ruled Rio de la Plata
1779.2 George Rogers Clark captured Fort Vincennes. Frontier
1779.5.11 British besieged Charleston. 1778-79
1779.6 Washington ordered attacks on Iroquois. Frontier
1779.6.21 Spain declared war on England. Frontier Canada
1779 French seized St. Vincent and Grenada. French West Indies
1779.9.23 John Paul Jones captured Serapis1778-79
1779.9.28 Congress elected Huntington president.  1778-79
1779,1780 Virginia elected Jefferson governor.
1780.1.31 Massachusetts constitution abolished slavery. 1780-81
1780.5.12 British captured Charleston.  1780-81
1780 Clavijero published Historia antigua de Mexico
1780 French West Indies had 437,738 African slaves.
1780 Massachusetts abolished slavery.  1780-81
1780-81 Tupac Amaru II led Inca revolt in Peru
1780-83 Indians revolted against Spaniards. Rio de la Plata
1780-85 Jefferson wrote Notes on the State of Virginia.
1780-85 John Hancock governed Massachusetts. Shays’s Rebellion
1781.1.1 American recruits mutinied at Princeton. 1780-81
1781.1.2 Virginia ceded land north of the Ohio. 1780-81
1781.3.1 13th state ratified Articles of Confederation. 1780-81
1781.3.16 Socorro and San Gil resisted taxes. New Granada
1781.3-5 Galvez and Spaniards captured Pensacola. Frontier
1781.4 20,000 comuneros marched to Bogota. New Granada
1781.6.12 William Pitt condemned the British war.  1780-81
1781 15 Universalists refused to pay tax to a church.  Washington
1781.8 Spanish troops regained Bogota.  New Granada
1781.10.19 Cornwallis surrendered 8,087 men. 1780-81
1782.1.7 Robert Morris began bank of the United States. Peacemaking
1782.2.27 British Parliament voted to stop the war. Peacemaking
1782.4.19 Netherlands recognized the United States. Peacemaking
1782 Viceroy Caballero granted a general amnesty. New Granada
1782 Chauncey wrote Salvation of All MenConfederation
1782.7.27 Franklin wrote on the costs of the war. Peacemaking
1782.12.14 British fleet sailed from Charleston. Peacemaking
1783.1.20 British ceded East and West Florida to Spain. Frontier
1783.4.15 Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris.  Peacemaking
1783.5 Continental officers began order of Cincinnati. Confederation
1783.6.8 Washington wrote letter to governors. Peacemaking
1783 Inca revolt in Huarochiri failed. Peru
1783 Treaty established British territory in Belize. Central America
1783 Noah Webster published his first speller. Shays’s Rebellion
1783.7.2 British barred American ships from West Indies.  Confederation
1783.9.3 British ceded Ohio valley to Americans. Canada
1783.9 British regained Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Kitts. West Indies
1783.11.25 British troops and Tories left New York. Peacemaking
1783.12.20 Virginia ceded Ohio land claims to Congress. Peacemaking Frontier

1784.4.23 Congress adopted plan for adding states. Frontier
1784.6.9 Hamilton opened private Bank of New York. Confederation
1784.7 North Carolina ceded Tennessee to Congress.Frontier
1784.7.22 Spain closed Mississippi to American ships. Confederation Frontier
1784.8.30 France opened 7 ports to American ships. Confederation
1784.10.22 Treaty of Fort Stanwix was signed. Confederation Frontier
1784.12.14 Settlers formed state of Franklin in the west.  Frontier
1784-88 United States suffered a depression. Confederation
1784-90 Viceroy Croix banned famous books in Peru.
1784-1803 Lasuen was president of California missions.
1785.1.11 Congress began meeting in New York. Confederation
1785.1.21 Treaty of Fort McIntosh was signed. Confederation Frontier
1785.5-11 Creeks made war on Georgians. Frontier
1785 Bilingual Montreal Gazette began. Canada
1785.10 Pennsylvania Council elected Franklin president. Confederation
1785.11 Cherokees ceded land to Americans at Hopewell. Confederation
1785-86 85,000 people died of starvation in Bajio. Mexico
1785-88 John Adams was minister to Britain. Confederation
1785-89 Jefferson was minister to France. Confederation
1785-94 Henry Knox was Secretary of War. Confederation
1786.1.10 Virginia approved separation of Kentucky. Frontier
1786.1.16 Virginia adopted Statute of Religious Freedom. 1786
1786.1.31 Shawnees signed treaty at Fort Finney. 1786
1786.2 Governor Anza made peace with Comanches. Northern Mexico
1786.2.28 British refused to evacuate northwest garrisons. 1786
1786 Joel Barlow wrote The Anarchiad.  Shays’s Rebellion
1786.8.22 Massachusetts delegates discussed debt relief. Shays’s Rebellion
1786.9.5 Shays’ rebels blocked Massachusetts Court. Shays’s Rebellion
1786.9 Rhode Island court found a law unconstitutional. Shays’s Rebellion
1786.11.3 Creeks signed treaty fixing Oconee River border. Frontier
1786-87 Shawnees, Creeks, Cherokees fought settlers.  Frontier
1787.1.4 Massachusetts governor called out 4,400 troops. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.1 John Adams wrote Defence of the Constitutions. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.2 Military forces ended the Shays’s Rebellion.
1787.4 Madison listed vices of United States politics. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.4.16 Royall Tyler’s The Contrast played in New York. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.5.25 Constitutional Convention began in Philadelphia.
1787 British West Indies had 461,864 African slaves. 
1787 Barlow wrote The Vision of ColumbusShays’s Rebellion
1787 Noah Webster founded The American Magazine. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.7.13 Congress passed Northwest Ordinance. Shays’s Rebellion Frontier
1787.8.1 Land was opened to Continental Army veterans. Frontier
1787.9.17 Convention adopted United States Constitution
1787.9.28 Congress submitted Constitution to 13 states. 
1787.10.5 Samuel Bryan argued against the Constitution.  
1787.10.18 “Brutus” article by Robert Yates was published. Ratification
1787.10.27 Federalist Papers by “Publius” began to appear. Ratification
1787.11 Federalist Papers #6-9 by Hamilton appeared.  Ratification
1787.11.22 Mason’s “Objections to Constitution” appeared. Ratification
1787.11.22 Madison published Federalist #10.  Ratification
1787.12 3 states ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1788.6.21 9th state ratified the US Constitution.  Ratification
1788.6-7 Virginia & New York ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1788 Spain allowed American ships in Mississippi. Frontier
1788.7.3 Kentucky convention applied for statehood. Frontier
1788.9.1 Congress banned whites from Cherokee land. Frontier
1788-96 Ambrosio O’Higgins governed Chile
1788-1808 Carlos IV ruled Spanish empire. Rio de la Plata Chile
1789.1 Federalists won first congressional elections.  New Government
1789.1-9 Jefferson observed the French Revolution.
1789.4.30 Washington was inaugurated as President. New Government
1789.5.10 Brazilian rebel Tiradentes was arrested. Brazil
1789 Clavijero published history of Baja California. Mexico
1789 Ramsey wrote History of American RevolutionRatification
1789.9 US Treasury Dept. was created. New Government
1789.9.24 US Judiciary Act became law. New Government
1789.9.25 US Congress sent 12 amendments to states. Bill of Rights
1789.12.21 Georgia sold 25,400,000 acres to Yazoo Co. Frontier
1789-94 Viceroy Güemes reformed Mexico, banned books.
1789-1838 US Government relocated 81,282 Indians. Removal
1790.1.9 Washington gave annual message to Congress. New Government
1790.1 Hamilton made “Report on the Public Credit.”  New Government
1790.3.17 Quakers asked Congress to abolish slavery. New Government
1790.5.29 13th state ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1790 Census counted 3,699,535 people in US. New Government
1790 Judith Sargent wrote “On Equality of the Sexes.” Washington
1790 King’s College began in Windsor, Nova Scotia. Canada
1790.7 Congress passed Hamilton’s debt bill. New Government
1790.8.7 Creeks ceded land to Georgia. Frontier
1790.10.22 Miamis and Shawnees defeated US Army. Frontier
1790-93 Jefferson was US Secretary of State.
1791.2 Ogé’s slave revolt in St. Domingue was defeated. Haiti
1791.2.25 Hamilton’s bank bill became law. New Government
1791.3.3 Congress passed excise tax on luxuries. Washington Whiskey Rebellion
1791.3.15 Jefferson reported to Congress on commerce. Washington
1791 St. Domingue had 452,000 African slaves. Haiti
1791 Macomb bought 4 million acres. Frontier
1791 New Foundland got a permanent court of justice. Canada
1791 Upper Canada had 14,000 people. Canada
1791.7.2 Cherokees ceded land in the Treaty of Holston. Frontier
1791.7.4 US Bank began selling stock. Washington
1791.8 Boukman led slave revolt in St. Domingue. Haiti
1791.10.31 Freneau’s National Gazette began publishing. Washington
1791.11.4 Miami’s Little Turtle defeated US Army. Frontier Jefferson
1791.12.5 Hamilton presented economic plan to Congress. Washington
1791.12.15 US Bill of Rights was ratified. 
1791.12.26 Constitutional Act divided Canada in two. Canada
1791-94 Western farmers opposed liquor tax. Whiskey Rebellion
1792.3 New York State Bank began. Washington
1792.4.5 Washington vetoed a bill as unconstitutional. 
1792.4.21 Tiradentes was hanged. Brazil
1792.5.1 Kentucky became the 15th state in the US. Frontier
1792 Barlow wrote Advice to the Privileged OrdersAdams
1792 Lower Canada had 155,000 people.
1792.8.11 US Supreme Court found a law unconstitutional. Washington
1792.9.17 Upper Canada Assembly began at Newark.
1792.12.17 Lower Canada Legislative Assembly began.
1792-93 Canadian Mackenzie crossed British North America. Canada Jefferson
1792-94 South Carolina banned importing slaves. Washington
1792-95 Abolitionist Sonthonax governed St. Domingue. Haiti
1792-1808 John Wentworth governed Nova Scotia. Canada
1792-1816 Prince Regent Joao ruled Brazil
1793.1.23 Madison published “Parties” essay. Washington
1793.2.1 France declared war on England, Spain, Holland. America
1793.3.4 President Washington began second term. America
1793.4.8 Genet arrived at Charleston. America
1793.4 Upper Canada Gazette began. Canada
1793.4.19 Washington proclaimed American neutrality. America
1793.6 Jefferson advised Genet. America
1793 Nariño was banished from America. New Granada
1793 Slaves revolted in the French West Indies.
1793 4,000 people died of yellow fever in Philadelphia. America
1793 Lower Canada banned importing slaves.
1793 Mountain was first Anglican bishop of Quebec. Canada
1793.7.12 Washington asked France to recall Genet. America
1793.8.8 Supreme Court declined to advise US President. America
1794.2.10 Quebec’s governor urged Indians to help British. America
1794.2 British seized Martinique and American ships. America
1794.2.24 Washington offered reward to catch criminals. Whiskey Rebellion
1794.3.4 Congress proposed 11th amendment. America
1794.3 Eli Whitney got a patent on his cotton gin. Washington
1794.3.27 Washington authorized ships for US Navy. America
1794.4.16 Washington appointed Jay envoy to Britain. America
1794.4.28 Adams broke tie in Senate on British trade. America
1794.5 Toussaint joined republican French. Haiti
1794.5.27 Washington named Monroe minister to France. America
1794.5.31 Lower Canada passed Alien and Sedition Act.
1794 York became the capital of Upper Canada.
1794.8.14 Western delegates demanded excise tax repeal. Whiskey Rebellion
1794.8 Brackenridge mediated with whiskey rebels. Whiskey Rebellion
1794.8.20 US Army defeated Indians at Fallen Timbers. Frontier
1794.10-11 3,000 soldiers suppressed Whiskey Rebellion.  
1794.11.8 Chickamauga wars ended in a peace treaty. Frontier
1794.11.19 Jay & Grenville agreed on US-British treaty. America Canada
1795.1 Georgia sold 35 million acres to Yazoo Co. Frontier
1795.6.24 Senate approved Jay’s Treaty with changes. Washington
1795 Economic Society of Guatemala began.  Central America
1795 Spanish army suppressed slave revolt on Cuba. Puerto Rico
1795 Spain left Española, and the English invaded. Haiti
1795 Spain strengthened forts on the Mississippi. Frontier
1795.8.3 Indians ceded land to US in Wayne’s treaty.Frontier
1795.8.18 Washington signed treaty with Ohio Indians. 
1795.8.19 Washington sent address to Cherokees. 
1795.10.27 Spain ceded territory to the US. Mexico Washington Frontier
1795.11.9 Washington met with warriors from 11 tribes. 
1795-96 Second Maroon War was fought in Jamaica. West Indies
1795-97 Fedon led a rebellion in Grenada. West Indies
1796.3 Washington agreed to pay Barbary pirates. 
1796.5 Congress funded Jay’s treaty. Washington
1796.6.1 Tennessee became the 16th state in the US. Frontier
1796 British withdrew troops from northwest. Frontier
1796.8 Spain went to war against England. Mexico
1796.9.19 Washington published “Farewell Address.” 
1796.12 Spain opened Mississippi River to US ships. Frontier
1796-1802 British governed Guiana.  
1796-1806 Lazaro Ribera Espinosa ruled Paraguay. Rio de la Plata
1797.3.4 John Adams became 2nd US President. 
1797.4 Toussaint’s republicans defeated the English. Haiti
1797.5.15 US Congress began special session. Adams
1797.5.16 Adams declared policy of neutrality. 
1797.7.10 US Congress funded 3 Navy ships. Adams
1797.7 Callender exposed Hamilton’s adultery. Adams
1797.7.21 MacLane hanged for trying to seize Quebec. Canada
1797.8 Society of United Irishmen began. Adams
1797.9.17 Seneca chiefs sold land to Holland Company. Frontier
1797.12 Miranda claimed Spanish American junta. New Granada
1797-1803 Johnstone governed Dominica badly. West Indies
1798.2.15 Lyon and Griswold fought in Congress. Adams
1798.3 Spain ceded land to US east of Mississippi. Frontier
1798.3-10 Hédouville governed St. Domingue for France. Haiti
1798.5.9 Day of prayer resulted in riots in Philadelphia. Adams
1798.5 US Congress authorized 9 warships. Adams
1798.6.18 Naturalization Act extended time to 14 years. Adams
1798.6.26 Judge Peters ordered Bache arrested for libel. Adams
1798 Judith Sargent published The Gleaner.  Adams
1798.7.6 Alien Enemies Act authorized deportations. Adams
1798.7.9 US Direct House Tax became law. Adams
1798.7.14 US Sedition Act banned “malicious” writing. Adams
1798.8.16 France ended embargo of American ships. Adams
1798.10.1 Lyon published Scourge of AristocracyAdams
1798.10 Lyon was re-elected while in jail for sedition. Adams
1798.11.16 Gov. Garrard signed Kentucky Resolutions. Adams
1798.12.20 Barlow wrote “On Certain Political Measures.”  Adams
1798.12.24 Madison’s Virginia Resolutions were enacted. Adams
1799.1.15 Adams began negotiating a treaty with France. 
1799.1.30 Congress passed the Logan Act. 1799-1800
1799.1-3 Fries rebellion stopped tax collection.  1799-1800
1799.2.1 Washington urged Adams to make peace. 
1799.2.9 Adams authorized trade with Toussaint’s Haiti. 
1799.3-5 Fries tax rebellion was suppressed. 1799-1800
1799.4.24 Library of Congress was started. 1799-1800
1799.5 Justice Chase indicted Callender for sedition. 1799-1800
1799 Road from Lima to Callao was completed. Peru
1799 Revolutionaries in La Guaira were punished. New Granada
1799.11.14 Kentucky passed more resolutions. 1799-1800
1799.12.14 George Washington died of illness. 1799-1800
1799-1805 Robert Shore Milnes governed Lower Canada.
1799-1808 Republican McKean governed Pennsylvania. 1799-1800

1800.5.1 Republicans won elections in New York. 1799-1800
1800.5.10 Land Act gave American settlers credit. 1799-1800
1800.5 Adams fired McHenry and Pickering. 
1800 Census found 5,308,483 in US, 893,602 slaves. 1799-1800
1800.7 Tripoli threatened war against the United States. America’s Naval War
1800.10.1 Spain ceded Louisiana to France.  Frontier
1800.10 Gabriel and 25 slaves were hanged for revolt. 1799-1800
1800.12 Toussaint’s troops occupied Santo Domingo. Haiti
1800.12 Electors gave 73 votes to Jefferson and Burr. 1799-1800
1801.1 Harrison became governor of Indiana Territory. Indian
1801.1 Tripoli made demands of the United States. America’s Naval War
1801.1.31 Adams nominated Marshall as Chief Justice. 
1801.2.2 US Senate ratified altered French treaty. Adams
1801.2.13 Federalist Senate added 23 new judges. Adams
1801.2.17 House elected Jefferson President.
1801.3.4 Thomas Jefferson became 3rd US President.
1801.3.6 Jefferson wrote to Dickinson on revolution.
1801.3.18 Jefferson wrote to Paine on peace & Europe.
1801.3.24 Jefferson wrote to Dr. Rush on US Post Office.
1801.5.13 Gallatin began work as Treasury Secretary. Jefferson
1801.5.14 Tripoli declared war on the United States. America’s Naval War
1801 St. Domingue became self-governing. Haiti
1801 McGill University began. Canada
1801.8.1 USS Enterprise defeated the Tripoli.  America’s Naval War
1801.8 20,000 attended religious revival in Kentucky. Frontier
1801.12.7 Republican Macon became House Speaker. Jefferson
1801.12 Marbury sued Secretary of State Madison. Jefferson
1801.12.19 US Senate ratified treaty with France. Louisiana
1801-12 Harrison governed Indiana Territory. 1805-06
1802.1 Congress rejected fugitive slave bill.  Jefferson
1802.1 US agreed to pay British creditors £600,000. Jefferson
1802.2.2 Congress authorized US Navy against Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1802.2 French seized 20 American ships at Cap Français. Jefferson
1802.3.3 Congress repealed Judiciary Act of 1801. Jefferson
1802.3.16 Jefferson approved West Point military academy.
1802.4.24 Congress set Georgia’s western border. Jefferson
1802.4.30 Ohio became 17th state in US. Jefferson
1802.6.17 Tripoli seized USS FranklinAmerica’s Naval War
1802.6.25 Morocco declared war on the United States. America’s Naval War
1802 Napoleon’s army tried to restore slavery. French West Indies Haiti
1802 Republicans won most US elections. Jefferson
1802.10 Spain closed New Orleans to American trade. Louisiana
1802-03 French Army lost 50,000 men in Haiti
1803.2.19 Jefferson approved Ohio’s constitution. 
1803.2.24 Marbury v. Madison ended unconstitutional law. 1803
1803.2.28 Congress authorized 4 more warships. America’s Naval War
1803.3.2 Stuart v. Laird authorized federal courts. 1803
1803.3.26 US Senate increased import duties 2.5%. America’s Naval War 1804
1803.4.27 Toussaint died in a French prison.  Haiti
1803.5.2 France sold Louisiana to the United States. 
1803.5.18 USS John Adams captured the MeshudaAmerica’s Naval War
1803 Canadian courts gained jurisdiction over Indians. Canada
1803.10 Jefferson reduced US Navy budget. 1803
1803.10.20 US Senate ratified Louisiana Purchase. 
1803.10.31 Tripoli captured USS Philadelphia and 307 men. America’s Naval War
1803.12.14 Spain declared war on England. Louisiana
1803.12.20 US Army took over New Orleans. Louisiana
1803-08 Viceroy Iturrigaray raised money for war. Mexico
1803-08 General Ferrand governed Santo Domingo.   Haiti
1804.1.1 Haiti was proclaimed an independent republic. 
1804.2.16 Decatur’s USS Intrepid killed 33 Tripolitans. America’s Naval War
1804.2.16 Hamilton favored Clinton over Burr. 1804
1804.2.24 Mobile Act created a customs district. 1804
1804.2.25 Republican caucus nominated Clinton for VP. 1804
1804.3.12 Congress removed judge John Pickering. 1804
1804.4.25 New York’s Governor Clinton defeated Burr. 1804
1804.5.14 Lewis & Clark expedition left St. Louis. Exploration
1804.6.15 United States ratified 12th amendment. 1804
1804 Dessalines had thousands of French killed. Haiti
1804 Republicans won most Congressional elections. 1804
1804 Blackburn started a school for Cherokee boys. 1804
1804.7.11 Burr killed Hamilton in a duel. 1804
1804.8.7 USS Constitution blockaded Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1804.8 Burr met with British ambassador Merry. 
1804.10.2 Claiborne became Governor of New Orleans. Louisiana
1804.10.8 Dessalines was crowned Emperor Jacques. Haiti
1804.10.11 Lear negotiated treaty with Morocco. America’s Naval War
1804.11.7 Lewis & Clark expedition reached Pacific Ocean. Exploration
1804.12.12 Spain declared war on Britain. Mexico
1804-07 South Carolina imported 39,310 slaves. 1807-09
1804-14 Arrillaga governed California
1805.1.2 Envoy Monroe arrived in Madrid. 1805-06
1805.1.8 Jefferson decided not to pay tribute to Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1805.2 US Senate acquitted Justice Chase. Jefferson
1805.3.2 Congress gave Louisiana rights. 
1805.3.3 US Senate banned armed commerce. 1805-06
1805.4  Federalists won elections in Massachusetts. 1805-06
1805.6.3 United States ransomed 307 men from Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1805 Bustamante began El Diario de Mexico
1805 Seneca Chief Red Jacket defended his religion. Indian Issues
1805 Kentucky court recognized a free African’s rights. 1805-06
1805 Mercy Warren published history of US revolution.1805-06
1805 Quebec Mercury began in English. Canada
1805.7 Gov. Harrison made a treaty in Indiana Territory. 1805-06
1805.7.30 United States sent 18 Navy ships to Tunis Bay. America’s Naval War
1805.9.23 Lewis & Clark expedition returned to St. Louis. Exploration
1805.10 Stephen published War in Disguise1805-06
1805.10.21 British Navy showed dominance at Trafalgar. 1805-06
1805.11 Miranda appealed to US for help. New Granada 1805-06
1805.12.1 Jefferson was warned of Burr conspiracy. 
1805.12.3 Jefferson criticized Spain in annual message. 1805-06
1806.1.8 Pike’s expedition reached Sandy Lake. Louisiana
1806.3.5 John Randolph began opposing Jefferson. 1805-06
1806.4.12 US Senate ratified the treaty with Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1806.4 British blockaded New York harbor. 1805-06
1806.5.23 Smallpox vaccine came to Peru.
1806.6-8 British occupied Buenos Aires. Rio de la Plata
1806 Louisiana adopted the Code Noir.  
1806 Le Canadien began in French. Canada
1806.7.24 Sen. Dayton sent Burr an encouraging letter.  
1806.7.29 Burr sent Wilkinson a letter in cipher.  
1806.9.4 Blennerhassett suggested Ohio should secede. Burr
1806.9.23 Burr demanded Spaniards evacuate Orleans.
1806.10.17 Pétion defeated Dessalines who was killed. Haiti
1806.11.3 Jackson received $3,500 from Burr for boats.
1806.11.5 Kentucky D.A. Daveiss charged Burr in court. 
1806.11.15 Pike named a mountain “Grand Peak.” Exploration
1806.11.15 US Non-importation Act went into effect. 1805-06
1806.11.25 Wilkinson took control of New Orleans. Burr
1806.11.27 Jefferson banned invading Spanish territory. 1805-06 Burr
1806.12.12 Wilkinson began arresting Burr conspirators. 
1806.12.14 Jackson persuaded Burr to disavow rebellion. 
1807.1.7 England ended American coasting privileges. Embargo
1807.1.11 Burr and 55 people surrendered to militia. 
1807.2 British invaded Montevideo. Rio de la Plata
1807.2 Goman rebelled against Pétion. Haiti
1807.2.26 United States ended slave trade after 1807. Embargo
1807.2-6 Spaniards detained Pike’s expedition. Northern Mexico Exploration
1807.3.15 Jefferson rejected treaty with England.Embargo
1807.3.25 British abolished the slave trade. Embargo
1807.6.22 British removed 4 men from the ChesapeakeEmbargo
1807.7.2 Jefferson ordered British ships out of US waters. Embargo
1807.8.12 Napoleon closed Portuguese ports to British. Brazil
1807.9.4 Fulton demonstrated his steamship invention. Embargo
1807.9 Tecumseh spoke at a conference. Indian Issues
1807.12.1 Burr was acquitted by a jury. 
1807.12.22 Embargo Act banned foreign trade by US ships. Embargo
1807, 1814 Slaves revolted in Bahia. Brazil
1807-11 James Henry Craig governed Lower Canada.
1808.1.1 British made the slave trade illegal. West Indies
1808.1.8 2nd US embargo made punishment harsher. Embargo
1808.1.22 Joao and 10,000 nobles arrived at Bahia. Brazil
1808.3.7 Brazilians welcomed Joao to Rio de Janeiro. 
1808.3.12 3rd embargo banned all US exports. Embargo
1808.3 Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro began publishing. Brazil
1808.4.12 US Congress expanded Army to 8 divisions. Embargo
1808.4.25 US Enforcement Act increased penalties. Embargo
1808.5.6 Napoleon forced Fernando VII to abdicate. Peru Bolivar Mexico
1808.5 Tenskwatawa founded Prophetstown. Indian Issues
1808 Brazil imported £2,000,000 of British goods. 
1808 Cherokees reformed their laws. Indian Issues
1808 1,130 Chickamaugas moved to Arkansas. Indian Issues
1808.8 Jefferson sent US Army and Navy north. Embargo
1808.9.15 Rebels seized Viceroy Iturrigaray. Mexico
1808.10 Verdad and Talamantes died in prison. Mexico
1808-10 Chile’s Governor Carrasco repressed dissent. 
1809.1.4 Junta in Seville rescinded Law of Consolidation. Mexico
1809.1.22 Spain included Americans in Central Junta. Chile Peru
1809.2.4 Connecticut refused to enforce Embargo.
1809.3.1 Non-Intercourse Act ended the US Embargo.
1809.3.4 Madison became the 4th US President. 
1809.3.7 Madison’s cabinet was confirmed.  
1809.5.31 Dolly Madison held first evening levee. 
1809.6.27 John Quincy Adams became minister to Russia. Madison
1809 Spain allowed Panama to trade with Jamaica. Central America
1809.8.9 Madison banned trade with Britain.  
1809.8.19 Creoles formed a junta in Quito. New Granada
1809.9 Camilo Torres published Memorial de agraviosNew Granada
1809.9.30 Harrison made treaty with Miamis and others. Madison
1809.10 Spain’s Junta decreed equal representation. Mexico
1809.12 Washington Irving wrote his History of New York.
1809-18 Pétion was President of southern Haiti

1810.1 Belgrano began publishing Correo de ComercioRio de la Plata
1810.2 Brazil and British agreed to a trade treaty. 
1810.4.16 Fletcher v. Peck upheld a property sale. Madison
1810.5.1 US Congress closed ports to warring nations. Madison
1810.5.3 Caracas Junta withdrew from Spanish empire. Bolivar
1810.5.17 Governor Craig seized Le Canadien press. Canada
1810.5.22 Revolutionary Cabildo began in Buenos Aires. Argentine Revolution
1810.5.25 Buenos Aires overthrew its government. Argentine Revolution
1810.6.2 Gaceta de Buenos Aires began publishing. Argentine Revolution
1810 Juan Egaña wrote Plan of GovernmentChile
1810 Census found 7,239,881 in US, 1,191,362 slaves. Madison
1810.7.20 Viceroy Amar was overthrown at Bogota. Bolivar
1810.8.2 Spanish troops defeated Quito uprising. Peru
1810.8 Many Indians joined Tecumseh’s confederacy. Madison
1810.9.16 Hidalgo called for a revolution in Mexico
1810.9.18 Santiago Cabildo Abierto met, elected Zambrano. Chile
1810.9.23 Americans declared West Florida Republic. Madison
1810.9.24 Bishop Abad excommunicated Hidalgo & Allende. Mexico
1810.10.15 Hidalgo’s army entered Valladolid. Mexico
1810.10.27 Madison claimed West Florida for the US. 
1810.11.2 Madison announced non-intercourse with British.
1810.11.7 Revolutionaries defeated royalists at Suipacha. Peru
1810.11.7 Calleja’s royalists defeated Hidalgo’s army. Mexico
1810.11 Madison named 2 justices to US Supreme Court.
1810.11.15 Tecumseh got aid from the British.  Madison
1810.12.5 Hidalgo ordered Indian lands returned. Mexico
1810.12.7 Claiborne took over West Florida for the US. Madison
1810.12 Morelos and revolutionaries captured Acapulco. Mexico
1810.12.18 Buenos Aires formed the Junta Grande. Argentine Revolution
1810.12.22 Congress represented provinces in Bogota. New Granada
1811, 1816 Brazil’s Joao sent military to annex Banda Oriental. 
1811.1 66 slaves died in rebellion near New Orleans. Madison
1811.1.15 US Congress approved invasion of East Florida. Madison
1811.1.17 Royalists defeated Hidalgo’s revolutionaries. Mexico
1811.1.22 Rebel Casas arrested Gov. Salcedo and Herrera. North Mexico
1811.2.20 US Congress did not renew the US Bank. Madison
1811.3.2 Venezuelan Congress met in Caracas. Bolivar
1811.3.4 Liberal Moreno died suspiciously at sea. Argentine Revolution
1811.3.21 Hidalgo and Allende were captured. Mexico
1811.4.1 Monroe began running the State Dept. Madison
1811.5.14 Paraguay’s military took over Asuncion. Argentine Revolution
1811.5 Red Jacket called Americans crooked. Madison
1811 British navy seized 17 slave ships at Salvador. Brazil
1811 Steamboat operated on Ohio and Mississippi. Madison
1811.7.4 Chile’s first National Congress began.  
1811.7.7 Venezuelan Congress declared independence. Bolivar
1811.7.27 Tecumseh met with Harrison at Vincennes. Madison
1811.7.31 Inquisition executed Hidalgo. Mexico
1811.9.25 Cadiz Cortes repealed governors’ powers. Puerto Rico
1811.10 General Brock began governing Upper Canada.
1811.11.7 US Army defeated Indians at Tippecanoe. Madison
1811.11 Henry Clay was elected Speaker of the House. Madison
1811.11.15 Jose Miguel Carrera became dictator of Chile
1811.11.27 Representatives formed New Granada Federation.
1811.12 US Congress voted to arm merchant ships. War in 1812
1811.12.21 Congress signed Venezuela’s new constitution. Bolivar
1811-20 Christophe as King Henri ruled northern Haiti
1812.1.13 Buenos Aires became an Intendancy. Argentine Revolution
1812.2.15 Congress promulgated Free State of Quito. New Granada
1812.3.1 Tecumseh told Harrison tribes wanted peace. War in 1812
1812.3.12 Spain’s liberal constitution went into effect. Mexico
1812.3 US Army had only 5,000 fit soldiers. War in 1812
1812.3.26 Earthquake in Venezuela killed 14,000. Bolivar
1812.4.4 US enacted 90-day embargo. War in 1812
1812.4 Louisiana became 18th state in the US. War in 1812
1812.4.23 Venezuela Congress made Miranda dictator. Bolivar
1812.5.6 800 in Albany petition to repeal the embargo. War in 1812
1812.6.16 England repealed offensive Orders in Council. War in 1812
1812.6.17 US Congress declared war against England. War in 1812 Canada
1812.6.20 Federal Republican opposed war, led to riots. War in 1812
1812 Spain adopted a liberal constitution. New Granada
1812 English became legal language in Guiana.
1812 Benjamin Rush published Medical Inquiries. 1778-79
1812.7.1 American citizens were ordered to leave Quebec. Canada
1812.7.17 British took over Fort Mackinac. War in 1812
1812.7.25 Miranda capitulated to royalists. Bolivar
1812.8 Boston town meeting condemned the war. War in 1812
1812.8.16 British defeated US Army at Detroit. War in 1812 Canada
1812.8.19 USS Constitution sank the Guerriere. War in 1812
1812.9.25 Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Tucuman. Argentine Revolution
1812.10.5 Lizardi published The Mexican ThinkerMexico
1812.10.12 1,500 militia were called out from Tennessee. War in 1812
1812.10.13 1,300 Americans retreated from Queenstown. War in 1812
1812.10.13 General Brock was killed in Queenstown battle. Canada
1812.11 Pino gave Cortes a report on New Mexico. North Mexico
1812.11.25 Morelos and revolutionaries entered Oaxaca. Mexico
1812.12.15 Bolivar wrote “Manifesto of Cartagena.”  
1812.12.26 Joel Barlow died in Poland. War in 1813
1812-15 George Prevost governed Canada.  
1812-16 Miranda lived and died as a Spanish prisoner. Bolivar
1812-16 Panama was the capital of New GranadaCentral America
1813.1.8 Madison named Armstrong Secretary of War. War in 1813
1813.1 US Congress authorized $16 million loan. War in 1813
1813.1.22 British defeated Americans at the River Raisin. War in 1813
1813.2.2 Federalists blocked annexation of Floridas. War in 1813
1813.2.20 Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Salta. Argentine Revolution
1813.2.28 Bolivar’s patriots invaded Venezuela. 
1813.3.29 Republicans defeated royalists at Rosillo. North Mexico
1813.4.6 Gutierrez claimed to be president of Texas
1813.4.15 US Army captured British garrison at Mobile. War in 1813
1813.4 US Army burned capital buildings at York. War in 1813 Canada
1813.4 Tecumseh led 600 recruits to Fort Malden. War in 1813
1813.4.25 British and Indians besieged Fort Meigs. War in 1813
1813.4.27 Royalists defeated Chileans at Yerbas Buenas.
1813.4-8 Army of Morelos besieged fortress at Acapulc . Mexico
1813.5.5 Tecumseh’s warriors defeated Kentucky militia. War in 1813
1813.5.9 Madison sent Gallatin and Bayard to Russia. War in 1813
1813.6.15 Bolivar promised Venezuelans victory over Spain.
1813.6 Bogota made Nariño dictator for life. New Granada
1813 Egaña started Instituto Nacional de Chile
1813.7.6 Bolivar seized 200,000 pesos to pay soldiers. 
1813.8.6 Bolivar liberated Caracas, established republic.
1813.8.18 Royalists defeated rebels at Medina River.  North Mexico
1813.8.30 Red Stick Creeks killed 517 at Fort Minns. War in 1813
1813.9.10 Perry’s 9 ships defeated a British squadron. War in 1813
1813.10.5 Harrison’s army defeated British in Ontario. War in 1813
1813.10.5 Tecumseh was killed in Thames battle. Canada
1813.10.16 Harrison agreed to truce with Indians. War in 1813
1813.11.6 Congress of Anahuac declared independence. Mexico
1813.11.9 Jackson’s army defeated Red Sticks at Talladega. War in 1813
1813.11.14 Spaniards defeated Belgrano at Ayohuma. Argentine Revolution
1813.11 British Navy blockaded southern coast of US. War in 1813
1813.11.29 Georgia’s militia burned Autosee and Tallassee. War in 1813
1813.12.11 Napoleon recognized Fernando VII in Spain. Bolivar
1813.12.17 Madison signed an Embargo Act. War in 1813
1813.12.19 British captured 358 soldiers at Fort Niagara. War in 1813
1813.12.23 Royalists defeated rebels led by Morelos. Mexico
1813.12.30 British burned Black Rock and Buffalo. War in 1813
1813-15 Alejandro Ramirez reformed Puerto Rico
1813-16 Viceroy Calleja defeated rebels in Mexico.  
1814.1.2 Caracas assembly gave Bolivar supreme power.  
1814.1.6 Madison agreed to negotiate with British. War in 1814
1814.1 Nariño defeated royalists in Popayan.  New Granada
1814.1.31 Buenos Aires made Posadas Supreme Director. Argentine Revolution
1814.2.8 Bolivar ordered Spanish prisoners shot. 
1814.3 Fernando VII regained Spanish throne. Mexico
1814.3.27 Jackson’s army defeated Red Stick Creeks. War in 1814
1814.4.11 Napoleon’s abdication freed British forces. War in 1814
1814.4.14 United States ended the embargo. War in 1814
1814.4.25 British Navy blockaded entire US coast. War in 1814
1814.5.3 Chileans made treaty accepting Fernando VII.
1814.5.11 Royalists defeated republicans and Nariño. New Granada
1814.5.30 British restored captured colonies to France. West Indies
1814 Noah Worcester wrote a book on war customs. Peace
1814.7.5 US Army recaptured Fort Erie. War in 1814
1814.7.6 US-British peace conference met at Ghent. War in 1814
1814.7.16 Royalists led by Boves regained Caracas. Bolivar
1814.7.25 US Army and British both lost at Lundy’s Lane. War in 1814
1814.8.9 Creeks ceded territory at Fort Jackson.  War in 1814
1814.8 Creeks ceded 23 million acres to US.
1814.8.17 Morales’ royalists defeated Bolivar at Aragua. 
1814.8.24 British burned the Capitol and the White House. War in 1814
1814.8.29 Alexandria surrendered to the British. War in 1814
1814.8.31 Prevost led invasion of US from Montreal.  War in 1814
1814.8-9 British besieged Fort Erie for 48 days. War in 1814 Canada
1814.9.4 Secretary of War Armstrong resigned. War in 1814
1814.9 Bolivar returned to Cartagena. 
1814.9 Battle of Plattsburg lasted six days. War in 1814
1814.9.13 British attacked Fort McHenry in Baltimore. War in 1814
1814.10.2 Royalists led by Osorio defeated Chileans. 
1814.11.7 Jackson attacked Pensacola against orders. War in 1814
1814.11.10 Pumacahua led Incas who seized Arequipa. Peru
1814.12.15 26 New England delegates met at Hartford. War in 1814
1814.12 Noah Worcester published a book against war. Madison
1814.12.24 British & Americans signed treaty at Ghent. 1815 Canada
1814-20 Nariño was a prisoner. Bolivar
1814-40 Francia governed ParaguayArgentine Revolution

1815.1.8 Jackson’s army defeated British at New Orleans. 1815
1815.2.16 US Senate ratified peace treaty with Britain.  1815
1815.3 British shot at escaping American prisoners. 1815
1815.5.8 Bolivar resigned from Colombian Army. 
1815.5.12 Morillo with large Spanish army entered Caracas. Bolivar
1815 Dodge wrote War Inconsistent with ReligionPeace
1815 Massachusetts Peace Society began.
1815.7.3 US & British signed commercial treaty in London. 1815
1815.7.9 Congress declared independence of Rio Plata. Argentine Revolution
1815.7-9 Americans and Indians made treaties. 1815
1815.8 New York formed first peace society. Madison
1815.8 Dodge began the New York Peace Society.
1815.8-12 Morillo and Morales besieged and took Cartagena. Bolivar
1815.9.6 Bolivar wrote his “Jamaica Letter.”  
1815.12.11 Indiana became the 18th state in the US. 1815
1815.12 Madison reported public debt of $120 million. 1815
1815.12 Massachusetts Peace Society began.  Madison
1815.12 Cuffe paid for 38 blacks to go to Sierra Leone. Madison
1815.12.22 Morelos was executed for heresy and treason. Mexico
1815-20 Henry Clay was Speaker of US House. Monroe Era Missouri
1815-22 Lt. Col. Sola governed Alta California.
1816.1.1 Philadelphia Female Tract Society began. Madison
1816.1.9 Slavery abolition convention met in Philadelphia.Madison
1816.1 Haiti’s President Pétion gave Bolivar weapons.
1816.2 Bernardo O’Higgins joined San Martin’s army. Chile
1816.3.16 Republicans nominated Monroe for President. Madison
1816.3.19 Compensation Act raised Congressmen’s pay. Madison
1816.3.20 Joao VI began ruling Brazil as king. 
1816.4.10 Madison approved a national bank.
1816.4.17 US Congress created Erie Canal commission. Madison
1816.5.13 American Bible Society began in New York. Madison
1816.5 Morillo’s royalists occupied Bogota. Bolivar
1816.5 Channing spoke against war in Boston. Madison
1816.5 Black Hawk signed a peace treaty.
1816.6.2 Bolivar decreed slaves freed as soldiers. 
1816.6.9 Indians protested not returning to hunting lands. Canada
1816 US Congress raised tariffs to 20%. Monroe Era
1816 US Government debt peaked at $127 million. Monroe Era
1816 American Colonization Society was founded. Monroe Era
1816 Elias Boudinot published Star in the WestCherokees
1816 Channing gave his first “Discourse on War.”
1816.7 Rio Plata United Provinces stated independence. Argentine Revolution
1816.7.27 US, Jackson & Creeks defeated Choctaws.
1816.9.12 Aury set up government at Galveston. North Mexico
1816.9.14 Jackson signed peace treaty with Cherokees. Madison
1816.9.20 Chickasaws ceded land to US. Madison
1816.10.24 Choctaws ceded land to US. Madison
1816.12.3 Madison suggested future innovations. 
1816.12.21 American Colonization Society was founded. Slavery
1816.12.31 Bolívar returned to Venezuela.
1816-21 Viceroy Apodaca ruled New Spain. Iturbide California
1817.1.7 2nd United States Bank began in Philadelphia. Monroe Era
1817.1.9 Joao VI made his son Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1 Portuguese troops occupied Montevideo. Brazil Argentine Revolution
1817.1 Portugal’s João VI made Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1 General Píar refused to help Bolivar.
1817.1 Maryland recognized the Sisters of Charity. Women
1817.1.22 Brazil took Montevideo & Oriental Province. Argentine Revolution
1817.1.23 US Congress repealed Compensation Act. Madison
1817.2.12 San Martín’s army defeated royalists in Chile.
1817.2 US Congress passed the public works bill. Monroe Era
1817.2 1st Unitarian Church was founded in Baltimore.
1817.3.1 Mississippi became the 19th state in the US. Madison
1817.3.1 US formed Alabama Territory. Monroe Era
1817.3.3 Madison vetoed the public works bill. Monroe Era
1817.3.6 Revolt broke out in Pernambuco, Brazil.
1817.3.15 New York funded building the Eric Canal. Monroe Era
1817.3 Viceroy Montalvo established Royal Audiencia.Venezuela
1817.4.7 200 slaves attacked whites in Maryland. Monroe Era
1817.4.11 Píar’s army defeated royalists at San Felipé. Venezuela
1817.4.15 Lafitte joined Mexican republic. North Mexico
1817.4 Gallaudet & Clerc began a school for the deaf. Monroe Era
1817.4.16 Admiral Lobo demanded Recife’s junta surrender. Brazil
1817.4.17 Spaniards left Angostura. Venezuela
1817.4.17 US and Britain agreed on a Great Lakes treaty. Monroe Era
1817.5 Sauks and Foxes began getting annuities. Black Hawk
1817.5.26 Recife hanged 12 rebels. Brazil
1817.6 Cienfuegos ended Spain’s tobacco monopoly. Cuba
1817.6 Royalists wiped out Americans at Matagorda. North Mexico
1817.6.29 Governor Freire de Andrade arrived in Recife. Brazil
1817 Cuba had 225,268 slaves.
1817 New York planned to end slavery in 1827. Monroe Era
1817 United States had over 300 newspapers. Monroe Era
1817 Eaton published The Life of Andrew Jackson
1817 Jackson sold 40 slaves for $24,000.
1817 Tennessee banned selling a suing slave.
1817 North Carolina outlawed killing a slave.
1817.7.8 Cherokees ceded 2 million acres to US.
1817.7 Revolutionaries captured 1,731 royalists at sea. Venezuela
1817.7.18 Bolívar’s revolutionaries occupied Angostura.
1817.7.30 Marshal Liñán’s army besieged Mina’s rebels. Mexican
1817.8 Spaniards evacuated Guayana province. Venezuela
1817.8 Washington Irving visited Walter Scott.
1817.9.3 Bolívar confiscated royalists’ property.
1817.9 Bryant’s “Thanatopsis” poem was published. Monroe Era
1817.9 Osborn began publishing The PhilanthropistAbolitionists
1817.9.22 John Q. Adams became Secretary of State. Monroe Era
1817.9.29 Michigan & Ohio made a treaty with 7 tribes. Florida
1817.10 Bolívar set up government at Angostura.
1817.10.16 General Píar was executed for treason. Venezuela
1817.11.3 Bank of Montreal began with $350,000. Canada
1817.11 Monroe appointed Wirt Attorney General.
1817.11 US Army burned a Creek village in Georgia.
1817.11.30 Creek warriors killed 36 US soldiers on a ship.
1817.12.2 Monroe recognized Latin American republics.
1817.12.10 US admitted slave state of Mississippi. Monroe
1817.12.16 Griscom began society to prevent pauperism. Monroe
1817.12.16 Calhoun demanded Seminole reparations.
1817.12.23 US Army occupied Amelia Island. Florida
1817-20 Cuba imported 77,000 African slaves.
1817-21 US fought First Seminole War.
1817-23.1 O’Higgins ruled Chile as Supreme Director.
1817-25 President Monroe governed United States.
1818.1.6 Jackson letter criticized President Monroe.
1818.1.30 Bolívar and Páez combined their armies.
1818.1.30 Monroe told Calhoun not to attack Spaniards. Florida
1818.1-3 Jackson led 1,000 volunteers to Fort Scott.
1818.2.12 Talca patriots declared Chile independent.
1818.2.13 John Adams wrote on the American Revolution. Monroe
1818.2 Morillo replaced Viceroy Montalvo with Samano. Venezuela
1818.3.3 João VI banned Masonic societies. Brazil
1818.3.13 Clay argued for public improvements. Monroe
1818.3.14 Jackson found fresh scalps at Fort Fowltown.
1818.3 US Congress approved veterans’ pensions. Monroe
1818.3.16 Republicans fought royalists at El Semen.  Venezuela
1818.3.25 Clay argued for Latin American republics. Monroe
1818.3.29 Haiti’s President Pétion died.
1818.4.1 1,400 Creek warriors joined General Jackson.
1818.4.5 Chileans defeated Osorio’s royalists at Maipu.
1818.4.7 Spaniards surrendered Fort St. Mark’s to US. Florida
1818.4.8 US Navy hanged two Seminole chiefs.
1818.4 Bolívar escaped from assassination attempt.
1818.4 Jackson had 300 houses burned in Florida.
1818.4 Gourlay warned against lawbreaking. Canada
1818.4.16 US-Canada treaty banned warships on Lakes.
1818.4.18 US Senate ratified Rush-Bagot treaty. Monroe
1818.4.29 Jackson had 2 British men executed.
1818.5.2 Páez led republicans retreating from Cojedes. Venezuela
1818.5.2 Bishop Plessis sent missionaries to Red River. Canada
1818.5.12 Madison spoke to the Agricultural Society. Monroe
1818.5.13 Monroe approved Americans staying in Florida.
1818.5 Presbyterian Church condemned slaveryAbolitionists
1818.5.28 Gov. Masot surrendered Pensacola Fort. Florida
1818.6.2 Jackson wrote Monroe he could take Cuba.
1818.6.27 Bolívar began printing weekly Orinoco Post.
1818 Brazil had 3,805,000 people w/ 1,040,000 slaves.
1818 Francia began imprisoning political enemies. Paraguay
1818 Dutch stopped participating in the slave trade. West Indies
1818 Illinois banned slavery and black voting. Monroe
1818 Free Port Act aided Nova Scotia shipping. Canada
1818 Illinois Constitution banned slavery.
1818 An average slave cost $1,000.
1818 Connecticut disenfranchised blacks. slavery
1818 Crocker wrote Observations on Real RightsWomen
1818 Shakers issued Memorial to New Hampshire. Peace Societies
1818.8 Steamship line connected Buffalo to Detroit. Monroe
1818.8.25 Bank of Canada began with £200,000.
1818.10.19 Chickasaws sold a third of Tennessee. Jackson
1818.11.28 Adams sent Spain a Florida ultimatum.
1818.12.3 Illinois became 21st US state. Monroe
1818.12 Abolition committee formed in Philadelphia. Missouri
1818.12 Missouri territory had 10,000 slaves.
1818.12.18 MacGregor & 417 English took over Portobello. Panama
1818.12.21 Gourlay & Niagara Spectator editor arrested. Canada
1818-19 Duke of Richmond governed Lower Canada.
1818-21 Kindelan governed Haiti.
1818-21 Smallpox epidemic devastated Canada natives.
1818-28 Maitland governed Upper Canada.
1818-38 Frederick Douglass was a slave.
1818-43 President Boyer governed Haiti.
1819.1 New road connected Nashville to New Orleans. Jackson
1819.1.20 Clay accused Jackson of acting without orders.
1819.1.30 US Congress ratified US-British Convention. Jackson
1819.2.2 Dartmouth decision protected corporations. Depression
1819.2.6 Illinois passed the Apprentice Labor Act. Depression
1819.2 Chile and Argentina allied to invade Peru.
1819.2 US Senate censured General Jackson.
1819.2 Frances Wright’s Altorf played in New York.
1819.2.15 Elected delegates met at Angostura. Venezuela
1819.2.16 Venezuela’s Congress elected Bolívar President.
1819.2.22 Spain ceded Florida to the US.
1819.2.27 Cherokee chiefs confirmed 1817 treaty.
1819.3.3 US Congress passed Civilization Act. Choctaws
1819.3.6 US Supreme Court McCulloch v. MarylandDepression
1819.3 Roger Taney defended anti-slavery Gruber. Depression
1819.3.19 US Congress tried to control slave smuggling. Depression
1819.3-8 Monroe & Calhoun toured the South & West. Depression
1819.4.2 Páez’s forces defeated Spanish cavalry. Venezuela
1819.4 Supe city in Peru declared independence.
1819.5 Santander’s army beat royalists in Casanare. Colombia
1819.5 Haiti’s army ended 13-year peasants’ revolt.
1819.5 Channing preached value of Unitarianism. Depression
1819.6.9 Rio Plato Director Pueyrredon resigned and fled. Argentine
1819.6 First steamboat crossed the Atlantic Ocean. Depression
1819.6.22 Dr. Long led taking of Nacogdoches in Texas.
1819 Rio de Janeiro had 113,000 residents. Brazil
1819 Spaniards made a treaty with Navajos. North Mexico
1819   85 banks in the US folded. Banking Crisis
1819 Underwood sold canned food in Boston. Depression
1819 US War & Treasury departments were corrupt. Banking Crisis
1819 US gave American Colonization So. $100,000. Depression
1819 US Congress funded Anti-Slave Trade Act. Abolitionists
1819 Willard wrote A Plan for Improving Female Ed.  Women
1819.8.7 Bolívar’s army defeated royalists at Boyaca.
1819.8.21 Upper Canada expelled Robert Gourlay.
1819.9.11 Bolívar made Santander VP of New Granada.
1819.12.7 Monroe discussed Depression in his address.
1819.12.14 Alabama became the 22nd US state. Depression Slavery
1819.12 Niles’ Register printed Rufus King’s speeches. Abolitionists
1819-20 Washington Irving serialized his Sketch Book.
1820.1 Spain made Puerto Rico a province.
1820.1 First free blacks emigrated to Liberia. Missouri
1820.1 Emerson began his journal “The Wide World.”
1820.2.4 San Martín’s revolutionary army took Valdivia.
1820.3.6 Monroe signed first Missouri Compromise.
1820.3.9 US Land Act lowered price to $1.25 an acre. Missouri
1820.5.15 US Congress approved death for slave traders. Missouri
1820.6.17 Viceroy Apodaca revived press freedom. Mexican
1820.6.29 US ship Dallas captured Spanish AntelopeSlavery
1820 Central America had 1,227,000 people.
1820 Panama got its first printing press.
1820 US census counted 1,538,038 slavesMissouri
1820 Arkansas Territory offered land to Cherokees. Missouri
1820 United States had 525 Freemason lodges. John Q. Adams
1820 Robert Baldwin led reform in Upper Canada.
1820 Cotton was 42% of US exports. Slavery
1820 US census counted 233,634 free Negroes. Slavery
1820 Maine Constitution enfranchised all citizens. Slavery
1820 Boston segregated black students. Slavery
1820 Liberal Congregationals formed a conference. Unitarians
1820 Joseph Smith saw a pillar of light.
1820.10.8 Haiti’s “king” Henri Christophe killed himself.
1820.10.9 Guayaquil in Ecuador declared independence. Colombia
1820.10.13 Viceroy Apodaca released Mexican prisoners.
1820.10 Bolívar’s army occupied Mérida and Trujillo.
1820.10.18 Choctaws traded 6 million acres to US.
1820.10.26 President Boyer, 20,000 soldiers reunited Haiti.
1820.11 Ecuador’s army beat revolutionaries at Quito. Colombia
1820.11.27 Bolívar & Morillo agreed on 6-month armistice.
1820.11.30 Cáceres Junta captured Santo Domingo fortress.
1820.12.6 San Martín’s army defeated royalists. Peru
1820.12.17 Congress declared Republic of Colombia.
1820.12.22 Webster’s oration urged end of slavery. Missouri
1820.12.29 Trujillo Cabildo declared independence. Peru
1820-21.10 Republicans besieged Cartagena for 14 months. Colombia
1820-23 Aldea was Chile’s corrupt finance minister.
1820-24 Martin Rodriguez governed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1820-28 9th Earl of Dalhousie governed Canada.
1820-39 Taliafero was US Indian Agent to Sioux et alSioux
1821.1.1 Portuguese troops rebelled in Belém. Brazil
1821.1.1 Colombia’s Congress met at Cucuta.
1821.1 Lisbon Cortes reduced Brazil to a colony.
1821.1.17 Mexico granted Moses Austin 200,000 acres. Texas
1821.1.28 Maracaibo revolted against Spain. Colombia
1821.2.4 Iturbide persuaded Guerrero to join him.
1821.2.19 US Senate ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty. Florida
1821.2.21 Liberal troops removed Bahia’s Governor. Brazil
1821.2.24 Iturbide’s Iguala Plan proclaimed independence.
1821.3.7 João VI made his son Pedro regent in Brazil.
1821.3 Troy Council funded a female academy. Women
1821.3 Channing’s lecture impressed Emerson.
1821.3.19 Bustamente joined Iturbide.
1821.3.26 NW Co. merged with Hudson’s Bay Co. Canada
1821.4.1 Col. Herrera’s forces occupied Cordoba, Mexico. Mexican
1821.4.15 Monroe appointed Jackson governor of Florida. 1819-21
1821.4.21 Rio de Janeiro elected 160 representatives. Brazil
1821.4.26 João VI left Brazil to return to Portugal.
1821.5 Northern Peru was independent.
1821.5.29 Santa Anna’s forces entered Jalapa. Mexican
1821.6.2 San Martín met with Viceroy La Serna. Peru
1821.6 Brazil incorporated the Cisplantine Province.
1821.6.24 Bolívar’s army defeated royalists at Carabobo.
1821.6.25 Central American deputies proposed peace.
1821 Laws of the Cherokee Nation was published.
1821 Royal Charter established McGill University. Canada
1821 US produced 29% of world cotton. Slavery
1821 African Co. performed plays in New York. Slavery
1821 Frances Wright wrote Society & Manners in America.
1821 Lucretia Mott became a Quaker minister.
1821.7.5 Buceli forced Viceroy Apodaca to resign. Mexican
1821.7.12 Colombia’s Constitution was signed at Cucuta.
1821.7 Juntas took power in Brazil’s provinces.
1821.7 Jackson began governing Florida Territory.
1821.7.19 Colombia freed all future natives born there.
1821.7.28 Peru declared independence.
1821.8.3 San Martín became protector of Peru.
1821.8.3 Viceroy O'Donojú arrived at Vera Cruz. Mexican
1821.8.10 US admitted Missouri as a slave state.
1821.8.24 Viceroy O'Donojú and Iturbide made a treaty.
1821.8.27 Peru abolished Indian tribute & forced labor.
1821.8.28 Regent Pedro decreed a constitution for Brazil.
1821.8.30 Colombia’s Congress of 57 deputies met.
1821.8.31 Durango surrendered to independent Mexicans.
1821.9.1 Portugal’s Cortes claimed power in Brazil.
1821.9.4 Russia extended territory south to 51°.  1819-21
1821.9.15 Central Americans signed Independence Act.
1821.9.21 Salvador declared independence. Central America
1821.9.22 Mexico Regency included Iturbide & Yáñez.
1821.9.27 Iturbide entered Mexico, Santa Anna, Vera Cruz.
1821.9.28 Peru imposed a 20% tariff on imports.
1821.10.3 Bolívar became President of Colombia.
1821.10.8 Viceroy O'Donojú died. Mexican
1821.10 Niles’ Weekly Register urged wider suffrage. Monroe
1821.10.27 Costa Rica seceded from Spain. Central America
1821.11.10 Last Spaniards left Venezuela. Colombia
1821.11.21 General Sucre agreed to truce with Guayaquil. Colombia
1821.11.28 Panama declared independence from Spain.
1821.12.11 Prince Pedro agreed to leave Brazil
1821.12 Peru expelled unmarried Spaniards.
1821.12 James Fenimore Cooper published The Spy.
1821.12.24 Spanish army from Panama reached Quito. Colombia
1821-22 8,000 troops fought over Montevideo. Brazil
1821-26 Bernardino Rivadavia reformed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1821-39 Lundy published Universal Emancipation.
1822.1.5 Central American Junta joined Mexico.
1822.1.11 Viceroy La Serna ordered Sangallo town burned. Peru
1822.1 Petitions persuaded Pedro to stay in Brazil.
1822.1 Pedro made Bonifacio Home & Foreign Minister. Brazil
1822.1 Quadrilateral Treaty united some Argentines.
1822.1.22 Haiti Senate authorized unification.
1822.1.26 Iturbide arrested 17 eminent liberals.
1822.2.9 Cáceres turned Santo Domingo over to Boyer.
1822.2 Lydia Francis joined a Swedenborgian Society.
1822.2.19 Portuguese Col. Madeira ruled Salvador in Bahia. Brazil
1822.2.24 Elected Mexican Congress opened.
1822.3.13 Mora published “Supreme Civil Authority.” Mexican
1822.3 Minas Gerais Junta accepted Pedro’s rule. Brazil
1822.4.7 Bolívar’s army fought royalists at Bombona.
1822.5 Washington Irving published Bracebridge Hall.
1822.5.18 Mexican Congress approved an army of 20,000.
1822.5.19 Mexican rump Congress made Iturbide Emperor.
1822.5.24 Sucre’s army took over Quito. Colombia
1822.5-6 Vesey planned a slave revolt in Charleston. 
1822.6.3 Pedro called for General Assembly elections. Brazil
1822.6.3 Salvadorans drove out Guatemalan troops. Central America
1822.6.6 Royalists surrendered to Bolívar in Pasto.
1822.6 Denmark Vesey’s revolt failed. 1822-23
1822.6.16 Bolívar made Sucre President of Ecuador.
1822.6.17 United States recognized Colombia. Monroe
1822.6.22 General Filisola took over Guatemala. Central America
1822 Panama banned the slave trade.
1822 William Church devised mechanical typesetter. 1822-23
1822 Gourlay wrote on Upper Canada statistics.
1822 Lower Canada had 427,465 people.
1822 Rhode Island disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1822 US colony of Liberia was started. Slavery
1822 Frances Wright wrote A Few Days in Athens.
1822 Quakers formed Pennsylvania Peace Society.
1822.7.6 Peru and Colombia made a treaty.
1822.7.12 Pedro proclaimed Brazil independent. Brazil
1822.7.13 Bolívar annexed Guayaquil into Colombia.
1822.7.21 Iturbide was crowned Emperor of Mexico.
1822.7.26 Bolívar and San Martín met as allies. Peru
1822.8.5 Canada Trade Act let US import goods.
1822.8.26 Iturbide arrested Mier & 18 deputies.
1822.9.21 San Martín left Peru.
1822.9.28 Treasurer Medina exposed Mexico’s deficit.
1822.10.12 Pedro acclaimed Constitutional Emperor of Brazil.
1822.10.31 Iturbide dissolved the Mexican Congress.
1822.11.4 Mexico annexed Central America.
1822.11 Emerson’s essay was in The Christian Disciple.
1822.12.1 Pedro I was crowned Emperor of Brazil.
1822.12.2 Santa Anna declared Vera Cruz a republic. Mexican
1822.12.12 US recognized Iturbide’s government. Monroe
1822,1824 London loaned Peru £1,816,000.
1823.1.5 Boyer suspended cathedral chapter salaries. Haiti
1823.1 Spaniards defeated Peruvians at Torata.
1823.1 Mexico accepted Central America independence.
1823.1.23 US recognized Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. Monroe
1823.2.1 Mexican army called for a republican assembly.
1823.2.9 Filisola & Guatemalans entered San Salvador. Central America
1823.2 Green v. Biddle affirmed interstate contracts. Monroe
1823.2 James Fenimore Cooper published The Pioneers.
1823.2.23 Mexican soldiers freed political prisoners.
1823.2.28 Peru’s army made Aguero President.
1823.3.18 Colombia and Peru made a new treaty.
1823.3.19 Emperor Iturbide abdicated.
1823.3.29 Filisola separated Central America from Mexico.
1823.3.29 103 deputies opened Mexican Congress. Mexico
1823.3.30 3 Chilean provinces formed a Union.
1823.4 Mexican Congress granted S. Austin a colony. Texas
1823.5.3 Brazil’s Constituent Assembly opened.
1823.5.10 Honduras joined the Central American union.
1823.5.11 Iturbide left Mexico.
1823.5 Catherine Beecher began Hartford Female Seminary.
1823.5-7 José de Lima e Silva led Brazil’s army of 14,000.
1823.6.5 Santa Anna began federalism in San Luis Potosi. Mexico
1823.6 Spanish royalists took over Lima, Peru.
1823 Brazil had 1,147,525 slaves.
1823 US Supreme Court case Johnson v. McIntoshLaws
1823 Upper Canada’s arrears were £100,000.
1823 Mississippi banned black meetings & reading. Slavery
1823 George Flowers helped shipped blacks to Haiti. Frances Wright
1823 William Ladd wrote essays on peace and war.
1823.7.1 Central Americans declared independence.
1823.7 Bolívar’s army defeated Agjalongo’s Pastusos.
1823.7  Haiti & France agreed on 100-million indemnity.
1823.6-7 Letters of Wyoming supported Jackson. Elections
1823.7.17 Adams warned Russia about Oregon. Foreign Policy
1823.7.24 Colombia’s navy defeated Spaniards on a lake.
1823.8.3 Mexican troops left Costa Rica & Nicaragua. Central America
1823.8.12 Andradas started O Tamoyo newspaper. Brazil
1823.8 Slaves revolted in Demerara-Essequibo colony. Guiana
1823.8 10,000 slaves revolted in Demerara, Guiana.
1823.8.16 Peru’s Congress elected Tagle President.
1823.9.10 Peru Congress gave Bolívar supreme authority.
1823.9 Seminoles made a treaty with the US.
1823.9.21 Joseph Smith saw lighted Moroni.
1823.10 Charlton Fisher began editing Quebec GazetteCanada
1823.11.11 Pedro had troops dissolve Brazil’s Assembly.
1823.11-12 Pedro had his Council draft a constitution. Brazil
1823.12.2 Monroe announced Latin American policy.
1823.12.8 Webster urged helping the Greek revolution. Monroe
1823-24 English Thomas Cochrane led Brazil’s navy.
1823-26  General Freire was Chile’s Supreme Director.
1823-32 Captain-General Vives kept order in Cuba.
1823-37 General Torre governed Puerto Rico.
1824.1.14 Speaker Clay explained his American System. Elections
1824.1 James Fenimore Cooper published The Pilot.
1824.2.10 US Congress gave surveys & canals $30,000. 1824
1824.2.14 64 Congressmen nominated Crawford. Elections
1824.2 Callao mutiny led to Tagle regaining Lima. Bolívar
1824.2.17 Peru’s Congress made Bolívar dictator.
1824.2-6 Chumash rebelled at Santa Barbara. California
1824.3.2 Gibbons v. Ogden on interstate commerce. 1824
1824.3.11 War Dept. began the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 1824
1824.3.13 US-Britain convention suppressed slave trade. 1824
1824.3 Last Portuguese troops left Portugal. Brazil
1824.3.22 Whites were executed for killing an Indian. 1824
1824.3.25 Brazil’s liberal constitution was promulgated.
1824.4.1-2 Webster gave a speech on free trade. 1824
1824.4.8 Bolívar recognized natives’ land in Peru.
1824.4 Calhoun agreed to be Jackson’s running mate.Elections
1824.4.17 US & Russia agreed on 54° 40’ border. 1824
1824.5.22 US Congress increased tariff to over 30%. Elections
1824.5.24 Monroe signed bill for harbors and dams. 1824
1824.5.25 US Congress increased tariff to over 30%. Elections
1824.5.25 American Sunday School Union began. 1824
1824.5.26 United States was first to recognize BrazilMonroe
1824 English loaned 30 million pesos to Colombia.
1824 Central America abolished slavery.
1824 Cochrane crossed Panama’s isthmus.
1824 Santa Fé Trail was established. New Mexico
1824 202 women weavers went on strike. 1824
1824 Lafayette visited the United States. 1824
1824 Merino sheep were brought to New England. 1824
1824 Wagon trains traded merchandise at Santa Fé. New Mexico
1824  Canada Co. bought land in Upper Canada
1824 Upper Canada counted 150,066 people.
1824 New York supported African Free Schools. Slavery
1824 Lundy began Haitian Emigration Society.
1824 Worcester started public schools. Women
1824 Dorothea Dix wrote Conversations on Common Things.
1824.7.8 Haiti canceled communal land in the east.
1824.7.13 Mexico passed its Election Law.
1824.7.13 Coahuila y Texas banned importing slaves.
1824.7 Lydia Francis published her novel Hobomok.
1824.7.19 Mexican firing squad executed Iturbide.
1824.8.4 US recognized Federation of Central America. Monroe
1824.8.6 Bolívar’s cavalry beat royalists on Junin plain.
1824.9.1 Mexico elected President Guadalupe Victoria.
1824.9 Chiapas chose Mexico over Guatemala.
1824.10 Workingman’s Gazette was founded. 1824
1824.10 A mob ravaged black homes in Providence. Slavery
1824.11 Moise reformed Beth Elohim Congregation. 1824
1824.11 Jackson won popular vote for President. Elections
1824.11.22 Central America promulgated its constitution.
1824.12.7 Bolívar invited 6 nations to a Panama congress.
1824.12.7 Monroe gave his last annual address. Florida Cherokees
1824.12.9 Patriots defeated royalists at Ayacucho, Peru.
1824.12 Lydia Francis wrote Evenings in New England.
1824.12.22 Bolívar resigned the presidency of Colombia.
1824.12.24 Sucre’s army entered Cuzco. Bolívar
1824.12.24 Mexico granted political amnesty.

1825.1.3 Robert Owen bought 20,000 acres by Wabash. 1824
1825.1.22 President Monroe signed the Choctaw treaty.
1825.1.25 Monroe advised Indian resettlement. Cherokees
1825.2.2 Rio la Plato & Britain signed commercial treaty. Argentine
1825.2.9 Sucre declared Upper Peru independent.
1825.2.9 Clay helped House elect Adams President. Elections
1825.2.12 Creeks sold 4,700,000 acres to the US.
1825.2.20 Sucre entered La Paz. Peru
1825.2-3 Robert Owen spoke to the US Congress twice. New Harmony
1825.3.3 Monroe approved $450,000 for roads & canals. 1824
1825.3.17 French Charles X decreed Haiti’s independence.
1825.6.2 Osage tribe ceded more land. Cherokees
1825.6 British prohibited US trade with West Indies. 1825-27
1825 Francia closed Paraguay’s Congress.
1825 Haiti stopped helping free blacks’ immigration.
1825 Mexican states produced constitutions.
1825.8.6 Chuquisaca Assembly declared a Bolivian state.
1825.8 Bolívar declared all Bolivian citizens equal.
1825.9.1 Central America ratified its constitution.
1825.10.12 Brazil’s Pedro granted 104 titles of nobility.
1825.12.5 Central America & United States made a treaty.
1825-28 Cisplatine War led to independent Uruguay. Brazil
1826.1 Last Spanish garrison left South America. Bolívar
1826.1 James Fenimore Cooper published The Last of the Mohicans.
1826.1.24 Creeks traded land to the US.
1826.2.5 New Harmony Community of Equality began.
1826.2.13 American Temperance Society began. John Q. Adams Beecher
1826.3 Frances Wright founded Nashoba commune.
1826.4.8 John Randolph & Henry Clay fought a duel. John Q. Adams
1826.4.26 United States made a treaty with Denmark. John Q. Adams
1826.5.2 United States recognized Peru. Bolívar Monroe John Q. Adams
1826.5 Pedro I abdicated the throne of Portugal. Brazil
1826.6.8 Tories destroyed Mackenzie’s printshop.
1826.6.8 Garrison printed Whittier’s “Exile’s Departure.”
1826.6.22 Central American Congress began in Panama. Bolívar
1826.6-7 Four large nations confederated at Panama. Bolívar
1826 United Provinces elected Rivadavia president. Argentine
1826 Haiti exported only 16 tons of raw sugar.
1826 Governor Torre reduced slaves’ work hours. Puerto Rico
1826 California banished Jedediah Smith.
1826 Livingston completed penal code for Louisiana. John Q. Adams
1826 Anne Royall published Sketches of History. John Q. Adams
1826 Cherokees had 18 mission schools.
1826 A mob drove blacks out of Cincinnati. Slavery
1826 Slaves revolted on the Decatur. Abolitionists
1826 Zephaniah Kingsley published his Treatise. Abolitionists
1826.7.4 John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died. John Q. Adams
1826.7-8 Bolivia adopted a constitution. Bolívar
1826.8.5 Ojibwe signed Fond du Lac treaty. Black Hawk
1826.8.11 Peru revived the tax on natives. Bolívar
1826.9 Lydia Francis began Juvenile Miscellany.
1826-27 Lead mining led to conflict with Winnebagos. John Q. Adams
1826-34 Rideau Canal to Ottawa River cost £800,000. Canada
1826-40 Cheyenne, Kiowas & Comanches fought.
1826-44 Levi Coffin helped 3,000 slaves escape. Abolitionists
1827.1.1 Bolívar granted amnesty to Venezuelan rebels.
1827.1 Quakers began the Free Produce Society. Abolitionists
1827.1 Emerson wrote the word “Transcendentalism.”
1827.1.27 Slave-trader Woolfolk beat Lundy.
1827.1.31 Mexican army ended Fredonia republic. John Q. Adams
1827.2.2 Martin v. Mott allowed mobilizing state militias. John Q. Adams
1827.3 Owen’s socialist New Harmony broke up. Elections
1827.3 Blacks began printing Freedom’s Journal. John Q. Adams Abolitionists
1827.5.18 Arce led a federal attack on San Salvador. Central America
1827.6 Rivadavia resigned, and Dorrego took power. Argentine
1827 Arsenal exploded at Port-au-Prince. Haiti
1827 Strachan founded King’s College in Toronto. Canada
1827 Florida limited voting to whites. Slavery
1827 Jefferson’s heirs sold 130 of his slaves. Abolitionists
1827 US had 140 anti-slavery societies. Abolitionists
1827 Lundy published Frances Wright’s Nashoba Book.
1827 Sedgwick published her novel Hope Leslie. Lydia Maria Child
1827 Owen’s New Harmony community ended.
1827 James Fenimore Cooper published The Prairie.
1827.7.4 New York freed its 10,000 slaves. Abolitionists
1827.7 Joanna Bethune began a school for infants. Women
1827.7.26 Cherokees declared independence.
1827.8 Britain’s commercial treaty exploited Brazil.
1827.9.9 Jim Bowie killed Major Wright with his knife. John Q. Adams
1827.9.22 Joseph Smith removed the golden plates.
1827.10.7 Masonry critic Morgan’s corpse was identified. John Q. Adams
1827.10 Mechanics’ Union of Trade Associations began. John Q. Adams
1827.10.27 Mexico ratified British friendship treaty.
1827.11.13 US & Britain signed a trade agreement. John Q. Adams
1827.12 Cuzco’s Prefect Gamarra led a rebellion. Bolívar
1827.12 Jacksonian Democrats controlled US Congress. John Q. Adams
1827.12.20 Mexican Congress expelled all Spaniards.
1827-28 Green’s daily Telegraph promoted Jackson. 1828
1827-29 Petitions demanded end to slavery in DC. Abolitionists
1827-30 Brazil imported 175,000 slaves.
1828.1.12 Mexico made a treaty with the United States.
1828.2 Washington Irving published his Columbus biography.
1828.4 Noah Webster published American Dictionary. 1828
1828.5.17 Peru declared war and invaded Bolivia. Bolívar
1828.5.19 US Congress passed a 40% tariff. 1828
1828.6.13 Hammond’s Gazette exposed Jackson. 1828
1828.6 Irish & German troops mutinied at Rio. Brazil
1828.6.24 Bogotá welcomed the return of Bolívar.
1828 Francia took over Paraguay’s Catholic church.
1828 Sagra published his Annals of Science & Arts. Cuba
1828 Louisiana’s Black Code was repealed. 1828
1828 Sarah Hale began Ladies Magazine in Boston. 1828
1828 Beecher began publishing Spirit of the Pilgrims. 1828
1828 “Coffin Handbill” exposed Jackson’s crimes. 1828
1828 Weed, Anti-Masonic Enquirer opposed Jackson. 1828
1828 Argus of Western America supported Jackson. 1828
1828 Jackson’s Creek orphan Lyncoya died.
1828 Franklin & Armfield formed a partnership. Slavery
1828 Women in Dover went on strike.
1828 Zilpah Grant began Ipswich Female Academy. Women
1828 Workingmen’s Party began in New York. Wright
1828 Dorothea Dix published Meditations for Private Hours.
1828 Lydia Child wrote Moral Lessons in Verse.
1828 Lydia Child wrote First Settlers of New-England.
1828 Grimké sisters moved from South Carolina to Pennsylvania.
1828 William Ladd led the American Peace Society.
1828.7.14 Umpquas attacked Smith’s Oregon expedition. 1828
1828.7 Heighton began Mechanics’ Free Press. 1828
1828.7 Frances Wright spoke on the Christian party in politics.
1828.8.2 Jackson’s slave trading was revealed. Elections
1828.8.27 Brazil & Buenos Aires recognized Uruguay. Argentine
1828.8.27 Bolivia proclaimed Bolívar “President-Liberator.”
1828.9 Mexico elected moderate President Pedraza.
1828.9-10 Federal army withdrew from Salvador. Central America
1828.10 Peruvian ships blockaded Colombian ports. Bolívar
1828.10 Lydia Francis married David Child.
1828.10.26 Mexico outlawed Freemasonry.
1828.11.7 New York elected Van Buren Governor. Elections
1828.11.12 Lydia Maria Child published The Frugal Housewife.
1828.11 56% of votes elected Jackson US President. Elections
1828.12 Lavelle replaced and executed Dorrego. Argentine
1828.12.19 South Carolina voted right to nullify US laws. 1828
1828.12.20 Georgia decreed jurisdiction over Indians. Cherokees
1828.12.26 600 girls in a Dover mill went on strike. 1828
1828-32 Boudinot edited Cherokee Phoenix.
1828-35 John Colborne governed Upper Canada.
1829.1 Mexico elected President Guerrero.
1829.1 Emerson became a Unitarian minister.
1829.1.18 Walker’s Appeal urged slaves to revolt. 1828
1829.2.5 Salvadoran army besieged Guatemala City. Central America
1829.2.27 Colombians fought Peruvians at Tarqui. Bolívar
1829.3.4 Jackson was inaugurated US President.
1829.3 Working Men’s Party protested bank charters. Jackson
1829.3.22 Van Buren became US Secretary of State. Jackson
1829.3.23 Jackson wrote a letter to the Creeks.
1829.4.9 Morazán’s army plundered Guatemala City. Central America
1829.4 Gov. Houston resigned to live with Cherokees. 1829
1829.4.26 Frances Wright opened the Hall of Science.
1829.5-12 Evarts wrote essays against Indian removal.
1829.6.11 Joseph Smith copyrighted The Book of Mormon.
1829 Inflation caused Brazil’s bank to close.
1829 Kendall discovered fraud in the Treasury Dept. Jackson
1829 Skidmore wrote The Rights of Man to Property. 1829
1829 Welland Canal connected lakes Ontario & Erie. Canada
1829 1,200 blacks left Cincinnati to go to Canada. Slavery
1829 George M. Horton published Hope of Liberty. Abolitionists
1829 Robert Young published Ethiopian Manifesto. Abolitionists
1829 Willard wrote History of the United States. Women
1829 Catherine Beecher wrote Improvements in Education.
1829 Frances Wright published Course of Popular Lectures.
1829 Frances Wright & Owen co-edited The Free Enquirer.
1829 Channing published a book on Fénelon.
1829 Cooper wrote The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish.
1829.7 Gold was discovered in Georgia. Cherokees
1829.7.22 McKenney set up Indian Board for Emigration. Cherokee
1829.8.8 Allen tested a steam locomotive. 1829
1829.8 Central America expelled troublemakers.
1829.8 Garrison began working with Lundy.
1829.8.23 Jackson spoke to 21 Chickasaw chiefs.
1829.8.31 Peru’s Congress made Gamarra President. Bolívar
1829.9.7 Central America recognized no religious orders.
1829.9.15 Mexico abolished slavery. Texas 1829 Abolitionists
1829.9 Spanish reconquest of Mexico failed.
1829.9 Walker published Appeal to Coloured Citizens.
1829.11.2 Mexican Treasury Minister Zavala resigned.
1829.11.9 Yucatán’s Governor López declared secession. Mexico
1829.12.2 Pres. Guerrero exempted Texas on slavery. 1829
1829.12.4 Vice President Bustamante censured Guerrero. Mexico
1829.12.8 Jackson’s address was on Indian tribes. Cherokees Chickasaws
1829.12.8 Jackson proposed ending the Electoral College.
1829.12 Rosas became governor of Buenos Aires. Argentine
1829.12 Metamora play was on King Philip’s War. Cherokees
1829.12 Petitions against Indian removal began.
1829.12.19 Georgia passed laws against Cherokees.
1829.12.25 President Guerrero resigned.
1829-30 Washington Irving worked in the London embassy.
1829-34 Presbyterian Finney led revivals in New York. New Harmony
1829-38 NY Port Collector Swartwout stole $1,222,705. 1829
1829-62 Robinson was Upper Canada’s Chief Justice.

1830.1.1 Vice President Bustamante claimed power. Mexico
1830.1 Whites drove blacks out of Portsmouth, Ohio. Slavery
1830.1.19 Mississippi took jurisdiction over Indians. Choctaws
1830.1.19 SC Senator Haynes asserted state rights. 1830-31
1830.1.20 Colombia elected Sucre President. Bolívar
1830.1.21 Olancho rebels surrendered to federals. Central America
1830.1.26 Senator Webster defended the US Constitution. 1830-31
1830.2 Garrison refused to pay a fine for libel.
1830.2 David Child got 6 months for libel.
1830.3.26 Joseph Smith published The Book of Mormon.
1830.4.6 Joseph Smith began a Church of Christ.
1830.4.6-8 Frelinghuysen spoke against Indian removal.
1830.4.6 Mexico ended foreign colonization. 1830-31
1830.4.6 Joseph Smith began a Church of Christ.
1830.4 Brigham Young read The Book of Mormon.
1830.4.17 Chile Conservatives defeated Liberals in battle.
1830.4.27 Bolívar retired and said goodbye at Bogotá.
1830.5 President Jackson vetoed 4 bills.
1830.5.13 General Flores declared Ecuador independent. Bolívar
1830.5.19 Horace Everett spoke against Indian removal.
1830.5.28 President Jackson signed Indian Removal Act.
1830.5.29 Jacksonians’ Preemption Act helped settlers
1830.6.4 Sucre on his way to Quito was murdered. Bolívar
1830 Haiti could not pay its foreign debt.
1830 Cuba used vacuum boilers for sugar work.
1830 Jedidah Smith led first wagon train in the West. 1830-31
1830 Astor sold Pacific Fur Company for $58,000. 1830-31
1830 Grayson published Vice Unmasked. 1830-31
1830 United States had 330 state banks. 1830-31
1830 US Census counted 12,866,020 people. 1830-31
1830 US Census counted 2,009,043 slaves.
1830 US slaves were valued at $577 million.
1830 North Carolina v. Mann empowered masters. Slavery
1830 Baltimore jail began separating the sexes. Slavery
1830 United States had 319,000 free blacks. Slavery
1830 MD, VA, NY, PA, NC, NJ had most free blacks. Slavery
1830 US colony Liberia had 1,420 blacks. Slavery
1830 Pennington helped start a Temperance Society. Garrison
1830 Garrison was fined for refusing to be in militia.
1830 First National Negro Convention met. Garrison
1830 Frances Wright with 34 slaves went to Haiti.
1830.7.15 Sauk Chief Keokuk agreed to a treaty. Black Hawk
1830.7.24 Cherokee Phoenix published Evarts protest.
1830.8 Jackson fired McKenney over Indian rights. Choctaws
1830.8 Taliafero banned selling alcohol to Indians. Sioux
1830.9.27 Choctaws signed a removal treaty.
1830.12.7 Blair began publishing the Globe. 1830-31
1830.12 Washington Irving published Companions of Columbus.
1830.12.17 Bolívar died of tuberculosis.
1830-32 Whittier edited New England Weekly Review.
1830-34 President Flores governed Ecuador.
1830-34 President Morazán governed Central America.
1830-40 600,000 immigrants entered the US. 1840
1831.1.1 Garrison began publishing The Liberator.
1831.1.2 Guerrero’s army was defeated.
1831.1 Texas state congress began.
1831.1 Joseph Smith led 70 Mormons to Kirtland, Ohio.
1831.1-12 Manuel Victoria governed Alta California.
1831.2.2 Sen. Benton opposed renewing the US Bank. 1830-31
1831.2.14 Mexican firing squad executed Guerrero.
1831.2 US Congress made Duff Green their printer. 1830-31
1831.2 US Marines killed 450 Malayans. 1830-31
1831.2.17 Calhoun published his 52-page “Address.” 1830-31
1831.3 Georgia prohibited whites from Cherokee land.
1831.3.31 Mexico banned external periodicals.
1831.4.7 Emperor Pedro abdicated to his child Pedro II. Brazil
1831.4 Eaton and Van Buren resigned. 1830-31
1831.5.10 Jeremiah Evarts died of tuberculosis.
1831.5.27 Comanche hunters killed Jedidiah Smith. New Mexico
1831.6 Lydia Maria Child wrote The Mother’s Book.
1831.6.30 Black Hawk agreed not to return to Saukenuk.
1831 Demerara-Essequibo became British Guiana.
1831 Mary Prince wrote a slave narrative in England. West Indies
1831 Slaves in Antigua revolted. West Indies
1831 Panama became part of New Granada.
1831 Stephen Smith wrote Working Man’s Manuel. 1830-31
1831 William Apess published A Son of the Forest. Jackson
1831 Newfoundlanders took 700,000 seals.
1831 Whites attacked blacks’ homes in Providence. Slavery
1831 Maria Stewart wrote Religion & Pure Principles. Garrison
1831 Catherine Beecher wrote Mental & Moral Philosophy.
1831.7.26 Calhoun argued states could nullify federal law. 1830-31
1831.8 Brazil adopted liberal laws.
1831.8 William Miller prophesied Christ would return. 1830-31
1831.8 Nat Turner led slave revolt in Southampton.
1831.9 Militia suppressed a riot in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1831.9.26 Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. 1830-31
1831.10 Cooper published The Bravo.
1831.11 Margaret Fuller had a mystical experience.
1831.12 National Republican Party nominated Clay. 1830-31
1831.12.25 60,000 slaves in Jamaica went on strike. West Indies
1831-32 Thomas Dew argued for slavery. Slave Revolts
1831-32 Virginia legislature debated abolishing slavery. Abolitionists
1831-33 12,500 Choctaws migrated west; 2,500 died.
1831-34 Canada Assembly expelled Mackenzie 5 times.
1831-41 General Prieto was President of Chile.
1831-65 Garrison published The Liberator.
1832.1.4 11-day slave revolt ended in Jamaica. West Indies
1832.1.7 Salvador seceded from Central American union.
1832.1.11 Four Mexican ministers resigned. Santa Anna
1832.1 Alabama made Indians subject to their laws. Creeks
1832.1.16 Randolph proposed freeing slaves in Virginia. 1832
1832.2.23 US House began investigating the US Bank.
1832.3.3 Mexican troops beat Santa Anna at Tolome.
1832.3.23 Worcester v. Georgia canceled a Georgia law. Cherokees
1832.3.24 Creek chiefs ceded Alabama land.
1832.3.24 12 men beat, tarred & feathered Joseph Smith.
1832.3.28 Morazán deposed Salvador’s government. Central America
1832.4.15 Mormons baptized Brigham Young.
1832.4-8 Black Hawk War was fought in Illinois.
1832.5.2 Central America recognized free conscience.
1832.5.9 Seminoles sold land in Florida.
1832.5.13 Moctezuma beat Federalists at Tampico. Mexico
1832.5 Washington Irving published The Alhambra.
1832.5.23 Black Baptist preacher Sharpe was hanged. 1832
1832.5.23 Democrats nominated Jackson & Van Buren.
1832.6.13 Santa Anna made an armistice with Mexico.
1832.6.13 Texans declared themselves federalists.
1832.6 Cholera killed 4,000 people in New York. 1832
1832.6-9 Cholera epidemic in Canada killed 3,292.
1832 Britain took over Malvinas Islands (Falklands). Argentina
1832 Thomas Dew defended the slave economy. 1832
1832 Frances Trollope wrote on American manners. 1832
1832 66,000 immigrated to British America. Canada
1832 Montreal gained a mayor & city council. Canada
1832 Slave-trading brought cholera to Natchez.
1832 Thomas Dew exported 6,000 slaves.
1832 Liberator printed Rankin’s Letters on Slavery.
1832 Garrison wrote a book on African colonization.
1832 Dorothea Dix published American Moral Tales.
1832 Child published biographies of women.
1832 T. Grimké spoke to Connecticut Peace Society.
1832.7.10 Jackson vetoed US Bank charter renewal.
1832.7.14 US Congress passed a protectionist tariff.
1832.7 Cooper published The Heidenmauer.
1832.8 General Muzquiz replaced VP Bustamante. Santa Anna
1832.9.12 Spaniards surrendered Omoa garrison. Central America
1832.9.18 Centralist army beat Federalists at El Gallinero. Santa Anna
1832.9.23 Jackson made Taney Treasury Secretary.
1832.10 Ross rejected $3.25 million for Cherokee land.
1832.11 Jackson was re-elected with 54% of the votes.
1832.11.24 South Carolina convention nullified tariffs.
1832.12.10 Jackson accused South Carolina of treason.
1832.12 South Carolina Gov. Hayne called volunteers. 1832
1832.12.23 Mexico ended civil war under Pres. Pedraza. Santa Anna
1832.12.25 Joseph Smith revealed a wholesome diet.
1832-34 Mormons published Evening & Morning Star.
1832-34 Albert Brisbane studied with Fourier at Paris. New Harmony
1832-35 Brazil’s War of Cubanos was worst in Pará.
1832-37 President Santander governed New Granada.
1832-44 William Quinn founded 47 AME churches. Anti-Slavery
1833.1 Newfoundland began representative government.
1833.2.14 Creeks signed a treaty with US at Fort Gibson.
1833.2 Mexicans elected Santa Anna President.
1833.2 Gouge wrote a history of money and banking. US Bank
1833.2 Barron v. Baltimore did not favor US gov’t. 1833-34
1833.3.2 Jackson approved Force and Tariff bills.
1833.3 Lewis Tappan began The Emancipator. Anti-Slavery
1833.3.18 South Carolina nullified US Force bill.
1833.4 Crandall began to teach colored girls. Anti-Slavery Abolitionists
1833.4 Lydia Child published Good Wives.
1833.4 Mormons sent out first missionaries.
1833.5 Oberlin College included women. 1833-34
1833.5 Garrison & Nathaniel Paul visited England. Anti-Slavery
1833.5 Whittier published Justice and Expediency.Anti-Slavery
1833.6.23 Mexican Congress exiled 50 opponents. Santa Anna
1833 Epidemic killed 35,000 California Indians.
1833 Livingston wrote on prison reform. 1833-34
1833 Carey published Appeal to the Wealthy. 1833-34
1833 John Galt published his Autobiography. Canada
1833 May wrote a book on educating Negroes. Anti-Slavery
1833 David Child published Despotism of Freedom. Anti-Slavery
1833 Elizur Wright wrote “Sin of Slavery.”Anti-Slavery
1833 Oberlin College began & accepted blacks. Abolitionists Women
1833 Mormons printed the Book of Commandments.
1833.7 Jackson let Black Hawk tour in the East.
1833.7 Cooper published The Headsman.
1833.8 General Trades’ Union of New York formed. 1833-34
1833.8 Lydia Child wrote Appeal for Africans.
1833.8.16 Emerson met Carlyle at Edinburgh.
1833.8.28 Britain’s Slavery Abolition Act paid slaveholders. West Indies
1833.10.8 Arista’s insurgents surrendered at Guanajuato. Santa Anna
1833.10 Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society began.
1833.11 Emerson lectured on “Uses of Natural History.”
1833.11 Mormons moved to Clay County, Missouri.
1833.12.3 American Anti-Slavery Society began.
1833.12.6 Garrison wrote “Declaration of Sentiments.” Anti-Slavery
1833.12 Mott began a Female Anti-Slavery Society.
1833.12.24 Jackson submitted 7 Indian treaties.
1833,1838 Boyer expelled legislator Hérard-Dumesle. Haiti
1833-35 José Figueroa governed Alta California.
1833-35 US troops moved 19,600 Creeks west.
1833-37 150,000 slaves were moved west in the US.
1833-47 Schoelcher published 3 books on slavery. Indies
1834.1 Mexico arrested Stephen Austin. Santa Anna
1834.1 Lydia Child joined Boston Anti-Slavery Society.
1834.1.17 Emerson lectured at the Mechanic’s Institution.
1834.1.29 Jackson sent troops to a strike in Maryland.
1834.1-4 Liberal VP Farías governed Mexico. Santa Anna
1834.2 Joseph Smith began Quorum of 12 Apostles.
1834.3.6 City of York became Toronto. Canada
1834.3.28 US Senate censured President Jackson.
1834.4.4 House passed Polk’s 4 resolutions on banking. 1833-34
1834.4.10 Thousands rioted in New York City. 1833-34
1834.4.14 Clay began organizing the new Whig party. 1833-34
1834.4.21 Jackson & Taney imposed currency reform.
1834.4-12 Mexico secularized California missions.
1834.5 Joseph Smith organized Mormon militia.
1834.5.24 Chickasaw treaty was signed at Washington.
1834.6.2 Santa Anna dissolved Mexican Congress.
1834.6.3 Santa Anna made a deal with the Church.
1834.6.20 US established Indian Country in the West. 1833-34
1834.6.28 US Coinage Act changed gold-silver ratio. US Bank
1834 Puerto Rico had 138,000 people, 41,818 slaves.
1834 Flinter’s book justified slavery in Puerto Rico.
1834 Astor sold American Fur Co. for $250,000. 1833-34
1834 Morse published Foreign Conspiracy. 1833-34
1834 Canadian reformers won elections. Canada
1834 Slave Henry Blair patented corn harvesters. Slavery
1834 Tennessee disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1834 NY & Philadelphia mobs attacked abolitionists. Slavery
1834 James Birney freed his remaining slaves. Politics
1834 New York Moral Reform Society began. Harmony
1834 Bancroft wrote History of the United States.
1834.7.4 Massachusetts ended debtor imprisonment. 1833-34
1834.7 Mobs attacked free blacks in New York. 1833-34 Anti-Slavery
1834.8.1 British freed infant slaves in British colonies. West Indies
1834.9.9 Vandals damaged Crandall’s school. Anti-Slavery Abolitionists
1834.11 Democrats won elections for US Senate.1833-34
1834.12.1 Jackson announced that US debt was paid.
1834-35 Mayor Mackenzie governed Toronto.
1834-36 US money supply stimulated economic growth. US Bank
1834-36 United States experienced many riots. 1835
1834-36 Theodore Weld lectured on slavery abolition. Anti-Slavery
1834-38 Tacón banned weapons in Havana. Cuba
1834-43 William Carson led Newfoundland reforms.

1835.1 Brazil suppressed big slave revolt in Bahia.
1835.1.25 Channing gave second “Discourse on War.”
1835.1.27 Mexico Congress made General Barragan VP.
1835.1-2 Emerson lectured on 5 great men.
1835.2.7 Central America annexed San Salvador.
1835.2 Earthquake ruined Concepcion, Chile.
1835.2 Cherokees ceded land to US for $4.5 million.
1835.2 Joseph Smith made Brigham Young one of 12 apostles.
1835.4.11 Thaddeus Stevens defended public schools. 1835
1835.5.1 Kendall became Postmaster General. 1835
1835.5.6 Bennett began the New York Herald. 1835
1835.5.10 France paid its debt to the United States. Jackson
1835.5 Evans blamed speculation for unemployment. 1835
1835.5 Democrat convention nominated Van Buren. 1835
1835.5 Lydia Child wrote History of Condition of Women.
1835.5 Washington Irving published Abbotsford and Newstead.
1835.5.20 Fisk spoke on “Capital against Labor.” 1835
1835.5.23 Los Angeles claimed to be California’s capital.
1835.6 Whipper & Purvis advised peaceful methods. Militant
1835.6.29 Charleston Lynch men burned abolitionist mail. Militant
1835.6-9 US had 109 riots, 35 against abolitionists. Militant
1835 Puerto Rico’s trade reached 7.8 million pesos.
1835 3,500 Creeks died of disease after moving.
1835 United States had about 3,000 lyceums. Jackson
1835 Graham lectured on a vegetarian diet. 1835
1835 US had 35 Negro Benevolent Societies. Slavery
1835 North Carolina disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1835 Jay’s book criticized African colonization. Garrison
1835 Mob destroyed Noyes Academy for women. Anti-Slavery
1835 Boston Female Moral Reform Society began. Women
1835 Advocate for Moral Reform began publishing. Women
1835 400 men tore down Noyes Academy. Abolition
1835 Channing published his book Slavery. Militant Abolition
1835 Joseph Smith wrote the Book of Abraham.
1835 Washington Irving published A Tour on the Prairies.
1835.7.6 United States Chief Justice Marshall died. 1835
1835.7 New York Supreme Court favored employers. 1835
1835.7.17 Texans resolved on war, opposed Santa Anna.
1835.7.29 Charleston mob burned anti-slavery mail. 1835
1835.8 Austin was allowed to leave Mexico City. Texas
1835.8 Bancroft spoke at Williamstown College.
1835.8 Mormons published Doctrine and Covenants.
1835.9 A mob attacked Whittier and Thompson. 1835
1835.10.8 Stephen Austin summoned volunteers for war. Texas
1835.10.10 Austin began Telegraph and Texas Register. Texas
1835.10 Birney began publishing The Philanthropist. Politics
1835.10 Washington Irving wrote Legends of Conquest of Spain.
1835.10.16 New Mexico banned weapons sales to Indians.
1835.10.21 A mob attacked the NY Anti-Slavery Society. Militant
1835.10.21 5,000 disrupted Female Anti-Slavery meeting. Militant
1835.11.7 Georgia arrested Ross and others. Cherokees
1835.11.14 Texans made Sam Houston commander.
1835.12.7 Democrats made Polk Speaker of the House. 1835
1835.12.10 Texans took over San Antonio.
1835.12 President Jackson criticized Abolitionists.
1835.12.16 Anti-Mason Party nominated General Harrison. 1835
1835.12.29 Mexican Congress enacted 1836 Constitution. Santa Anna
1835.12.29 Cherokee chiefs sold and traded land.
1835,1840 Democracy in America by De Tocqueville.
1835-37 Liberal Diogo Feijó was Brazil’s regent.
1835-37 Braulio Carrilo governed Costa Rica. Central America
1835-39 President Rocafuerte governed Ecuador.
1835-39 President Morazán governed Central America.
1835-40 Cabanagem revolts broke out at Para in Brazil.
1835-43 Seminole War cost US $35m & 1,535 men.
1835-52 Manuel de Rosas governed Buenos Aires. Argentina
1836.1 Lydia Child published The Evils of Slavery.
1836.1.20 Venezuela made a treaty with United States. 1836-37
1836.3.2 Texas declared independence.
1836.3.4 Garrison & May testified in Massachusetts. Militant
1836.3.6 Santa Anna’s army killed Texans at the Alamo.
1836.3.14 US Senate rejected abolitionist petitions.1836-37
1836.3.15 US Senate confirmed Taney as Chief Justice. Jacksonian
1836.3.17 Texans elected David Burnett President.
1836.3.27 Santa Anna had 332 Texans executed.
1836.4.20 US Congress established Wisconsin Territory. 1836-37
1836.4.21 Houston’s army defeated Santa Anna. Texas
1836.5 Frances Wright spoke on American government.
1836.5.23 US Senate ratified the Cherokee treaty.
1836.5.25 John Q. Adams spoke against slavery. 1836-37
1836.5.28 Lt. Gov. Head challenged democracy. Canada
1836.5-7 US won Second Creek War in Alabama.
1836.6.15 US admitted Arkansas as a slave state. 1836-37
1836.6 Emerson published his first book Nature.
1836.6.20 Upper Canada government won elections.
1836 British chartered 1st West Indies Colonial Bank.
1836 Cherokees began a Temperance Society.
1836 US Land Office sold 20 million acres. 1836-37 Slavery
1836 American Temperance Union formed. 1836-37
1836 US imports reached $180.1 million. Panic of 1837
1836 Spaldings went to Idaho to help the Nez Perce. Panic of 1837
1836 Lydia Child published 2 anti-slavery books.
1836 A. Grimké wrote Appeal to Christian Women. Militant
1836 Robert Lewis published Light and Truth. Militant
1836 Rose asked for Woman’s Property Law in NY.
1836 Grimké sisters began lecturing on slavery.
1836 Thomas Upham published Manual of Peace.
1836.7.4 Mackenzie began the Constitution newspaper.
1836.7.4 Rantoul argued for codes over common law. 1836-37
1836.7 New Mexico mandated schooling.
1836.7 US Congress protected the mail. Anti-Slavery
1836.7-8 Margaret Fuller visited Emerson.
1836.9.5 Texas elected Sam Houston as President.
1836.9 Lydia Child published her novel Philothea.
1836.10.5 Gov-General Gosford prorogued Parliament. Canada
1836.10 Women textile workers went on strike. 1836-37
1836.10 Washington Irving published Astoria.
1836.11 Van Buren was elected president with 51%. 1836-37
1836.12 2,321 Upper Creeks settled by Canadian River.
1836.12.19 Texas claimed territory by the Rio Grande.
1836.12.24 Chile Congress declared war on Peru & Bolivia.
1836.12.27 Stephen Austin died of pneumonia. Texas
1836.12.29 Mexico made New Mexico a department.
1836-37 Financial panic began in the US. 1836-37
1836-37 Emerson lectured on “Philosophy of History.”
1836-38 President Santa Cruz ruled Peru.
1836-38 Francis Bond Head governed Upper Canada. Canadian Rebellion
1836-45 Rio Grande do Sul suffered Ragamuffin War. Brazil
1837.1.25 New Orleans Picayune began publishing. 1836-37
1837.1-2 Mormon bank failed.
1837.2.12 1,000 New Yorkers stole barrels of flour. Panic of 1837
1837.2 900 died of cholera in Guatemala City. Central America
1837.3.3 US Supreme Court was increased to 9 justices. 1836-37
1837.3.4 President Van Buren was inaugurated.
1837.3.15 Daniel Webster spoke against annexing Texas. 1837
1837.3 United States recognized Texas Republic. 1836-37
1837.3 British debated 10 resolutions on Canada. Canadian Rebellion
1837.3 Colored American demanded emancipation. Abolitionists
1837.3.17 Financial panic began in New York City. Panic of 1837
1837.3.19 Rosas declared war on Peru and Bolivia. Argentina
1837.4.23 Emerson wrote to Van Buren on Cherokees.
1837.5.7 1,200 Canadians passed resolutions.
1837.5.10 New York banks suspended payments. Panic of 1837
1837.5 782 American banks suspended payments. Panic of 1837
1837.5 Washington Irving wrote Adventures of Captain Bonneville.
1837.6.6 Chile’s War Minister Portales was murdered.
1837.6 Chile’s Civic Guard ended a mutiny.
1837.6 Mormon missionaries went to Britain.
1837.6.30 Mackenzie & farmers decided to defend rights.Canadian Rebellion
1837.6-7 US spent $11.5 million on Indian removal. 1837
1837 Sturge & Harvey printed West Indies in 1837.
1837 Puerto Rico paid Spain 500,000-pesos war tax.
1837 Chickasaw and Cherokee migrations began.
1837 14,609 Creeks were moved west; 3,500 died.
1837 US Government revenues fell by 50%. Panic of 1837
1837 Ed Beecher wrote History of the Alton Riots. 1837
1837 Grund published a book on American morals. 1837
1837 Harriet Martineau printed Society in America. 1837
1837 Mackenzie issued a Call to Revolution. Canadian Rebellion
1837 Financial panic reduced the slave trade.
1837 Free blacks in NY had $2 million in assets. Slavery
1837 18,768 blacks in Philadelphia had 16 churches. Slavery
1837 180,000 petitions opposed Texas slavery. Militant
1837 Whipple spoke on nonviolent resistance. Peace
1837 Black Abolitionists Weekly Advocate began.
1837 Weld published The Bible Against Slavery. Abolitionists
1837 Oberlin College admitted 4 women. Women
1837 Martineau published Society in America. Women
1837 Catherine Beecher wrote on slavery & abolition.
1837 Lydia Child published The Family Nurse.
1837 Sarah Grimké wrote Letters on Equality of Sexes.
1837 Angelina Grimké wrote An Appeal to the Women.
1837 American Peace Society renounced all wars.
1837.7.1 Pennsylvania blocked Negro voting. 1837
1837.7 Pueblos defeated and killed Gov. Pérez. New Mexico
1837.7 Pennsylvania disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1837.7.28 Toronto 300 supported Lower Canada patriots. Canadian Rebellion
1837.7.29 Ojibwe nation sold land to the US. 1837
1837.7.31 Thousands of rebels met in Quebec. 1837
1837.8.1 Channing opposed Texas annexation. 1837
1837.8.9 Taos natives elected Governor González. New Mexico
1837.8 Smallpox wiped out Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara. 1837
1837.8 John Q. Adams filibustered Texas annexation. 1837
1837.8.25 President Van Buren opposed annexing Texas.
1837.8.25 US Senate rejected Texas statehood. 1837
1837.8.26 Lower Canada legislature was dissolved. Canadian Rebellion
1837.9.4 Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph. 1837
1837.9.12 Mexican troops suppressed New Mexico revolt. 1837
1837.9.29 Sioux delegates made a treaty in Washington.
1837.10.1 40 signed a manifesto for a Canadian republic.
1837.10.21 US captured Osceola under a flag of truce. Seminole War 1837
1837.10.23 5,000 Canadians opposed using arms.
1837.10.23 7,000 in Montreal backed British Empire. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.4 1,000 supported Lower Canada independence. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.6 Montreal mob destroyed Vindicator printshop. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.7 A mob killed abolitionist printer Lovejoy. 1837
1837.11.8 Lyon began Mt Holyoke Female Seminary. 1837 Women
1837.11.8 800 Patriotes fought loyalists at Baker’s Farm. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.10 British defeated 500 Patriotes at Beauharnois. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11.15 Mackenzie published a draft constitution. Canadian Rebellion
1837.11 Whigs won New York elections. 1837
1837.11 Channing eulogized Noah Worcester.
1837.12.7 Canadian militia captured Americans.Van Buren
1837.12.7 Canadian rebels fled from Toronto to US.
1837.12.8 Phillips called for ending slavery in the US. 1837
1837.12.14 1,500 British troops beat French Canadians.
1837.12.15 Garrison wrote “No Union with Slaveholders.” Abolitionists
1837.12.25 US Army forced Seminoles to retreat. 1837
1837.12.29 Canadians destroyed US ship Caroline. Van Buren
1837-38 President Orbegoso governed North Peru.
1837-38 500 Chickasaws died migrating west.
1837-38 Gunn & Burleigh spent six months in Haiti. Abolitionists
1837-38 Emerson lectured on “Human Culture.”
1837-39 President Soublette governed Venezuela.
1837-39.3 President Bustamante governed Mexico.
1837-40 Brazil’s conservative party led to 2nd Empire.
1837-42 Alvarado governed Alta California.
1837-44 General Armijo governed New Mexico.
1837-44 US Congress Gag Rule blocked debate. Militant
1837-49 Mann led Massachusetts Board of Education. 1840
1838.1.5 Van Buren declared neutrality toward British.
1838.1.14 General Scott arrested Mackenzie. 1838-39
1838.1 French reduced Haiti’s debt to 60 million francs.
1838.1 Canadians fought Americans at Niagara River. 1838-39
1838.1.26 Federal garrison mutinied at Guatemala City. Central America
1838.1.26 British suspended Lower Canada’s constitution. Canadian Rebellion
1838.1.27 Ex-Gov. Armijo defeated Taos rebels. New Mexico
1838.1.27 Lincoln spoke on “Danger to our Liberty.” 1838-39
1838.2.1 Carrera led 10,000 natives into Guatemala City.
1838.2.21 Angelina Grimké testified to a Massachusetts committee.
1838.3.12 Emerson spoke to American Peace Society.
1838.3 Brazil’s army beat Sabinada rebels in Salvador.
1838.3 Mormons moved to Far West, Missouri.
1838.4 First steamer crossed the Atlantic Ocean. 1838-39
1838.4 Massachusetts jailed Kneeland for blasphemy. 1838-39
1838.4.22 Emerson opposed Cherokee removal.
1838. Channing petitioned for Kneeland.
1838.5.7 A mob burned a Philadelphia meetinghouse.1838-39
1838.5 Theodore Weld married Angelina Grimké. Women
1838.5.17 Abolitionist Pennsylvania Hall burned down.
1838.5.26 General Wool began rounding up Cherokees.
1838.5.29 Disguised Americans burned a Canadian ship. 1838-39
1838.6.6 Gen. Scott reported Cherokees lacked supplies.
1838.6 Half of 16,000 Creeks had no provisions.
1838 Only 5 European nations recognized Haiti.
1838 Smallpox killed Assiniboine, Blackfoot & Cree. Canadian Rebellion
1838 Iroquois Confederation had 187,000 acres. Canadian Rebellion
1838 Upper Canada counted 397,489 people. Canadian Rebellion
1838 British tried 1,900 rebels in Upper Canada. Canadian Rebellion
1838 British freed 700,000 slaves in West Indies.
1838 An average slave in the US cost $1,300.
1838 Pennsylvania limited voting to white men. Slavery
1838 New England Nonresistance Society began. Peace
1838 Abolitionists paid black Remond to lecture.
1838 Catherine Beecher wrote The Moral Instructor.
1838 Channing gave his third “Discourse on War.”
1838 New England Female Moral Reform Society. New Harmony
1838 Cooper published The American Democrat.
1838 Whittier published his abolitionist poetry.
1838.7.4 US created the Iowa Territory. 1838-39
1838.8.1 British Guiana freed apprentices.
1838.8 Carrera’s Guatemalans defeated federals. Central America
1838.8.31 Emerson gave “The American Scholar” speech.
1838.9 Frederick Douglass escaped to New York.
1838.9 Peace Convention adopted Garrison’s credo.
1838.10 Mormons burned 50 buildings in Daviess.
1838.10.30 Missouri militia killed 17 Mormons.
1838.11 Cooper published Homeward Bound.
1838.12 Canada punished American filibusters. 1838-39
1838.12.20 Black abolitionists opposed colonization. Slavery
1838-39 President Agüero governed North Peru.
1838-39 Emerson lectured on “Human Life.”
1838,1840 British ended black apprenticeships. West Indies
1838-40 Whittier edited the Pennsylvania Freeman.
1838-41 President Lamar governed Texas.
1838-42 Braulio Carrilo governed Costa Rica. Central America
1838-43 US removed 3,824 Seminoles from Florida.
1839.1.20 Chile’s army beat Peru-Bolivians at Yungay.
1839.1.31 Durham gave his long report to Parliament. Canadian Rebellion
1839.2 Clay criticized abolitionists & defended slavery. Elections
1839.3.12 Frederick Douglass spoke on anti-colonization.
1839.3 Nicaragua & Honduras invaded Salvador. Central America
1839.3 Cooper published Home as Found.
1839.3.26 General Scott ended the Aroostock War. 1838-39
1839.4.13 Carrera’s army restored the Guatemala government.Central America
1839.5 Ripley published Margaret Fuller’s translation of Goethe.
1839.5.28 NE Anti-Slavery Convention named women. Abolition
1839.6.22 Ross followers killed 2 Ridges & Boudinot. Cherokees
1839 Haytian Papers author Prince Saunders died. Haiti
1839 French West Indies had 285,956 slaves.
1839 Congress rejected 1,496 anti-slavery petitions. 1838-39
1839 US trade deficit reached $47.4 million. 1838-39
1839 Russell wrote Principles of Statistical Inquiry. 1838-39
1839 US wheat became a major cash crop. 1838-39
1839 Mississippi let women control property. 1838-39
1839 Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine began publishing. 1838-39
1839 Chevalier’s Letters on North America showed. 1838-39
1839 Governor Head described Family Compact. Canadian Rebellion
1839 Weld wrote American Slavery As It Is. Abolitionists Grimké
1839 Whipple wrote Evils of the Revolutionary War. Politics
1839 Mayor Eliot began Boston Lunatic Asylum. Dorothea Dix
1839 American Female Moral Reform Society began. Harmony
1839.8 11,000 balaios occupied Caxias in Maranhão. Brazil
1839.9.6 East-West Cherokees adopted a constitution.
1839.10 Biddle’s US Bank of Pennsylvania closed. US Bank Depression
1839.11.13 Liberty Party nominated Birney for President. 1838-39
1839.11.29 Joseph Smith met President Van Buren.
1839.12.4 Whigs nominated Harrison for President. 1838-39
1839-41 President Bustamante governed Mexico. Santa Anna
1839-41 Margaret Fuller led Conversations.
1839-42 La Amistad slaves were tried & released.
1839-43 President Flores governed Ecuador.

1840.1 Carrera’s forces crushed liberals in Los Altos. Central America
1840.1.31 Federal troops were driven out of Honduras. Central America
1840.2.14 Yucatán seceded from Mexico. Santa Anna
1840.2 Channing wrote on lifting laboring classes.
1840.3.18 Morazán’s army liberated Guatemala City. Central America
1840.3.19 Texans and Comanches fought at Béxar.
1840.3.20 Carrera’s army forced Morazán to retreat. Central America
1840.3.25 Mexicans defeated Rio Grande Republic. Texas
1840.3.27 Junta declared Monterey California capital.
1840.3.31 Van Buren approved the 10-hour work day. 1840
1840.4 Webster proposed a bankruptcy bill. 1840
1840.4 Ballou began publishing Practical Christian. Hopedale
1840.5.13 Salvadorans agreed to Guatemalan conditions. Central America
1840.5 Democrats named Van Buren for re-election. 1840
1840.5 US Anti-Slavery Society accepted women.
1840.6 World Anti-Slavery Convention met in London. Abolitionists
1840.6.27 Clay described Whigs’ economic program. 1840
1840 Lamar spent $2.5 million fighting Comanches. Texas
1840 Baylor began Texas Baptist Union Association.
1840 120 mountain men attended last rendezvous. Oregon
1840 Brisbane published Social Destiny of Man. 1840 Hopedale
1840 US cost of Indian removal reached $50 million. 1840
1840 Abraham Lincoln campaigned for Harrison. 1840
1840 Sorin published The Domestic Circle. 1840
1840 US census counted 17,069,543 people. 1840 Slavery
1840 US census counted 2,487,355 slaves. 1840
1840 Value of US slaves was $997 million.
1840 Bishop Leonidas Polk owned 111 slaves.
1840 US census counted 386,293 free Negroes. Slavery
1840 Birney began Liberty Party & ran for President. Politics
1840 Female Moral Reform Society had 555 groups. Women
1840 Lucretia Mott preached in black churches.
1840 Ladd wrote Essay on a Congress of Nations. Peace Societies
1840 Mormons built Nauvoo in Illinois.
1840 Cooper published The Pathfinder.
1840.7.1 Transcendentalists began publishing The Dial.
1840.7.4 Van Buren signed Independent Treasury bill. 1840
1840.7.15 Texans killed Cherokees by Neches River.
1840.7 Brownson published “The Laboring Classes.” 1840
1840.8.8 Comanches burned Linnville, Texas.
1840.8.12 200 Texas Rangers killed 87 Comanches.
1840.8.25 US & Mexico agreed to arbitration commission. 1840
1840.9.1 Picayune reported Iberville slave revolt.
1840.9 Dana published Two Years Before the Mast. 1840
1840.10.24 90 Texans killed 128 Comanches at Red Fork.
1840.11 Whig Party won many elections. 1840
1840.11 80% of those eligible voted in the US election. 1840
1840.12 Nauvoo Mormons got a charter, formed militia.
1840.12 Cooper published a novel about Columbus.
1840-41 Remond lectured in England & Ireland. Politics
1840-41 Brigham Young led Mormon missionaries in Britain.
1840-44 Fuller & Emerson published The Dial.
1841.1.25 Emerson lectured on “Man the Reformer.”
1841.1.28 Fraternal Community began at Mendon, MA. Brook Farm
1841.2.10 Union of East and West Canada began. Canadian Union
1841.2 Greeley began the daily New York Tribune. Harrison
1841.2.18 Salvador adopted another constitution. Central America
1841.3 US Supreme Court freed La Amistad slaves. Van Buren
1841.3.20 Emerson published his Essays.
1841.3.28 Dorothea Dix spoke to jail inmates in East Cambridge.
1841.4.4 Tyler became US President.
1841.4 Transcendentalists founded Brook Farm. 1841
1841.4.24 Webster wrote to British about the Caroline. 1841
1841.6.18 Gov. Alvarado granted Sutter 48,827 acres. California
1841 Brazil’s army defeated balaios revolt.
1841 Chile elected General Bulnes president.
1841 Cuba had 425,521 slaves.
1841 Bidwell led a wagon train on the Oregon Trail. 1841
1841 Catlin published on North American Indians. 1841
1841 US produced 62% of the world’s cotton. Slavery
1841 Whites & blacks protested railway segregation. Politics
1841 Henry Wright wrote Duty of Abolitionists.
1841 Black professor Reason published Freedom. Politics
1841 Ann Plato published her Essays. Politics
1841 Friend of Virtue had 3,000 subscribers. Women
1841 Catherine Beecher wrote On Domestic Economy.
1841 United States had only 11 private asylums. Dorothea Dix
1841 Illinois refused to extradite Joseph Smith.
1841 Cooper published The Deerslayer.
1841 US Whigs lost many state elections. 1841
1841.8.8 General Paredes began revolt in Guadalajara. Mexico
1841.8.9 Frederick Douglass met William Lloyd Garrison.
1841.8 Tyler signed Webster’s Bankruptcy Act.
1841.8.16 President Tyler vetoed the bank bill.
1841.8-9 300 blacks were arrested in Cincinnati riots. Slavery
1841.9.4 US Congress passed the Preemption Act. 1841
1841.9.4 Congress approved $2,226,401 for defense. 1841
1841.9 4 US cabinet officers resigned. 1841
1841.9.13 Whigs declared Tyler had separated himself.
1841.9.22 Bustamante left Mexico for Europe.
1841.9.30 Washington Madisonian supported Tyler.
1841.10.9 Biddle’s Bank of Pennsylvania failed. Depression
1841.10.11 Ripley bought land for Brook Farm commune.
1841.10 Dana published The Seaman’s Friend. Harrison
1841.11.7 Madison Washington led revolt on the Creole. 1841
1841.12.3 Brazil imposed a regressive criminal code.
1841-44 Alonso and López governed Paraguay.
1841-42 Texans’ Santa Fé venture failed. New Mexico
1841-42 Emerson lectured on “The Times.”
1841-43 Lydia and David Child edited National Anti-Slavery Standard.
1841-43 Joseph Smith secretly married 30 women.
1841-44 President Sam Houston governed Texas.
1841-47 President Ballivián governed Bolivia.
1842.1.5 Shakers issued The Youth’s Guide to Zion. Peace Societies
1842.1 Frederick Douglass spoke in Faneuil Hall.
1842.1 Prigg v. Pennsylvania gave states power. Politics
1842.3.13 Judd criticized the Revolutionary War. Peace Societies
1842.3 Channing explained British freeing slaves.
1842.3 Mormon women began a Relief Society.
1842.3.30 Dr. Long used ether as an anesthetic. 1842
1842.4 Tyler signed Clay’s higher tariff bill.
1842.5.7 Earthquake killed 5,000 people at Cap-Haitien. Haiti
1842.5 Brazil’s liberals began armed rebellion.
1842.6.27 Texas Congress declared war on Mexico.
1842 Boyer had soldiers shut out 28 deputies. Haiti
1842 NY City made public schools nonsectarian. Harrison
1842 A treaty let Senecas stay in New York. Tyler
1842 Rhode Island allowed blacks to vote. Slavery
1842 US Supreme Court upheld Fugitive Slave Act.
1842 Charles Dickens toured the United States. Slavery
1842 William Brown helped slaves by steamboat. Politics
1842 Jarvis published Insanity and Insane Asylums.Dorothea Dix
1842 Dorothea Dix visited the insane in Massachusetts.
1842 Alcott & Charles Lane began Fruitlands. Hopedale
1842 Cooper published The Two Admirals.
1842 Cooper published The Wing-and-Wing.
1842 Longfellow published his Poems of Slavery. Whittier
1842.7.10 Costa Rica’s assembly made Morazán chief. Central America
1842.7.27 Salvador, Honduras & Nicaragua confederated. Central America
1842.8 Riviere-Hérard organized Rights of Man Society. Haiti
1842.8 US ended the costly 2nd Seminole War. 1842
1842.8 Bennett called for war against Mormons.
1842.8.30 Tyler signed the “Black Tariff” bill.
1842.9.8 Howe reported Dorothea Dix’s research on the insane.
1842.9.15 Morazán was executed at San José. Central America
1842.9 Mexican army occupied San Antonio. Texas
1842.10 Sauk & Fox chiefs sold land to Iowa governor. Black Hawk
1842.10 Community of True Inspiration began. New Harmony
1842.10 Nauvoo Masonic lodge had 253 members. Mormons
1842.11 Picayune reported on escaped slaves.
1842-43 Mexican Federalists produced a constitution. Santa Anna
1842-43 Charles Bagot governed Canada. Canadian Union
1842-43 Frederick Douglass spoke to anti-slavery meetings.
1842-43 Greeley published a column on Brook Farm.
1842-44 Torrey & Smallwood helped runaway slaves. Politics
1843.1 Dix presented a Memorial to Massachusetts. 1843-44
1843.1 Lucretia Mott preached to 40 Congressmen.
1843.1.27 Hérard-Dumesle led a revolt in Praslin. Haiti
1843.1.27 Whittier published “Massachusetts to Virginia.”
1843.2.13 Haiti’s President Boyer fled to Paris.
1843.2.25 Massachusetts passed a bill for the insane.Dorothea Dix
1843.3 Fremont’s presented his report to Congress. Tyler
1843.5.8 Secretary of State Webster resigned. 1843-44
1843.5 Guatemala and Costa Rica made a treaty. Central America
1843.6.1 Costa Rica’s Assembly enacted human rights. Central America
1843.6.13 Mexico decreed elected assemblies. New Mexico
1843.6 Sojourner Truth began a speaking tour. 1843-44
1843.6 Lewis Tappan attended World Peace Congress.
1843 Whitman led a wagon train to Oregon.
1843 Foster wrote Brotherhood of Thieves. Politics
1843 Sojourner Truth began preaching. Politics
1843 Dorothea Dix visited 60 counties in New York.
1843 Cooper serialized French Governess.
1843 Cooper published Wyandotté.
1843 Prescott wrote Conquest of Mexico. 1843-44
1843.7.5 Oregon settlers approved the Organic Act.
1843.7 La Trinitaria planned a Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo
1843.8 Garnet urged slave rebellion. Politics
1843.8.23 Santa Anna warned US not to annex Texas.
1843.8.30 Liberty Party nominated Birney for President. Elections
1843.9.29 Texans made peace with ten tribes.
1843.9-12 Haiti convention produced a constitution.
1843.10.5 President Santa Anna let Canalizo govern.
1843.10.5 Brisbane began publishing The Phalanx. New Harmony
1843.11 Cherokees legalized marriage with white men. Slavery
1843.11.28 Padre Martinez wrote about New Mexico.
1843.12.5 Tyler claimed Pacific territory to 54° 40'.
1843-44 Slaves revolted in Cuba.
1843-44 Fremont expedition mapped western land. 1843-44
1843-45 General Micheltorena governed California.
1843-45 Charles Metcalf governed Canada. Canadian Union
1843-45 Margaret Fuller wrote Woman in the 19th Century.
1843-47 President Soublette governed Venezuela.
1843-51 Argentina besieged Montevideo.
1844.1.2 Mexicans elected Santa Anna President again.
1844.1.4 Haiti inaugurated President Riviere-Hérard.
1844.1 Brazil’s liberals took power & granted amnesty.
1844.1 Dorothea Dix urged New York to create 4 asylums.
1844.2.5 Salvador’s Assembly made Malespín President. Central America
1844.2.27 Duarte & Trinitarians declared Santo Domingo.
1844.3.19 President Hérard led attack on Santo Domingo.
1844.4.11 Costa Rica promulgated a constitution.Central America
1844.4 Dorothea Dix published “Astonishing Tenacity of Life.”
1844.4.17 Clay warned annexing Texas would cause war. Elections
1844.4.25 Riché declared the Artibonite republic. Santo Domingo
1844.5 US Anti-Slavery Society voted for secession. Politics
1844.5.21 Rep. Giddings spoke against annexing Texas. Politics
1844.5.24 Morse sent telegraph message between cities. 1843-44
1844.5.29 Democrats nominated Polk for US President. Elections
1844.6.8 US Congress rejected Texas annexation.
1844.6.12 Polk pledged to serve only one term.
1844.6 4,000 were arrested in La Escalera slave revolt. Cuba
1844.6.18 Joseph Smith declared martial law at Nauvoo.
1844.6.27 Men killed Joseph & Hyrum Smith in a jail. 1843-44
1844 Paraguay Congress gave López a 10-year term.
1844 Governor Lejanza provoked war with Utes. New Mexico
1844 Gregg wrote Commerce of the Prairies. New Mexico
1844 Gilliam led a wagon train on the Oregon Trail.
1844 Brady began a daguerreotype business. 1843-44
1844 An average slave in the US cost $700.
1844 New Jersey limited voting to white men. Slavery
1844 Paine got 6 years for helping slaves escape. Slavery
1844 Liberty Party ran Birney for President again. Politics
1844 Gilmore started a high school for blacks. Politics
1844 American Journal of Insanity began.Dorothea Dix
1844 Lydia Child published Flowers for Children.
1844 Margaret Fuller wrote Summer on the Lakes, in 1843.
1844.8.1 Emerson lectured on British emancipation.
1844.8.5 Salvador and Guatemala made peace.Central America
1844.8.8 Brigham Young became leader of Mormons.
1844.8.20 Tyler endorsed Polk for President. Elections
1844.8.22 Santana exiled Trinitarian leaders from Haiti.
1844.9.2 Texans elected Anson Jones as President.
1844.9 Cherokee Advocate began publishing.
1844.9.16 Mexico paroled Texas prisoners.
1844.10.19 Emerson published his 2nd series of Essays.
1844.11.5 US elected President Polk.
1844.11.6 Dominican Republic got a constitution.
1844.11 Santana was elected President of Haiti.
1844.11 Polk won a close election for US President.
1844.12.11 Guatemala Assembly elected Carrera President. Central America
1844.12 Mexico banished Santa Anna to Cuba.
1844.12 Herrera governed Mexico for next 12 months.
1844.12 James R. Lowell wrote “The Present Crisis.”
1844-45      President Philippe Guerrier governed Haiti.
1844-45      President Malespín governed El Salvador.
1844-48      Pres. Santana governed Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo
1844-48      President Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1844-62      Carlos Antonio López was President of Paraguay.

1845.1.4     California Gov. Micheltorena had martial law. Mexico
1845.1.4     Creeks & Seminoles made a treaty. Native
1845.1        Civil war sacked Leon, Nicaragua.
1845.1        Congress set date for US Presidential elections. Polk
1845.1.21   Giddings warned US would assume Texas debt. Polk
1845.1.31   Senator Douglas proposed Nebraska Territory. Polk
1845.1.28   Pio Pico convoked a Junta in Los Angeles. Mexico
1845.2        Revolutions broke out in Ecuador.
1845.2        Joaquín Guzmán deposed Malespín in El Salvador.
1845.2        Canada’s Parliament granted general amnesty.
1845.2.15   Micheltorena made Pio Pico Governor. Mexico
1845.2.22   Micheltorena surrendered and left California. Mexico
1845.2.27   Dominican Republic executed 27 conspirators.
1845.3.1     Tyler approved Texas annexation with slavery.
1845.3.4     Polk began 4-year US Presidency.
1845.3.6     Polk made Buchanan Secretary of State.
1845.3        Frémont reported on western exploration. Polk
1845.3.28   Mexico broke off relations with US over Texas.
1845.3.31   Robert Owen wrote open letter “To Capitalists.” Polk
1845.5-6     Fires burned two-thirds of Quebec City. Canada
1845.6.1     Frémont began his 3rd expedition in St. Louis. Polk
1845.6.4     President Herrera opposed US annexing Texas.
1845.6.8     Ex-President Andrew Jackson died. Polk
1845.6.15   Polk sent Gen. Taylor across Sabine into Texas.
1845.6        Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass published.
1845.6.23   Texas Congress approved US annexation.
1845.6.24   Navy Secretary urged seizing California ports. Polk
1845           Frederick Douglass autobiography is published.
1845           Sarmiento published Civilization and BarbarismArgentina
1845           Uruguay recognized Paraguay’s independence.
1845           British abolished the African slave trade. West Indies
1845           Cuba outlawed the slave trade.
1845           5,000 Americans took the Oregon Trail west. Polk
1845           Louisiana, Texas allowed voting w/out property.
1845           Porter began weekly Scientific AmericanPolk
1845           Elias Howe got patents for a sewing machine. Polk
1845           Deere made a plow with a steel moldboard. Polk
1845           Burritt edited Advocate of Peace.
1845           Margaret Fuller published Woman in the 19th Century.
1845           Dorothea Dix wrote Remarks on Prisons.
1845.7.4     Sumner spoke on “True Grandeur of Nations.”  Peacemakers
1845.7.5     Governor Pico divided Alta California in two. Mexico
1845.7        Worcester printed Cherokee & Choctaw books. Native Tribes
1845.7        Franklin’s Arctic expedition disappeared. Canada
1845.7.28   Pico announced auction of California missions. Mexico
1845.8.10   US founded the Smithsonian Institution in DC. Polk
1845.8        Brazil passed the Aberdeen Slave Trade Act.
1845.9.8     Col. Hitchcock criticized US aggression. Polk
1845.9        Knickerbocker Base Ball Club made rules. Polk
1845.10.10 US Naval Academy was founded at Annapolis. Polk
1845.10      Ecuador adopted a liberal constitution.
1845.10.17 Buchanan urged US annexation of California. Polk
1845.10.17 Douglass criticized Irish Methodists.
1845.11.6   Washington Union demanded all of Oregon. Polk
1845.11.10 Polk sent Slidell to buy territory from Mexico.
1845.11.27 Peace treaty ended Honduras-El Salvador war. 
1845.12.2   Polk claimed Oregon and California.
1845.12.29 United States admitted Texas as a state.
1845-47      Henry David Thoreau lived by Walden Pond.
1845-47      José León Sandoval directed Nicaragua.
1845.47      Earl Charles Cathcart governed Canada.
1845-49      Mosquera was New Granada’s President.
1845-49      Vicente Ramón Roca was President of Ecuador.
1845-50      English & French blockaded Rio de la Plata basin. Argentina
1845-51      Ramón Castilla was President of Peru.
1846.1.2     Pres. Paredes vowed to defend MexicoPolk
1846.1.13   Polk ordered Taylor’s army to Rio Grande.
1846.1-2     Brigham Young married 20 women.
1846.1-5     Douglass spoke to Presbyterians in Scotland.
1846.1-7     President Paredes governed Mexico.
1846.2        Haiti’s army invaded the Dominican Republic.
1846.2        Oregon Spectator began publishing. 
1846.2.17   Young organized Mormons at Israel Camp.
1846.2.19   Henderson became Governor of Texas. Polk
1846.2.21   Texas elected Houston & Rusk US Senators. Polk
1846.3.5     Castro ejected Norteamericanos from California.
1846.3.12   Mexico rejected US proposals made by Slidell. Polk
1846.3        Melville published Typee.
1846.3.28   US Army began building Fort Texas. Polk
1846.4.2     Mexico offered 320 acres to US deserters. Polk
1846.4        US Navy blockaded Veracruz & Mazatlán. Polk
1846.4.18   Pío Pico became Governor of the Californias.
1846.4.23   Paredes announced defensive war with US. Polk Mexico
1846.4.25   Mexican Army crossed Rio Grande, attacked US.
1846.4.30   Mormons dedicated their Nauvoo Temple.
1846.5.8     US Army defeated Mexico’s army at Palo Alto.
1846.5.9     US Army defeated Mexico’s army at Resaca. Polk
1846.5.10   Frémont’s party killed Indians by Klamath Lake. California
1846.5.11   President Polk delivered his war message.
1846.5.12   US Congress passed the war bill. Polk
1846.5.18   US Army took over Matamoros. Polk
1846.6.14   Bear Flag revolt began in California.
1846.6.15   US & Britain signed Oregon border treaty. Polk
1846.6.23   Henry Clay criticized the Mexican War. Polk
1846           Echeverría published Manual of Moral InstructionArgentina
1846           Chile re-elected President Bulnes.
1846           Bolivia had 2.1 million people.
1846           Peru cut its tax on natives in half.
1846           1,500 Americans took the California trail. Polk
1846           106,000 Irish immigrated into the US.
1846           Chickasaws adopted a constitution. Native Tribes
1846           Wilmot proposed banning slavery in territories. Black Progress
1846           Canadian Parliament got control of revenues. Canada
1846           Canada West established Board of Education.
1846           Canada exported 3,312,000 bushels of wheat.
1846           Maine was first state to prohibit alcohol. Peace
1846           Ballou published Christian Non-Resistance.
1846           Whittier published Voices of FreedomLongfellow
1846.7.4     Texas convention agreed to US annexation.
1846.7.7     Sloat & Larkin proclaimed California part of US.
1846.7.9     Pres. Paredes asked the Church for a loan. Mexico
1846.7        O’Sullivan suggested US “manifest destiny.” Polk
1846.7.23   Stockton put Frémont in command of California.
1846.7.23   Thoreau was arrested for not paying a tax.
1846.7.24   Pico convoked the Assembly in Los Angeles. California
1846.8.3     Jacksonian Grier joined US Supreme Court. Polk
1846.8.6     United States & Cherokees signed a treaty. Native Tribes
1846.8.9     Castro and Pico left Alta California.
1846.8.15   US Army arrived at Santa Fé. Mexico US Conquest New Mexico
1846.8.17   Stockton declared himself California governor.
1846.8.17   Douglass & Garrison talked to Chartist Lovett.
1846.8.29   Polk approved US attack on Matamoros.
1846.8-12   General Salas ruled Mexico.
1846.9        800 anti-Mormons attacked Nauvoo.
1846.9.22  Californios rebelled in Los Angeles.
1846.9.22   Kearney imposed laws in New Mexico Territory.
1846.9.24   Monterrey surrendered to US Gen. Taylor. Mexico Polk
1846.10.15 Gen. Doniphan made a treaty with the Utes. New Mexico
1846.10      Texans approved a state constitution.
1846.10      Morton used ether gas in painless surgery. Polk
1846.11.8   Samuel May gave a sermon on women’s rights. Polk
1846.11.16 Taylor’s army occupied Saltillo. Polk
1846.12.6   Kearney’s force fought Mexicans by San Diego. California
1846.12.12 New Granada & US made a treaty. Panama Polk
1846.12.24 Mexico made Santa Anna interim President.
1846.12.25 Doniphan’s force beat Mexicans at El Brazito. New Mexico
1846.12.28 Iowa became a US state. Polk
1846-47      President Jean-Baptiste Riché governed Haiti.
1846-47      400 Mormons died at the Winter Quarters.
1846-49      Brazil imported 55,000 slaves per year.
1846-52      John Harvey governed Nova Scotia. Canadian Union
1847.1.2     Polk’s cabinet opposed attacking Mexico City.
1847.1.8     US Marines beat Californios near Los Angeles.
1847.1.11   US Senator Corwin condemned Mexican War. Polk
1847.1.13   Cahuenga treaty ended fighting in California.
1847.1.14   Stockton made Frémont Governor of California.
1847.1        Samuel Colt began selling his revolvers. Polk
1847.1.24   US Army beat more Mexicans at La Cañada. New Mexico
1847.1-3     Santa Anna’s army lost 10,000 men. Mexico
1847.2.19   Sen. Calhoun defended slaveholder “rights.” Polk
1847.2-3     87 Donner Party survivors were rescued. California
1847.2.23   US Army defeated Mexicans at Buena Vista. Polk
1847.3.1     Haiti Senate elected Faustin Soulouque President.
1847.3.1     Gen. Kearney claimed authority in California.
1847.3.5     Jones v. Van Zandt upheld US slavery. Polk        
1847.3.9     Gen. Scott & 8,600 men landed at Veracruz. Mexico Polk
1847.3        Melville published Omoo.
1847.3.21   Guatemala declared its independence.
1847.3.21   Santa Anna resumed Presidency in MexicoPolk
1847.3.29   US Army took over Veracruz & 3,000 soldiers. Polk
1847.3.30   Douglass spoke at London Tavern.
1847.4.10   Polk sent Trist to negotiate with Mexico.
1847.4.18   Scott’s US Army beat Santa Anna’s arm . Mexico Polk
1847.4.23   Soulouque’s army attacked many mulâtresHaiti
1847.5.1     American Medical Association was founded. Polk
1847.5.15   US Army occupied city of Puebla. Polk
1847           Sweden freed last 600 slaves on St. Barthelémy. West Indies
1847           Parkman began publishing his Oregon TrailPolk
1847           Missouri banned teaching blacks to read. South
1847           Canada’s grain market collapsed.
1847           Canada changed duties on US & Britain.
1847           90,000 poor Irish immigrated into Canada.
1847           Lucy Stone graduated from Oberlin College.
1847           Longfellow published Evangeline.
1847.7.24   Young led Mormons to Great Salt Lake. Polk
1847.7-8     Douglass, Garrison toured Pennsylvania, Ohio.
1847.8.20   US Army defeated Mexicans in 2 battles. Polk
1847.8.22   Kearney had Frémont arrested at Leavenworth. Polk
1847.8.23   US General Scott agreed to an armistice. Polk
1847.9.14   Chapultepec fortress surrendered to US Army. Polk
1847.9.16   Scott’s US army occupied Mexico City. Polk
1847.9.16   President Santa Anna resigned and left Mexico.
1847.11.13 Henry Clay spoke at Lexington against the war. Polk
1847.11.29 Suffering Cayuse murdered settlers. Oregon
1847.12.3   Douglass began publishing The North Star.
1847.12.15 Polk vetoed Wisconsin Territory improvements.
1847.12.22 Lincoln asked where Mexican War began. Polk
1847.12.24 Cass favored popular sovereignty in territories. Polk
1847-48      Captain-General Prim governed Puerto Rico.
1847-48      José Alfaro Zamora governed Costa Rica.
1847-49      Pres. Jimenez governed Dominican Republic.
1847-51      José Tadeo Monagas was Venezuela President.
1847-52      President Juan Lindo governed Honduras.
1847-54      Earl of Elgin governed Canada.
1847-57      Coffin helped runaway slaves in Cincinnati. Black Progress
1848.1        British warships occupied San Juan, Nicaragua.
1848.1.12   Lincoln spoke for people revolutionizing. Polk
1848.1.13   President Polk dismissed General Scott. Mexican Cession
1848.1.24   Marshall discovered gold at Sutter’s sawmill. Gold Rush
1848.1.31   US Court Martial sentenced Frémont. Polk
1848.1-6     President Peña governed Mexico.
1848.2.2     Mexico sold half its territory to United States. Mexican Cession
1848.2.23   Ex-President John Quincy Adams died. 1848 US Election
1848.3.10   US Senate ratified the Hidalgo treaty 38-14. Mexican Cession
1848.3        Pennsylvania limited daily work to 10 hours. 1848 US Election
1848.3        Gilliam led attack against Cayuse. Oregon
1848.3.17   Douglass criticized the US-Mexican War. Mexican Cession
1848.4.2     Mexicans held elections. Mexican Cession
1848.4.17   US Navy recaptured 78 fugitive slaves. 1848 US Election
1848.4.24   Chicago Board of Trade began. 1848 US Election
1848.5.12   Brannan announced gold find in San Francisco. Gold Rush
1848.5        Slaves revolted on Martinique & Saint Thomas. West Indies
1848.5        US Congress paid Frémont’s debts. Gold Rush
1848.5.25   Democrats nominated Cass for President. 1848 US Election
1848.5.29   Wisconsin became the 30th state in the US. 1848 US Election
1848.5.30   US and Mexico ratified revised Hidalgo Treaty. Mexican Cession
1848.6        Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor for President. 1848 US Election
1848.6        Dorothea Dix wrote her memorial to the US Congress.
1848.6.28   Free Soil Party nominated Van Buren for Pres.1848 US Election
1848.6-12   Virgin Islands slave revolt led to emancipation. West Indies
1848           French abolished slavery in the West Indies.
1848           Many fled from potato blights to the US. 1848 US Election
1848           Lowell published his satirical Biglow Papers1848 US Election
1848           University of Mississippi began classes. 1848 US Election
1848           Citizens Union urged equality for blacks. 1848 US Election
1848           Blacks organized Free Soil Party at Buffalo. 1848 US Election
1848           Rhode Island rejected US Fugitive Slave Law. 1848 US Election
1848           New Brunswick accepted Harvey’s reforms. Canada
1848           Noyes & others began the Oneida community.
1848.7.14   Douglass was at Women’s Rights conference.
1848.7        Papineau began publishing L’AvenirCanada
1848.7.18   Mexican Army crushed revolt in Aguascalientes.
1848.7.19   Woman’s rights conference met at Seneca. 1848 US Election Mrs. Stanton
1848.7.28   The North Star supported women’s rights. Douglass
1848.8.9     Ojibway chief Peau spoke to Canadians. Canada
1848.8.14   US established Oregon Territory. 1848 US Election
1848.8.30   Pres. Castro declared Costa Rica independent.
1848.9        Natural Sciences Academy began in US. 1848 US Election
1848.9        Burritt went to Brussels Int’l Peace Congress.
1848.9        Whitman began editing Brooklyn Freeman.
1848.11.7   US elected Zachary Taylor President. 1848 US Election
1848.11.7   New York helped Taylor win Presidency. Douglass
1848.12.5   Polk’s annual message fostered a gold rush. 1848 US Election
1848-51      President Herrera governed Mexico.
1848-52      Juan de la Pezuela governed Puerto Rico.
1848-55      Belzu was President of Bolivia.
1848-81      John Noyes led the Oneida community. 1848 US Election
1849.1.11   Associated Press wire service began. 1848 US Election
1849.1        Giddings proposed banning slavery in DC. 1848 US Election
1849.1        Amelia Bloomer began publishing The Lily1848 US Election
1849.1        Parliament in Montreal allowed use of French. Canada
1849.2.16   President Polk reinstated Frémont. California
1849.3.3     US Interior Dept. & Minnesota Territory began. 1848 US Election
1849.3.5     General Zachary Taylor became US President. 1848 US Election
1849.3        Melville published Mardi.
1849.4.25   Elgin accepted the Rebellion Losses Bill. Canada
1849.5.5     A mob attacked Douglass in New York City.
1849.5.10   New York City riot killed 25 people. Taylor
1849.5.28   Sumner spoke on “The War System.”  Peacemakers
1849.6.15   Ex-President James K. Polk died of cholera. 1848 US Election
1849.6.26   Canada stopped excluding foreign ships.
1849           Sarmiento published De la Educación ComúnArgentina
1849           Calhoun wrote Disquisition on Government1848 US Election
1849           Kellogg published Labor and Other CapitalTaylor
1849           US established the Minnesota Territory. Native Tribes
1849           Young excluded Africans as Mormon priests.
1849           Garnet began the African Civilization Society. Black Progress
1849           Avery funded a College for Negroes. Black Progress
1849           Baldwin reformed Canada’s Chancery Court. Canada
1849           Canada guaranteed railway bonds. Canada
1849           US was at the World Peace Congress in Paris. Peacemakers
1849           Thoreau published “Civil Disobedience.”
1849           Emerson published his essay “War.”
1849.7.25   Kingston conference debated US annexation. Canada
1849.8.26   Haiti made Soulouque Emperor Faustin.
1849.8.30   US Army killed Navajo Chief Narbona. Taylor
1849.8-9     Navaho & Zunis fought each other. New Mexico
1849.9        Tubman escaped from slavery in Maryland.
1849.9        Melville published Redburn.
1849.9.27   Santa Fé convention approved a constitution. Taylor
1849.9.28   US & Honduras made a treaty. Taylor
1849.10      Reform Club began Chile’s Progressive Party.
1849.11.13 Californians ratified a constitution. Taylor
1849.11.14 Fox sisters held a public séance in Rochester. Taylor
1849.11.24 Argentina & Britain signed a treaty.
1849.12.4   Sumner challenged segregated schools. Taylor Black Progress
1849.12      Democrats controlled the US Congress. Taylor
1849.12.17 Lucretia Mott gave her “Discourse on Women.”
1849-51      Norberto Ramírez directed Nicaragua.
1849-51      John Geary governed San Francisco. California
1849-53      López was New Granada’s President.
1849-53      President Báez governed Dominican Republic.
1849-53      President José López governed New GranadaPanama
1849-58      Venezuela exiled José Antonio Páez.
1849-59      President Juan Mora governed Costa Rica.

1850.1        Melville published White Jacket.
1850.1.29   Sen. Clay proposed compromise resolutions. Whigs
1850.2.2     Yucatán made peace with Mayans. Mexico
1850.2.15   Rep. Horace Mann defended abolitionists. Black Progress
1850.2.17   Texans claimed El Paso. Whigs
1850.2.20   Thaddeus Stevens spoke in the US Congress. Whigs
1850.3.4     Sen. Calhoun’s last speech was read. Whigs
1850.3.7     Sen. Webster defended the Union. Whigs
1850.3.11   Sen. Seward spoke on freedom & equality. Whigs
1850.3.13   Sen. Douglas spoke on territories. Whigs
1850.3        Hawthorne published The Scarlet Letter.
1850.3.31   John Calhoun of South Carolina died. Whigs
1850.4.9     US-British treaty claimed Nicaragua, Costa Rica.
1850.4.13   California passed Foreign Miners’ Tax Act
1850.4.17   Sen. Foote pointed a pistol at Sen. Benton. Whigs
1850.4.19   Clayton-Bulwer Treaty was signed. Whigs
1850.4.22   California bound Indians to labor contracts.
1850.5.10   Spain recognized Costa Rica.
1850.5.15   US Dragoons killed 175 Pomos at Clear Lake. Indian
1850.5        New Mexico Territory ratified a constitution. Whigs
1850.5        Narrative of Sojourner Truth was published.
1850.5.18   López-led filibusters invaded Cuba. Whigs
1850.6.3     Delegates of 9 slave states met at Nashville. Whigs
1850           Rio de Janeiro had 200,000 people. Brazil
1850           Sarmiento: Recuerdos de Provincia & Argirópolis. Argentina
1850           Errázuriz & Lastarria issued a liberal manifesto. Chile
1850           New Granada ended its tobacco monopoly.
1850           Cannabis sativa came to Caribbean from India. West Indies
1850           Livermore’s War with Mexico Reviewed.  Polk Peacemakers
1850           Sumner led US Peace Congress Committee. Taylor
1850           670 US Negroes emigrated to Liberia. Census of 1850
1850           US had 23,191,876 people & 3,204,313 slaves. Census of 1850
1850           US & Canada had about 500,000 “Indians.” Census of 1850
1850           American League of Colored Laborers began. Black Progress
1850           Canada ended primogeniture.
1850           Emerson published Representative Men.
1850           Women began wearing “bloomers.” Mrs. Stanton
1850.7.10   Millard Fillmore became US President.
1850.7        Margaret Fuller died in a shipwreck. Emerson
1850.7.17   Daniel Webster gave his last speech in Senate. Fillmore
1850.7.22   Senator Clay warned against civil war. Fillmore
1850.7.25   Spain recognized Nicaragua.
1850.8.6     Pres. Fillmore declared New Mexico Territory.
1850.8.21   2,000 met at Fugitive Slave Convention. Douglass
1850.8.23   US Senate passed the Fugitive Slave Act. Fillmore
1850.8.31   Argentina & France made an agreement.
1850.9.4     Brazil enacted anti-slave trade Queirós law.
1850.9.9     California became a US state. Fillmore
1850.9.10   Dominican Republic made a treaty with Britain.
1850.9        Fillmore signed the Great Compromise bills.
1850.9.28   US banned the flogging of sailors. Fillmore
1850.9-12   3,000 blacks fled from US to Canada. Fillmore
1850.10.23 Women organized for rights at Worcester. Fillmore
1850.11.12 Nashville convention accepted compromise. Census of 1850
1850.12.1   Parker spoke on “The State of the Nation.” Census of 1850
1850.12.2   Fillmore declared friendly relations. Census of 1850
1850.12.20 California elected Senators Gwin & Fremont.
1850-51      Barnum paid Jenny Linn $1,000 per concert. Census of 1850
1850-59      1,865,786 Irish & Germans came to the US. 1854
1851.1.7     California Gov. Burnett predicted genocide.
1851.1.9     Central American Union began.
1851.2        H. B. Stowe had a vision in church.
1851.2.15   Abolitionists freed Shadrach Minkins. Census of 1850 Black Progress
1851.2.26   US & Portugal settled a financial dispute. Fillmore
1851.3        Asahel Bush began Oregon Statesman.
1851.4.10   Ecuador adopted a new constitution.
1851.4        Massachusetts elected Sumner to US Senate. Fillmore
1851.5.3     Fire burned most of San Francisco. California
1851.5.3     Emerson criticized the Fugitive Slave Act.
1851.5.8     Sojourner Truth was at Woman’s Rights Convention. Mrs. Stanton
1851.5.19   Railroad connected east US to Great Lakes. Fillmore
1851.6.2     Maine was the first state to ban alcohol. Fillmore
1851.6        Danish planters compensated slaveowners. West Indies
1851.6        Frederick Douglass’ Paper began publishing.
1851.6       Uncle Tom’s Cabin began serialization.
1851           Ecuador abolished slavery.
1851           Mexico bought 20,000 muskets from France.
1851           Indiana & Iowa banned Negro immigration. Fillmore
1851           Greeley serialized Marx’s RevolutionFillmore
1851           Chickasaw Academy opened with 60 students. Native Tribes
1851           Canadian leaders Baldwin & Lafontaine quit. Canada
1851           Susan B. Anthony & Stanton began temperance society.
1851           Hawthorne wrote The House of Seven Gables.
1851.7.23   Sioux ceded land to Iowa & the US. Fillmore Native Tribes
1851.8.3     López led filibuster invasion of Cuba. Fillmore
1851.8.16   Cuba executed 50 US filibusters. Fillmore
1851.9.7     Liberals in La Serena revolted, captured officers. Chile
1851.9        Urquiza raised the siege of Montevideo. Argentina
1851.9.17   8 tribal nations & US made Ft. Laramie Treaty. Native Tribes
1851.8.12   Cuba executed abolitionist Joaquín de Agüero.
1851.8        Cuba executed Narciso López & US filibusters.
1851.9-11   Douglass aided fugitive slaves.
1851.10.1   Abolitionists freed Jerry Henry in Syracuse. Black Progress
1851.10.12 Uruguay agreed to return slaves to Brazil.
1851.10      Virginia approved a liberal constitution. Fillmore
1851.10      Melville published Moby Dick.
1851.12.2   Pres. Fillmore reaffirmed friendly relations.
1851.12      Tubman led slaves to Ontario, Canada.
1851,1855  Mármol published his novel AmaliaArgentina
1851-52      President Arista tried to govern Mexico.
1851-52      US made 18 treaties with Indians in California.
1851-53      José Luareano Pineda directed Nicaragua.
1851-55      José Gregorio Monagas was Venezuela President.
1851-55      Echenique was President of Peru.
1851-57      Schoolcraft published books on Indian tribes. Kansas
1851-57      Brigham Young governed Utah Territory.
1851-61      Manuel Montt was President of Chile.
1851-65      94,000 Portuguese emigrated to Brazil.
1851-65      Pres. Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1852.1.1     New Granada abolished slavery.
1852.1.7     Liberated Kossuth visited the White House. Fillmore
1852.1.8     Chile’s civil war ended at Copiapó.
1852.1.28   Giddings of Ohio spoke for equality & peace. Fillmore
1852.3.20   H. B. Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s CabinFillmore Black Progress
1852.5.1     Alberdi published Bases y puntos de partidaArgentina
1852.5.3     California spent $600,000 to fight Indians.
1852.5        Douglass opposed dissolving the Union.
1852.5        United States Senator Rhett resigned over secession.
1852.6        Partido Liberal formed at Buenos Aires. Argentina
1852.6        Telegraph connected Santiago to Valparaiso. Chile
1852.6        Gerrit Smith opposed US Fugitive Slave Law. Black Progress
1852.6.29   “Great Compromiser” Henry Clay died. Fillmore
1852           Urquiza’s army massacred Rosas’ followers.Argentina
1852           Vicuña wrote El porvenir de hombre. New Granada
1852           About 20,000 Chinese came to California.
1852           Utah approved indentured Indian children.
1852           Delaney published book on US colored people. Black Progress
1852           Free Soil Party nominated Sen. Hale for Pres. Black Progress
1852           Kentucky excluded black immigrants. South
1852           Autographs of Freedom was published. Douglass
1852           Caltharine Parr Traill wrote Canadian CrusoeCanada
1852           Lucy Stone advocated tax resistance.
1852           Hawthorne wrote The Blithedale Romance.
1852.7.5     Douglass spoke to Anti-Slavery Ladies. Fillmore
1852.7.6     Lincoln gave eulogy on Henry Clay.
1852.8        Melville published Pierre.
1852.8.26   Sumner spoke on “Freedom National.” Fillmore
1852.9.11   The Columbian weekly began at Olympia.  Washington Territory
1852.9        Argentine Liberals revolted against López.
1852.10.7   Costa Rica & Pope Pius IX made a concordat.
1852.10      Chickasaws began Wapanucka Female Inst. Native Tribes
1852.10.24 Daniel Webster died of cirrhosis. Fillmore
1852.11.2   Democrat Pierce defeated Whig Scott for Pres. Fillmore
1852.8.11   Douglass spoke to Free Democratic Party.
1852-55      Fernando de Norzagaray governed Puerto Rico.
1852-55      President Trinidad Cabañas governed Honduras.
1852-56      José María Urbina was President of Ecuador.
1853.1.6     Pierce’s son died in a railway accident.
1853.1        B&O railway was finished to Wheeling, Ohio. Pierce
1853.1-2     Pres. Ceballos governed Mexico for 33 days.
1853.2        Douglass visited Harriet Beecher Stowe.
1853.3.2     US Congress passed Washington Territory.
1853.3.3     US created the Washington Territory. Pierce
1853.3.15   Uncle Tom’s Cabin play opened. 1853
1853.4        Abolitionists appealed for women’s rights. Pierce
1853.4.19   US Vice President William King died. Pierce
1853.5.11   Douglass spoke to reformers in New York City.
1853.5-6     Slave Anthony Burns was arrested & returned. North
1853.6.1     Elizabeth Stanton spoke on women’s rights.
1853           Alberdi & Gutiérrez influenced a constitution. Argentina
1853           British recognized Urquiza in Argentina.
1853           Paraguay made a commercial treaty with Britain.
1853           New Granada’s constitution increased voting.
1853           Panama got a liberal constitution.
1853           Brace began Children’s Aid Society in NY. Pierce
1853           25,000 Chinese people lived in San Francisco. Pierce
1853           783 blacks emigrated from US to Liberia. North
1853           Society of Progressive Friends began. North
1853           Hildreth published his Theory of PoliticsNorth
1853           Dew & others wrote Pro-Slavery ArgumentSouth
1853           Northup’s 12 Years a Slave was published.
1853           Susan B. Anthony spoke at NY teachers convention.
1853           Stowe published A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
1853.7.6-8  National Council of Colored People began. Pierce North
1853.7.27   8 chiefs & US signed a treaty at Ft. Atkinson. Native Tribes
1853.9        US bought tribal land in Oregon for settlers. Pierce
1853.11.11 M. C. Douglass was fined for teaching blacks. North
1853.12.13 Senator Dodge proposed Nebraska Territory. Pierce
1853.12      Democrats had majorities in the US Congress. Pierce
1853.12.21 Cincinnati rioted against a Catholic Archbishop.Pierce
1853.12.30 Mexico sold Gadsden Purchase to US. Pierce New Mexico
1853-55      Fruto Chamorro governed Nicaragua.
1853-55      President Santa Anna ruled Mexico as dictator.
1853-55      Quitman’s plan to buy Cuba failed. 1854
1853-56      President Santana ruled Dominican Republic.
1853-57      Stevens governed Washington Territory.
1854.1.4     Senator Douglas introduced the Nebraska bill. 1854
1854.1        William Walker claimed Sonora in Mexico. Pierce
1854.1        Oregon banned selling weapons & ammunition.
1854.1.26   Diplomats pressured Panama’s governor.
1854.1-5     US Congress debated Kansas-Nebraska bill. 1854
1854.2.12   Parker preached for abolition of slavery. North
1854.2        Nicaragua got a constitution.
1854.2        Álvarez led a revolt in southern Mexico.
1854.2        Massachusetts granted $1 million to NEEAC. 1854
1854.3.4     Emerson opposed US Fugitive Slave Law. North
1854.3.18   People freed arrested slave Glover in Racine. North
1854.3.23   Venezuela abolished slavery & death penalty.
1854.3.31   US Commodore Perry opened ports in Japan. 1854
1854.4        New England Emigration Aid Society began. North
1854.5.3     Pierce vetoed Dix Bill for the Indigent Insane. 1854
1854.5        Sauk and Fox ceded land to the United States. Native Tribes
1854.5.30   Pierce signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. 1854 North
1854.5-12   8,000 people moved to the Kansas Territory. 1854
1854.6.2     Abolitionists freed fugitive slave Burns. 1854
1854.6.5     Canada & US agreed on a Reciprocity Treaty.
1854.6.17   Nativists gathered in New York City. 1854
1854.6-8     US-Canada Treaty agreed on fishing. 1854
1854           Ridge published Life of Joaquín MurietaCalifornia
1854           Methodists began Pacific Christian AdvocateOregon
1854           Burritt wrote essays on “Passive Resistance.”
1854           Thoreau published Walden.
1854.7.4     Abolitionist Garrison burned US Constitution. 1854
1854.7.4     Pro-slavery Knights of the Golden Circle began. 1854
1854.7.13   US Marines burned San Juan, Nicaragua.
1854.7.13   Mexico executed filibuster Raousset.
1854.7        Lawrence, Kansas was founded with $200,000. 1854
1854.7        First Republican convention met in Michigan. 1854
1854.7        Melville began publishing Israel Potter.
1854.8.5     US paid California $924,260 for its war debt.
1854.9.5     New Canadian Parliament opened in Quebec. Canada
1854.9        Liberal-Conservative Party reformed Canada.
1854.9.17   Panama became a nation.
1854.10.7   Reeder began governing Kansas Territory. 1854
1854.10.16 Lincoln spoke on Kansas-Nebraska Act. 1854 North
1854-55      Abolitionists sent settlers & rifles to Kansas. 1854
1854-55      Know Nothing party won 51 seats in US House. 1854
1854-55      Colt sold 9,000 revolvers to British military. Kansas
1854-57      Liberal William Young governed Nova Scotia. British Provinces
1854-61      Edmund Walker Head governed Canada.

1855.1.22   Chief Seattle spoke at a treaty ceremony. Washington Territory
1855.1.28   Panamanian railway began operating. Kansas
1855.2.6     Emerson urged abolitionists to free US slaves. Kansas
1855.2        Spain & Dominican Republic made a treaty.
1855.3.30   Pro-slavery Kansas gov’t is elected illegally.
1855.4.28   Massachusetts banned school segregation. Kansas North
1855           Mormon priesthood excluded blacks. Kansas
1855           David Christy published Cotton Is KingKansas
1855           San Francisco executed 538 people. California
1855           Legal Rights blacks hired Chester Arthur. North
1855           Lydia Child wrote Progress of Religious Ideas.
1855           Longfellow published Song of Hiawatha.
1855           Whitman published Leaves of Grass.
1855.6        Walker led 60 men invading Nicaragua. Kansas
1855.7.4     New York was 13th state to ban alcohol. Kansas
1855.8.6     Nativists v. Catholics riot killed 20 in Louisville. Kansas
1855.8        Santa Anna left Mexico.
1855.8        Proslavery Kansas gov’t moved to Lecompton.
1855.8        Abbott Lawrence left $50,000 to Harvard U. Kansas
1855.8        Douglass wrote My Bondage & FreedomNorth
1855.8-9     President Carrera governed Mexico.
1855.9.3     US Army killed 86 Lakota at Ash Hollow. Native Tribes
1855.10      Canadian government returned to Toronto. Canada
1855.10-12 President Álvarez governed Mexico.
1855.11.14 Law & Order party began at Leavenworth. Kansas
1855.11      1,200 armed Missourians invaded Kansas.
1855.11.20 Negroes held a convention at Sacramento. California
1855.12.8   Pierce criticized dictator Walker in Nicaragua. Kansas
1855.12.15 Kansas voters approved Free Soil constitution.
1855.12      Emperor Faustin attacked Santo Domingo again.
1855-56      Rogue River War was fought in Oregon.
1855-57      Walker led filibuster invasion of Nicaragua.
1855-57      General Jorge Córdova was President of Bolivia.
1855-57      President Comonfort governed Mexico.
1855-58      Sarmiento edited El nacionalArgentina
1855-58      José Tadeo Monagas was Venezuela President.
1855-58      Yakima Wars were in Washington Territory.
1855-59      Stevens made US treaties with native tribes. Washington Territory
1855-62      Ramón Castilla was President of Peru again.
1856.1        Azuero’s Governor Goytia revolted in Panama.
1856.1.24   Haitians defeated Dominicans at Savana Larga.
1856.1.24   Pres. Pierce criticized abolitionists in Kansas. 1856
1856.2        Mexico drafted a democratic constitution.
1856.2.15   Gov. Wodehouse banned meetings in Guiana. West Indies
1856.2.25   American party named Fillmore for US Pres. Elections of 1856
1856.3.9     Mexican Army besieged Puebla.
1856.3.12   Sen. Douglas’s report opposed abolitionists. 1856
1856.3        Rev. Beecher sent rifles with Bibles to Kansas. 1856
1856.4.15   A mob killed 15 Americans in Panama.
1856.4        Buford raised 300 men in Alabama for Kansas. 1856
1856.5.14   James Casey killed SF Supervisor James King. California
1856.5.19   Sumner spoke on “Crime Against Kansas.” Elections of 1856
1856.5.20   Pres. Pierce recognized Walker in Nicaragua.
1856.5.20   Pierce recognized Walker’s Nicaragua regime. 1856
1856.5.21   Atchison army sacked Lawrence, Kansas. 1856 South
1856.5.22   Brooks beat Sen. Sumner with a cane. Elections of 1856 South
1856.5.24   John Brown & sons killed 5 settlers. 1856 South
1856.5.28   Illinois & Lincoln formed a Republican Party.
1856.5-10   President Mota governed Dominican Republic.
1856.6.4     John Brown’s 28 men captured 28 men. 1856
1856.6.6     Mexican Congress revived the Jesuits.
1856.6        Democrats nominated Buchanan for US Pres. Elections of 1856
1856.6        Republicans nominated Frémont for US Pres. Elections of 1856
1856.6-12   Lerdo Law transferred Church property to gov’t. Mexico
1856           Lastarria’s book urged protecting civil libertie. Chile
1856           Peru’s constitution empowered Congress.
1856           1,300 Mormons went to Utah with handcarts.
1856           US bank credit was $1,042 million. Panic
1856           Canada made its Legislative Council elective.
1856           Canada exported 9,391,531 bushels of wheat.
1856           Emerson published English Traits.
1856.7.4     US troops broke up the Topeka legislature. 1856
1856.7.7     Lydia Child wrote to Senator Sumner.
1856.7.31   Pres. Pierce made Geary governor of Kansas. 1856
1856.7-11   Senator Douglas campaigned for Buchanan. Elections of 1856
1856.8.5     George Curtis spoke on liberty and slavery. Peacemakers
1856.8.7     US ceded land to the Seminoles. Native Tribes
1856.8        Chickasaws became an independent nation. Native Tribes
1856.8.30   Reid led 400 Missourians against Osawatomie. 1856
1856.9.10   Kansas Gov. Geary dissolved Woodson militia. 1856
1856.9.22   Walker legalized slavery in Nicaragua. Kansas Conflict
1856.10      Lydia Child published The Kansas Emigrants1856
1856.10      Railway connected Montreal to Toronto. Canada
1856.11.4   Buchanan was elected US President with 45%. Elections of 1856
1856.11.4   Frémont got 33% & Fillmore 21.5%. Elections of 1856
1856.11.11 Topeka constitution banned slavery in Kansas.
1856.12.8   600 met at Southern Commercial Convention. Elections of 1856
1856.12.10 Lincoln spoke to Republicans in Chicago. Elections of 1856
1856.12      John Brown visited Douglass at Rochester.
1856-57      Central American allies defeated Walker. Nicaragua
1856-58      President Báez governed Dominican Republic.
1856-58      President Campo governed El Salvador.
1856-58      Bartolomé Calvo governed Panama.
1856-59      Francisco Robles was President of Ecuador.
1856-62      President Guardiola governed Honduras.
1857.1.15   Garrison spoke at Disunion Convention. 1857
1857.2.5     Mexico adopted a liberal Constitution.
1857.2.14   Kansas Lecompton legislature limited voting.
1857.2        John Brown met Emerson & Thoreau.
1857.2.27   Mexico ended San Luis Potosí troop revolt.
1857.3.4     40,000 attended Buchanan’s inauguration.
1857.3.4     Kansas Governor Geary resigned.
1857.3.6     US Supreme Court ruled Dred Scott case. South Buchanan
1857.3.9     New York reported on crowded tenant houses. Buchanan
1857.3.13   United States Senate adjourned. Kansas
1857.4.1     Melville published The Confidence-Man.
1857.4.17   Ohio Assembly protested Dred Scott case. Buchanan
1857.5.1     Walker surrendered to allied armies. Nicaragua Kansas
1857.5.4     3,000 natives attacked the Chilapa garrison. Mexico
1857.5.11   Douglass criticized the Dred Scott decision.
1857.5.27   Robert J. Walker began governing Kansas.
1857.6.15   Kansas election excluded anti-slavery men.
1857.6        Illinois Central Railroad paid Lincoln $5,000.
1857.6.26   Lincoln criticized Kansas & Dred Scott decision.
1857.6.27   Scientific American warned whales are dying. Buchanan
1857.6.28   Kansas had more Anti-slavery men.
1857           José de Alencar published his novel O GuaraniBrazil
1857           Argentina had 1.1 million people.
1857           Vizcarrondo began El Mercurio newspaper. Puerto Rico
1857           Hinton Helper published Impending CrisisSouth
1857           Fitzhugh published Cannibals All! South
1857           4,932 US companies failed. Panic
1857           Bank of Upper Canada failed.
1857.8.9     Proslavery convention met at Knoxville. Kansas
1857.8.11   14 NY banks suspended specie payments.Panic
1857.9        Utah Militia killed about 130 settlers. Buchanan
1857.9.12   SS Central America sank with 425 people. Buchanan
1857.9        Price of US cotton fell from 16 cents to 9. Panic
1857.11      Atlantic Monthly began with Lowell as editor. Buchanan
1857.11.25 William Walker led invasion of Nicaragua. Kansas
1857.12.8   Pres. Buchanan defended his Kansas policy.
1857.12.9   Sen. Douglas exposed Kansas election fraud.
1857.12.15 Kansas Governor Robert J. Walker resigned.
1857.12      Juárez was elected Supreme Court president. Mexico
1857.12      Tacubaya rebels began a civil war in Mexico.
1857.12.29 James Douglas claimed BC gold for Britain. British Provinces
1857-58      US Army intervened in Utah.
1857-58      Northern states passed personal liberty laws. John Brown
1857-60      Fernando Cotoner governed Puerto Rico.
1857-61      Linares was President of Bolivia.
1857-67      President Tomás Martínez governed Nicaragua.
1858.1.4     Kansas voters rejected the Lecompton gov’t.
1858.1.19   Juárez set up government at Guanajuato. Mexico
1858.1.23   Rebel Council made Zuloaga Mexico President.
1858.2-3     John Brown wrote a constitution. Douglass
1858.1-4     Nicaragua and Costa Rica made peace.
1858.2.7     Mexico’s President Comonfort fled to the US.
1858.3.4     Sen. Hammond spoke on “Cotton Is King.” Buchanan
1858.3.10   Conservatives defeated Liberals at Salamanca. Mexico
1858.3        Pueblo published “Visiones proféticas.”  Chile
1858.3        Julián Castro led revolution in Venezuela.
1858.3        Dr. Rock said black people are beautiful. North
1858.4.6     President Buchanan pardoned Mormon rebels.
1858.4        Republicans won 8 elections in the North. Buchanan
1858.4        15,000 Mormons retreated from US Army. Buchanan
1858.4.25   Gov. Cumming & Young reconciled in Utah.Buchanan
1858.5.4     Juárez moved his government to Veracruz. Mexico
1858.5.8     John Brown proclaimed a government.  Douglass
1858.5.10   Southern Convention discussed disunion. Buchanan
1858.5.11   Minnesota became a US state. 1858
1858.5        British Navy blockaded Venezuela.
1858.5        New Orleans jury acquitted William Walker. Kansas
1858.5.17   Nez Perce & Spokane defeated US Army. Buchanan
1858.6.16   Republicans nominated Lincoln for US Senate.
1858           Albano wrote Comentarios sobre la ConstituciónChile
1858           US Congress passed pensions for war widows. Mexican Cession
1858           United States & China negotiated treaties. Buchanan
1858           John L. Mason invented sealed jars. 1858
1858           Henry Clarke Wright wrote on birth control. 1858
1858           Brown’s Grits joined Rouges in Canada East.
1858           Canada adopted $US decimal system.
1858.7        Pike’s Peak gold rush lured 100,000. Colorado 1858
1858.7.24   Lincoln challenged Douglas to 7 debates.
1858.8.2     Kansas voters denied Lecompton constitution.
1858.8.2     J. Douglas became British Columbia governor. British Provinces
1858.8.23   USS Dolphin captured Echo slave-ship. 1859
1858.8-10   Lincoln debated Douglas 7 times.
1858.9        Brownlow & Pryne debated slavery. Kansas
1858.10      Republicans made gains in US elections. Buchanan
1858.10.19 Chile’s Fusion allies held a protest banquet.
1858.10.25 NY Sen. Seward spoke on labor & slavery. Buchanan
1858.10.30 President Buchanan affirmed neutrality laws. Kansas
1858.11.28 Wanderer brought 487 slaves to Georgia. 1859
1858.12.6   Pres. Buchanan spoke about Latin America. Buchanan
1858.12      Ohio tried 37 for freeing enslaved Price. North Kansas
1858.12.20 John Brown’s raid freed 11 Missouri slaves.North 
1858.12.22 Haiti was proclaimed a republic.
1858.12.31 Venezuela adopted a popular constitution.
1858-60      Mexican Civil War was fought.
1858-61      Ospina was New Granada’s President.
1858-61      President Santana ruled Dominican Republic.
1858-63      Granadine Confederation had a civil war. New Granada
1858-72      President Juárez governed Mexico.
1859.2.12   Chilean radicals took over San Felipe.
1859.2.14   Oregon became a US state. 1859
1859.2.20   Venezuela’s Federal War began.
1859.2.23   Texas Gov. Runnels advised peace w/ Indians. 1859
1859.2.24   Buchanan vetoed the Morill land-grant bill. 1859
1859.4.1     Former San Juan Governor Benavidez was killed. Argentina
1859.4.5     Ohio jury convicted 2 who rescued Price. North Kansas
1959.4.6     US recognized Juárez government. Mexico
1859.4.18   Carl Schurz spoke on “True Americanism.” 1859
1859.4.29   Chilean soldiers dispersed rebels at Serena.
1859.5        South convention tried to revive slave trade. 1859
1859.5        John Brown met secret committee & raised $4,000.
1859.6        Comstock discovered silver near Virginia City. 1859
1859           Ambrosio Montt wrote on European government. Chile
1859           Mexicans defeated revolts by Yaquis & Mayos.
1859           Vicksburg convention urged slave trade. South
1859           Tubman raised money for John Brown.
1859           Martin Delany published the novel BlakeDouglass
1859           4 major banks in Canada failed.
1859           Canada’s debt reached $54,142,044.
1859.7.4     Rhett urged a Southern Confederacy. 1859
1859.7.12   Juárez gov’t nationalized Church property. Mexico
1859.7        Kansas convention created a constitution. 1859
1859.8.16   United States & China ratified their treaty. 1859
1859.8.28   Edwin Drake discovered oil at Titusville. 1859
1859.10      US Attorney General Black defended slavery. 1859
1859.9        Lincoln made 3 speeches in Ohio. 1859
1859.9        David Terry killed Sen. Brockerick in a duel. 1859
1859.9.29   Tovar became President of Venezuela.
1859.9.30   Lincoln spoke on agriculture in Milwaukee. 1859
1859.11.2   John Brown was sentenced to death.
1859.11      Canada West demanded more Assembly seats.
1859.12.4   Juárez government enacted religious liberty. Mexico
1859.12.14 Treaty gave US access across Mexico.
1859.12      Victoria Bridge over St. Lawrence was done. Canada
1859.10      Texas elected Sam Houston Governor. 1859
1859.10.16 John Brown led a raid at Harper’s Ferry. North
1859.10.17 New York Herald blamed abolitionists. Douglass
1859.10.30 Thoreau eulogized John BrownDouglass
1859.12.3   Lincoln spoke at Leavenworth, Kansas. 1859
1859.12.19 Buchanan warned of North war to end slavery. 1859
1859.12.19 Buchanan called for military posts in Mexico. 1859
1859.12.23 Urquiza’s army beat Buenos Aires at Cepeda. Argentina
1959.12.27 Costa Rica got a new constitution.
1859-62      Captain-General Serrano governed Cuba
1859-63      President Gerardo Barrios ruled El Salvador.
1859-63      President Montealagre governed Costa Rica.
1859-67      President Fabre Geffrard governed Haiti.

1860.1.10   Pemberton Mill collapsed killing 77 people. 1860
1860.1        Douglass lectured on John Brown at Edinburgh.
1860.1        Sen. Douglas had delegates from 6 NW states. Elections in 1860
1860.1.18   Sen. Brown introduced proslavery resolutions. 1860
1860.2.16   Chicago Tribune endorsed Lincoln for Pres. 1860
1860.2.27   Lincoln spoke at Cooper Union in New York. 1860
1860.2.29   US Senator Seward criticized John Brown. 1860
1860.3.5     Lincoln supported a shoe strike at Hartford. 1860
1860.3.5     Covode led a Congressional investigation. 1860
1860.3.28   The Liberator printed Loguen’s reply to Logue. North
1860.4.2     Pony Express began in St. Joseph, Missouri. 1860
1860.4.5     Lovejoy denounced slavery in US House. 1860
1860.4.23   Democrats convention began in Charleston. Elections in 1860
1860.4.30   USS Mohawk captured slave-ship Wildfire1860
1860.5.3     Mitre became governor of Buenos Aires. Argentina
1860.5.9     Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell. Elections in 1860
1860.5.18   Republican Party nominated Abe Lincoln. Elections in 1860
1860.6.4     Sen. Sumner spoke on “Barbarism of Slavery.” 1860
1860.6        Douglass helped 10 slaves escape to Canada.
1860.6.20   President Buchanan vetoed Homestead Bill.  1860
1860.6.23   Democrats in Baltimore nominated Douglas. Elections in 1860
1860.6.23   Southern Democrats nominated Breckinridge. Elections in 1860
1860           Bolivian army massacred rebelling natives.
1860           Peru’s constitution strengthened the President.
1860           Ellis published the first dime novel Seth JonesWashington Territory
1860           Lydia Child wrote books on emancipation. North
1860           US Census counted 3,953,762 slaves. 1860
1860           US had 30,600 miles of railroads. 1860
1860           Ann Stephens wrote dime-novel Maleska1860
1860           Bartlett published Life of Abraham LincolnElections in 1860
1860           Emerson wrote The Conduct of Life.
1860           New York passed Women’s Property Act. Lucy Stone
1860           Elizabeth Stanton proposed divorce reforms.
1860.9.12   British Honduras executed Walker. Nicaragua Kansas Elections in 1860
1860.9.30   Costa Rica executed ex-President Mora.
1860.10.25 18-year-old Anna Dickinson spoke on slavery. 1860
1860.11.6   Juárez called for general elections in Mexico.
1860.11.6   17 states elected Lincoln US President. Elections in 1860
1860.11.9   Greeley urged peaceful response to secession. Late 1860
1860.12.3   Boston mob broke up Douglass rally on Brown. 1860
1860.12.3   Pres. Buchanan wrote about secession. Late 1860
1860.12.14 Douglass spoke on free speech at Boston.
1860.12.15 John P. Kennedy published The Border StatesLincoln
1860.12.18 US Senate formed the Committee of 13. Late 1860
1860.12.20 Lincoln spokesman said disunion is treason. Late 1860
1860.12.20 South Carolina by a convention seceded. Late 1860 Lincoln
1860.12.25 Mexican Army defeated rebels at Mexico City.
1860.12.26 Major Anderson moved men to Fort Sumter.Late 1860
1860.12.26 South Carolina commissioners came to DC. Lincoln
1860.12.27 SC Commissioners demanded US forces leave.Late 1860
1861.1.2     Maryland’s Hicks urged a central confederacy. Lincoln
1861.1.3     Missouri Gov. Jackson rallied slave states. Late 1860 Lincoln
1861.1.3     Senator Douglas made an appeal for peace. Secession
1861.1.4     Rev. Allen preached Secession is a right.
1861.1.8     Buchanan appealed to Congress for peace. Secession
1861.1.9     Star of the West retreated from Charleston. Late 1860
1861.1.9     US Marines garrisoned Fort McHenry. Secession
1861.1.9-11 Mississippi, Alabama & Florida seceded. Secession
1861.1.15   Cabinet urged Buchanan to defend forts. Secession
1861.1        Bolivia’s President Linares went into exile.
1861.1        Liberal government returned to Mexico City.
1861.1        Harriet Jacobs published her autobiography.
1861.1.17   Kentucky legislature voted against Secession.
1861.1.19   Georgia convention voted to secede. Secession
1861.1.19   Virginia proposed a peace convention. Secession
1861.1.21   Jefferson Davis & 4 others left the US Senate. Secession
1861.1.21   Dakota, Colorado & Nevada are US territories. Secession
1861.1.22   Seward spoke about a compromise plan. Secession
1861.1.25   Juárez ended martial law & military powers.
1861.1.29   Free Kansas became a US state. Secession
1861.1.29   Louisiana force seized US Mint in New Orleans. Secession
1861.1.31   Washington Constitution stopped publishing. Late 1860
1861.2.7     Choctaw nation joined the Confederacy. Secession
1861.2.8     Confederate States of America (CSA) began. Secession
1861.2.9     CSA elected Jefferson Davis President. Secession
1861.2.9     Tennessee voters rejected Secession.
1861.2.11   Lincoln spoke to 20,000 at Indianapolis. Secession
1861.2        Cheyenne & Arapaho ceded land to the US. Native Tribes
1861.2        Dorothea Dix warned of conspiracy to kill Lincoln.
1861.2.17   Browning advised Lincoln not to begin war. Secession
1861.2.18   Davis said, “All we ask is to be left alone.” Secession
1861.2.18   Missouri rejected Secession.
1861.2.19   250,000 met Lincoln’s train in New York City. Secession
1861.2.22   CSA Congress voted to take Fort Sumter. Secession
1861.2.22   Lincoln in Philadelphia said war is not needed. Secession
1861.2.23   Texans voted to secede. Secession
1861.2.23   Lincoln secretly entered Washington. Secession
1861.2.28   North Carolina voters rejected secession. Secession
1861.2.28   Confederate Congress borrowed $25 million. Secession
1861.2.28   Pres. Davis appointed 3 commissioners. Secession Lincoln
1861.3.1     Creeks made free Negroes choose a master. Native Tribes
1861.3.1     US Congress rejected Crittenden peace plan. Secession
1861.3.2     US Morill Tariff Act passed. Secession Lincoln
1861.3.2     US established the Nevada Territory. California
1861.3.3     US Congress passed Constitution amendment. Secession
1861.3.3     Tsar Alexander freed 23 million Russian serfs. Secession
1861.3.4     25,000 attended Lincoln’s inauguration. March 1861
1861.3.6     CSA Congress authorized 100,000 volunteers. March 1861
1861.3        Confederacy set up Bureau of Indian Affairs. Native Tribes
1861.3.11   CSA Congress adopted a constitution. March 1861
1861.3.13   Lincoln told Seward not to meet CSA envoys. March 1861
1861.3.15   Louisiana sent $536,000 from US Mint to CSA. March 1861
1861.3.18   Santana returned Santo Domingo to Spain.
1861.3.18   Arkansas convention opposed secession. March 1861
1861.3.18   Texas Governor Houston rejected the CSA. March 1861
1861.3.21   Missouri convention opposed secession 98-1. March 1861
1861.3.21   Bennett’s New York Herald criticized Lincoln. March 1861
1861.3.28   United States Senate adjourned. March 1861
1861.3.30   Lincoln feared war & collapsed with headache. March 1861
1861.4.1     Seward urged Lincoln to start a European war. War Begins
1861.4.4     Virginia convention voted not to secede. War Begins
1861.4.9     CSA Pres. Davis ordered attack on Ft. Sumter. War Begins
1861.4.12   Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter. War Begins
1861.4.12   US Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter. War Begins
1861.4.13   Illinois approved $3.5 million for the military. War Begins
1861.4.15   Lincoln called up 75,000 militia. War Begins Civil War Atrocities
1861.4        Unitarian Bellows advised peaceful separation. War Begins
1861.4.17   Virginia convention voted to secede. War Begins
1861.4.19   Union force killed 12 civilians in Baltimore. War Begins
1861.4.21   Gen. Robert E. Lee led CSA Army of Virginia. War Begins
1861.4.22   Douglass urged enlisting Negro troops.
1861.4.22   YMCA delegates asked Lincoln to avoid war. Civil War Atrocities
1861.4.23   Dorothea Dix became US Army Nurses Superintendent.
1861.4.29   President Davis spoke to the Confederate Congress.
1861.4.29   Confederate Congress approved $50 million.
1861.4.29   Maryland House voted against secession. Confederate Congress
1861.5.3     Lincoln called 42,034 volunteers for 3 years. Mobilization
1861.5.3     CSA President Davis declared war. Mobilization
1861.5.4     Nichols in The Age warned against war. Mobilization
1861.5.6     Arkansas convention voted to secede. Mobilization
1861.5.9     US Naval Academy moved to Newport, RI. Mobilization
1861.5.10   Union Army took over the St. Louis arsenal. Mobilization
1861.5.11   Union force captured 700 militia in Missouri. Mobilization
1861.5.11   Missouri legislature armed Confederates. Mobilization
1861.5.13   Queen Victoria proclaimed British neutral. Mobilization
1861.5.13   CSA Congress approved drafting 400,000 men. Mobilization
1861.5        Douglass wrote “How to End the War.” Mobilization November-December 1861
1861.5        Lincoln obstructed newspapers opposing war. Civil War Atrocities
1861.5.16   Northern Presbyterians swore loyalty to USA. Mobilization
1861.5.18   Arkansas joined the Confederate States. Mobilization
1861.5.27   California decided to support the Union. Mobilization
1861.6.8     Tennessee voted to join the CSA. Mobilization
1861.5.20   Venezuela President Tovar resigned.
1861.5.20   US Marshals confiscated telegrams. Mobilization
1861.5.20   North Carolina convention joined the CSA. Mobilization
1861.5.20   CSA Congress moved the capital to Richmond. Mobilization
1861.5.22   Southern Presbyterians supported the CSA. Mobilization
1861.5.23   Virginians voted for secession. Mobilization
1861.5.24   Union Gen. Butler called slaves “contraband.” Mobilization
1861.5.26   US SCJ Taney rejected habeas suspension. Mobilization
1861.5.31   US mail service to the South ended. Mobilization
1861.6.10   US put Dix in charge of military hospitals. June-July 1861
1861.6.11   Mexico Congress confirmed Juárez Presidency.
1861.6.15   Union troops occupied Jefferson City, Missouri. June-July 1861
1861.6.19   Western Virginia elected Pierpont governor. June-July 1861
1861.6.26   NY Tribune urged US attack on Richmond. June-July 1861 Civil War Atrocities
1861           New York raised 120,000 Union soldiers. June-July 1861
1861           5,000 fugitive slaves entered Kansas. January-February 1862
1861           Canada West had 11,223 Negroes.
1861           Wendell Phillips pleaded for woman suffrage. Mrs. Stanton
1861.7        Mexico suspended foreign debt payments.
1861.7        US Congress approved 500,000 men. June-July 1861
1861.7.21   US Army fled from the Bull Run Battle. June-July 1861 Civil War Atrocities
1861.7.25   US Congress passed the Crittenden Resolution. June-July 1861
1861.7.27   Gen. McClellan led US Army in Washington. June-July 1861
1861.7.31   Missouri convention elected Gamble governor. June-July 1861
1861.8.1     Confederate Baylor claimed Arizona Territory.
1861.8.4     McClellan said he needed 273,000 men. June-July 1861
1861.8.5     US Congress passed a personal income tax. August-October 1861
1861.8.6     US Congress passed the Confiscation Act. August-October 1861
1861.8.12   CSA made a treaty with several Indian tribes. August-October 1861
1861.8.14   CSA President Davis expelled foreigners. August-October 1861
1861.8.16   Lincoln banned trade with CSA “rebellion.” August-October 1861
1861.8.17   US Army began paying nurses a little. August-October 1861
1861.8.23   Secret Service arrested CSA spy Greenhow. August-October 1861
1861.8.30   Frémont declared martial law in Missouri. August-October 1861
1861.9.5     Emancipation League began in Boston. Douglass
1861.9.11   Lincoln cancelled Frémont’s emancipation. August-October 1861
1861.9.17   Mitre’s militia defeated Argentine Confederates.
1861.9.18   Chilean General Leal was mortally wounded.
1861.9.18   Lincoln arrested part of Maryland’s Assembly. August-October 1861
1861.9.20   3,000 US infantry surrendered in Missouri. August-October 1861
1861.9.25   US Navy began enlisting “persons of color.” August-October 1861
1861.10.14 Lincoln extended habeas corpus suspension. August-October 1861
1861.10.21 Telegraph connected Denver to Sacramento. August-October 1861
1861.10.21 CSA defeated a Union force at Ball’s Bluff. August-October 1861
1861.10.24 US transcontinental telegraph began. 1860
1861.10.24 West Virginia voted for US statehoo. August-October 1861
1861.10.31 Britain, France & Spain allied against Mexico.
1861.11.1   General Henry Halleck replaced Frémont. August-October 1861
1861.11.1   US General Winfield Scott resigned. November-December 1861
1861.11.6   Confederate States held elections. November-December 1861
1861.11.8   US Navy arrested envoys Mason & Slidell. November-December 1861
1861.11.9   Union Army captured Beaufort, South Carolina. November-December 1861
1861.11      Julia Howe wrote “Battle Hymn” lyrics. John Brown November-December 1861
1861.11.22 CSA claimed authority over Indian Territory. November-December 1861
1861.12.2   Lincoln suspended habeas Corpus in Missouri. November-December 1861
1861.12.10 CSA admitted the state of Kentucky. November-December 1861
1861.12      US provided naval protection for Mexico.
1861.12      British sent 11,000 troops to CanadaNovember-December 1861
1861.12.17 Spanish forces occupied Veracruz. Mexico
1861.12.26 Lincoln freed CSA envoys Mason & Slidell. November-December 1861
1861-62      Santana governed Santo Domingo.
1861-63      Páez was Venezuela’s President.
1861-64      Achá was President of Bolivia.
1861-65      3,000 Italians emigrated to Brazil.
1861-65      García Moreno was President of Ecuador.
1861-65      About 755,000 died in the US Civil War. Lincoln’s Warr
1861-71      José Joaquín Pérez was President of Chile.
1861-71      Sen. Sumner was Foreign Relations chairman. Elections of 1856
1861.1.1     US released CSA envoys Mason & Slidell. January-February 1862
1862.1.6-7  British & French fleets reached Mexico.
1862.1.13   Stanton replaced US War Secretary Cameron. January-February 1862
1862.1        Douglass criticized Lincoln’s slave policy.
1862.2.5     British ended ban on shipping weapons. January-February 1862
1862.2.13   West Virginia excluded blacks. January-February 1862
1862.2        Douglass in Boston & NY urged emancipation.
1862.2.16   CSA surrendered Ft. Donelson to U.S. Grant. January-February 1862
1862.2.20   Lincoln’s son Willie died of typhoid fever. January-February 1862
1861.2.23   Andrew Johnson became Tennessee governor. January-February 1862
1862.2.27   CSA began suspending habeas corpus. January-February 1862
1862.3.3     Gen. Halleck dismissed Grant for drunkenness. March-May 1862
1862.3.5     Lincoln urged gradual abolition of slavery. March-May 1862
1862.3.25   Douglass called for abolition of slavery in US.
1862.3.28   US defeated Confederates at Glorieta Pass. Arizona
1862.4.6-7  Shiloh battle killed 3,482 & wounded 16,420. March-May 1862
1862.4.7     US & British agreed to stop the slave trade. March-May 1862
1862.4.9     British & Spanish forces planned to exit Mexico.
1862.4        US had 637,126 soldiers, CSA 410,395. March-May 1862
1862.4.16   US abolished slavery in Washington, DC. March-May 1862
1862.4.16   CSA conscripted white men aged 18 to 35. March-May 1862
1862.5.1     Butler & US Army took over New Orleans. March-May 1862
1862.5.5     Mexicans defeated 6,000 French at Puebla.
1862.5.9     Gen. Hunter freed slaves in South Carolina. Tubman
1862.5.20   US Homestead Act gave settlers 160 acres. March-May 1862
1862.5.31   1,770 were killed & 8,343 wounded at 7 Pines. March-May 1862
1862.6.5     United States recognized Haiti and Liberia. June-July 1862
1862.6.9     CSA defeated Frémont’s army at Chattanooga. June-July 1862
1862.6        Napoleon III sent 30,000 troops to Mexico.
1862.6        Samuel Cox of Ohio pleaded for civilized war. June-July 1862
1862.6        Stuart’s CSA cavalry reconnoitered US Army. June-July 1862
1862.6.16   Foley organized a French gov’t in Mexico City.
1862.6.17   Generals Frémont & Beauregard retired. June-July 1862
1862.6.19   Slavery was banned in US Territories. June-July 1862
1862.6.25   7 Days’ Battle began near Richmond. June-July 1862
1862.6-7     CSA Army had 3,494 killed & 15,758 wounded. June-July 1862
1862           Peñaloza led La Rioja clans attacking San Luis. Argentina
1862           Cuba ended its slave trade.
1862           Mexico’s debt was 81,632,561 pesos.
1862           Buchanan wrote a book on his presidency. Secession
1862           US spent $500,000 to colonize slaves. March-May 1862
1862.7.1     Thad Stevens reported $800 million US debt. June-July 1862
1862.7.1     US Congress increased taxes. June-July 1862
1861.7.1     US funded railway Omaha to San Francisco. June-July 1862
1862.7.2     McClellan retreated to Harrison’s Landing. June-July 1862
1862.7.2     US Congress passed Morill Homestead Act. June-July 1862
1862.7.2     Lincoln called for 300,000 more volunteers. June-July 1862
1862.7.8     US passed the Anti-Bigamy Act. June-July 1862
1862.7.14   US Congress ended daily rum for sailors. June-July 1862
1862.7.15   Cochise warriors defeated California Column. Arizona
1862.7.16   France’s Napoleon III rejected CSA alliance. June-July 1862
1862.7.17   US Confiscation Act freed captured slaves. June-July 1862
1862.7.23   Grant was put in command of Western Army. June-July 1862
1862.7.23   US General Polk required a loyalty oath. Civil War Atrocities
1862.8.4     Indiana grand jury indicted 60 for treason. August-October 1862
1862.8.14   Lincoln talked with black leaders. August-October 1862
1862.8        CSA beat US Army at Bull Run (Manassas). August-October 1862
1862.8        Irish burned a tobacco factory in Brooklyn. August-October 1862
1862.8-12   Starving Sioux revolt was punished. Native Tribes August-October 1862  Atrocities
1862.8.25   US Army recruited blacks in South Carolina. August-October 1862
1862.8.30   CSA captured 4,300 US soldiers in Kentucky. August-October 1862
1862.9.4     General Lee’s army invaded Maryland. August-October 1862
1862.9        Nicaragua & Guatemala allied against Salvador.
1862.9.17   4,000 Union troops surrendered in Kentucky. August-October 1862
1862.9.17   Antietam battle killed 3,675, wounded 17,292. August-October 1862
1862.9.22   Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. August-October 1862
1862.9.24   Lincoln suspended habeas corpus in US. August-October 1862 Civil War Atrocities
1862.9.26   Moreno made a concordat with Pope Pius IX. Ecuador
1862.9.27   Free blacks in Louisiana formed a regiment. August-October 1862
1862.10.8   US Army defeated CSA at Perryville, KY. August-October 1862
1862.10-11 Democrats made gains in US elections. November-December 1862
1862.11.3   US Army sentenced 303 Santees to death. Native Tribes
1862.11.5   Lincoln replaced McClellan with Burnside. November-December 1862
1862.12.1   Lincoln proposed 3 unpopular amendments. November-December 1862
1862.12.4   Joseph E. Johnston led CSA forces in West. November-December 1862
1862.12.10 US Congress admitted West Virginia as a state. November-December 1862
1862.12      Lincoln approved the execution of 38 Santees. Native Tribes
1862.12      Burnside’s Fredericksburg campaign failed. November-December 1862
1862.12.23 Davis ordered black captives given to states. November-December 1862
1862-66      Captain-General Domingo Dulce governed Cuba.
1862-68      Mitre was President of Argentina.
1862-68      Cuban reformist newspaper El Siglo published.
1863.1.1     Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation began. January-February 1863
1863.1.3     Union forces drove CSA out of Murfreesboro. January-February 1863
1863.1.4     Lincoln canceled Grant’s expulsion of Jews. November-December 1862
1863.1.11   Union Army captured Ft. Hindman, Arkansas. January-February 1863
1863.1.13   Pennsylvania elected Buckalew over Cameron. January-February 1863
1863.1.14   Vallandigham: “Constitution-Peace-Reunion.” January-February 1863
1863.1        109th Illinois Regiment was arrested. January-February 1863
1863.1.25   Lincoln replaced Gen. Burnside with Hooker. January-February 1863
1863.1.31   Higginson commanded Negro volunteers. January-February 1863
1863.2.3     Constitution formed United States of Colombia.
1863.2        Union League Clubs began in New York. March-April 1863
1863.2.24   US established the Arizona Territory. January-February 1863
1863.2.24   Douglass began recruiting blacks for US Army.
1863.2.25   US passed the National Bank Act. January-February 1863
1863.3.3     US established the Idaho Territory. March-April 1863
1863.3.3     US enacted a military draft. March-April 1863
1863.3.3     US founded the National Academy of Sciences. March-April 1863
1863.3.3     US added a 10th Supreme Court justice. September-October 1864
1863.3.6     An angry mob attacked blacks in Detroit. March-April 1863
1863.3        Lee’s army was put on half rations. March-April 1863
1863.3.21   Douglass published “Men of Color, to Arms!”
1863.3.27   Lincoln talked with 14 Indian chiefs. March-April 1863
1863.3-5     26,600 French & Mexicans besieged Puebla.
1863.4.2     Thousands demanded food in Richmond. March-April 1863
1863.4.10   Pres. Davis urged people to grow vegetables. March-April 1863
1863.4        H. B. Stowe wrote about Sojourner Truth.
1863.4        Thurlow Weed raised $15,000 for elections. March-April 1863
1863.4        Union forces occupied Fort Gibson. March-April 1863
1863.4.24   Lincoln issued the Lieber Code. March-April 1863 Civil War Atrocities
1863.5.1     Grant’s army captured Port Gibson, MS. March-April 1863
1863.5.5     Burnside had Vallandigham arrested. May-July 1863
1863.5.8     Panama joined the United States of Colombia.
1863.5.10   Wounded General Stonewall Jackson died. May-July 1863
1863.5.14   Women’s Loyal National League began. May-July 1863
1863.5        Lieber: No Party Now but All for Our CountryMarch-April 1863
1863.5        US & CSA armies fought at Chancellorsville. May-July 1863
1863.5        Grant’s army closed in on Vicksburg. May-July 1863
1863.5        Stanton led Loyal Women of the Nation. Susan B. Anthony
1863.5.19   Lincoln banished Vallandigham to the CSA. May-July 1863
1863.5.26   Gold was discovered in Montana Territory. May-July 1863
1863.2.5     Sherman had reporter Knox tried for spying. January-February 1863
1863.6.1     French Army occupied Mexico City.
1863.6.1     Burnside had the Chicago Times shut down. May-July 1863
1863.6.2     Tubman led Union rescue of 756 slaves. January-February 1863
1863.6.7     US Army burned the Davis plantation. May-July 1863
1863.6.14   Peñaloza took over Córdoba. Argentina
1863.6.15   Federalist Falcón became Venezuela President.
1863.6        5,000 blacks were in schools in South Carolina. March-April 1863
1863.6        Lincoln summoned 100,000 militia. May-July 1863
1863.6.20   West Virginia became a US state. May-July 1863
1863           Brazil gave military support to rebels in Uruguay.
1863           Sarsfield’s Commercial Code was approved. Argentina
1863           Dutch abolished slavery in Surinam. West Indies
1863           US immigration increased to 176,282. November-December 1863
1863           US Gov’t spending increased to $715 million. November-December 1863
1863           US produced 2,611,000 barrels of petroleum. November-December 1863
1863.7.1-3  US armies defeated CSA armies at Gettysburg. May-July 1863
1863.7.13   Military draft in New York City provoked riots. May-July 1863
1863.7.17   US Army beat CSA Army at Honey Springs. Native Tribes
1863.7.18   54th Massachusetts assaulted Fort Wagner. May-July 1863
1863.8.12   British ship brought supplies to CSA. August-October 1863
1863.8.21   Quantrill’s raiders burned Lawrence, Kansas. August-October 1863
1863.9.1     Juárez chose a new cabinet.
1863.9.3     Iowa cavalry killed about 300 native warriors. Native Tribes
1863.9        Trains connected Santiago & Valparaiso. Chile
1863.9        US troops attacked Sioux at White Stone Hill. August-October 1863
1863.9        CSA captured Union troops at Chickamauga. August-October 1863
1863.10.1   Lincoln letter explained military policy. August-October 1863
1863.10.3   US began compensating owners for blacks. August-October 1863
1863.10.3   Lincoln proclaimed Thanksgiving Day. August-October 1863
1863.10      Union Army had 37,482 blacks. August-October 1863
1863.10.17 Lincoln called for 300,000 more troops. August-October 1863
1863.11.12 An army invaded La Rioja & executed Peñaloza. Argentina
1863.11.19 Lincoln gave his Gettysburg Address. November-December 1863
1863.11.22 Juárez moved government to Saltillo, Coahuila.
1863.11.25 Grant’s army beat Bragg’s at Missionary Ridge. November-December 1863
1863.12.8   2,000+ people died in a fire at Santiago. Chile
1863.12.8   Lincoln explained his amnesty policy. November-December 1863
1863.12.12 CSA stopped US rations for Union prisoners. November-December 1863
1863.12      Statue was placed on US Capitol dome. November-December 1863 January-February 1864
1863.12      Emerson spoke on “Fortune of the Republic.”
1863-66      President Jesús Jimenez governed Costa Rica.
1864.1.13   Douglass spoke to Women’s Loyal League.
1864.1.13   Sumner led Slavery & Freedmen Committee. January-February 1864
1864.1.14   Songwriter Stephen Foster died. January-February 1864
1864.1        British Columbia formed a Legislative Council.
1864.1.22   French Navy helped take Veracruz. Mexico
1864.2.1     Lincoln called for conscription of 500,000 men. January-February 1864
1864.2.9     Women’s Loyal League turned in petitions. January-February 1864  Susan B. Anthony
1864.2.9     59 Union officers escaped from Libby Prison. January-February 1864
1864.2        Sherman’s army wage war in Mississippi. January-February 1864
1864.2.17   CSA Congress forced veterans to re-enlist. March-April 1864
1864.2.22   Arkansas got a Unionist government. January-February 1864
1864.2.22   Louisiana elected a Union governor. January-February 1864
1864.2.24   US Congress accepted conscientious objectors. January-February 1864
1864.2.26   Lincoln commuted sentences of deserters. January-February 1864
1864.3.4     Johnson became Tennessee’s Military Gov. March-April 1864
1864.3        Arkansas voters chose Union government. March-April 1864
1864.3.10   Lincoln put Grant in command of Union armies. March-April 1864
1864.3.16   CSA VP Stephens spoke on civil rights. March-April 1864
1864.4.9     Maximilian renounced the Austrian succession.
1864.4.12   CSA killed surrendering soldiers at Fort Pillow. March-April 1864
1864.4.17   General Grant stopped prisoner exchanges. March-April 1864
1864.4.30   Lincoln pardoned 25 Sioux in Iowa. March-April 1864
1864.4-5     US Red River campaign failed in Louisiana. March-April 1864
1864.5.6     US & CSA had 28,699 casualties in Wilderness. May-June 1864
1864.5        Union Army captured 7,000 rebels. May-June 1864
1864.6.1-6  Cold Harbor battles had 18,000 casualties. May-June 1864
1864.6.8     National Union convention nominated Lincoln.  May-June 1864
1864.6.12   Maximilian arrived at Mexico City.
1864.6.15   Union Army besieged Petersburg. May-June 1864
1864.6.15   US Congress passed equal pay for blacks. May-June 1864
1864.6        Canada’s Conservative government resigned.
1864.6.28   US Congress repealed Fugitive Slave Acts. May-June 1864
1864.6.30   US Congress passed Internal Revenue Act. May-June 1864
1864.6-12   Canadians considered confederation. Canada
1864           Vizcarrondo began Spanish Abolitionist Society. Puerto Rico
1864           George P. Marsh published Man and NatureNovember-December 1864
1864           Nichols wrote Forty Years of American LifeNovember-December 1864
1864.7.4     US Congress encouraged immigration. July-August 1864
1864.7.20   Sherman’s army defeated Hood’s near Atlanta. July-August 1864
1864.7.30   Union troops assaulted Petersburg. July-August 1864
1864.8.5     US Navy defeated CS Navy in Mobile Bay. July-August 1864
1864.8        220 US prisoners died daily at Andersonville. May-June 1864
1864.8.30   Democrat Party nominated McClellan for Pres. July-August 1864
1864.8-10   Juárez retreated to Chihuahua. Mexico
1864.9.3     Sherman’s army occupied Atlanta. September-October 1864
1864.9.5     Louisiana’s constitution banned slavery. September-October 1864
1864.9.15   Lincoln suspended habeas corpus in the US. September-October 1864
1864.9.21   International Industrial Assembly began. September-October 1864
1864.9.23   After Frémont withdrew, Blair resigned. September-October 1864
1864.9-10   Sheridan’s cavalry burned crops & barns. September-October 1864
1864.10.7   USS Wachusett captured CSS Florida by Brazil. September-October 1864
1864.10.12 Brazilians invaded Uruguay. Argentina
1864.10.12 US Chief Justice Taney died. September-October 1864
1864.10.13 Maryland voters abolished slavery. September-October 1864
1864.10.29 Sojourner Truth talked to President Lincoln.
1864.10.31 Nevada became a US state. September-October 1864
1864.11.7   Davis asked CSA for 40,000 slaves to fight. November-December 1864
1864.11.8   Lincoln won electoral college 212-21. November-December 1864
1864.11.29 Chivington led Sandy Creek massacre. Colorado November-December 1864
1864.12.6   Lincoln nominated Chase for US Chief Justice. September-October 1864
1864.12.6   Hay read Lincoln’s message to Congress. November-December 1864
1864.12.14 Paraguay invaded Mato Grosso in Brazil.
1864.12      Gen. Melgarejo replaced Achá as Bolivia President.
1864.12.16 US Army led by Thomas occupied Nashville. November-December 1864
1864.12.17 US imposed passport controls on Canada.
1864.12.19 Lincoln called for 300,000 more volunteers. November-December 1864
1864.12.21 Savannah surrendered to Sherman’s army. November-December 1864
1864-65      9,000 Navahos moved to Bosque Redondo. New Mexico
1864-66      Liberal Toro was President of Colombia.

1865.1.11   Missouri convention abolished slavery.  January-February 1865
1865.1.15   Confederates surrendered Fort Fisher.  January-February 1865
1865.1.16   Sherman designated land for former slaves.  January-February 1865
1865.1.23   CSA General Taylor replaced General Hood. January-February 1865
1865.1.27   Peru & Spain signed Vivanco-Pareja treaty.
1865.1.27   US Army killed 224 Shoshonis in Idaho. Native Tribes
1865.1.31   US House approved 13th amendment. January-February 1865
1865.2.3     Lincoln & Seward met CSA leaders on peace.  January-February 1865
1865.2.9     French beat Mexicans led by Díaz in Oaxaca.
1865.2.9     Lee persuaded Davis to pardon deserters. January-February 1865
1865.2.12   Sherman’s army burned Orangeburg, SC. January-February 1865
1865.2        US Supreme Court admitted black John Rock. November-December 1864
1865.2.17   Columbia, South Carolina surrendered. January-February 1865
1865.2.18   Charleston, South Carolina surrendered. January-February 1865
1865.2.20   Brazil made a peace treaty with Uruguay.
1865.2.23   Lincoln reminded a Chicago editor of war cry. Civil War Atrocities
1865.3.3     US began Relief of Freedmen & Refugees. March 1865
1865.3.4     Lincoln gave his 2nd inaugural address. March 1865
1865.3.11   Lincoln pardoned deserters who returned. March 1865
1865.3.13   CSA Congress approved use of Negro troops. March 1865
1865.3        Paraguay declared war against Argentina.
1865.3        Sherman’s army defeated Johnston’s. March 1865
1865.3        US denounced Reciprocity Treaty with Canada
1865.3.25   US Army & Navy besieged Mobile, Alabama. March 1865
1865.3.28   Lincoln met with Grant, Sherman & Porter. March 1865
1865.4.1     Sheridan’s army defeated Picketts’ at 5 Forks. April-May 1865
1865.4.3     Davis & his cabinet left Richmond. April-May 1865
1865.4.9     Generals Grant & Lee agreed to end the war. April-May 1865
1865.4.12   Mobile’s mayor surrendered the city. April-May 1865
1865.4.12   CSA troops surrendered at Appomattox. April-May 1865
1865.4.14   John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln. April-May 1865
1865.4.15   Andrew Johnson became US President. April-May 1865
1865.4        Douglass spoke for voting rights of all.
1865.4.18   Sherman & Johnston made an armistice. April-May 1865
1865.4.26   Johnston surrendered all CSA forces. April-May 1865
1865.5.1     Brazil, Argentina & Uruguay allied.
1865.5.1     President Johnson named a military tribunal. April-May 1865
1865.5.10   Michigan cavalry captured Jefferson Davis. April-May 1865
1865.5.22   Pres. Johnson ended the southern blockade. April-May 1865
1865.5.29   Johnson decreed general amnesty & pardon. April-May 1865
1865.6.11   Brazilians defeated Paraguayans at Riachuelo.
1865           Argentina exported 55,000 tons of wool.
1865           Chile had 1.8 million people.
1865           Lydia Child helped publish The Freedman’s Book.
1865.7.7     Herold, Payne & Mrs. Surratt were hanged. April-May 1865
1865.7.15   Spanish troops left the Dominican Republic.
1865.9.18    Atlanta University was founded. July-October 1865
1865.10       Southern states began passing Black Codes.  November-December 1865
1865.10.14   United States & Plains natives made treaties. Johnson
1865.11.10   Andersonville commandant Wirtz was hanged. November-December 1865
1865.12.2    Stevens urged Congress to run Reconstruction. November-December 1865
1865.12.4    Johnson sent Congress his annual message. November-December 1865
1865.12.8    Sen. Sumner suggested impeaching Johnson. November-December 1865
1865.12.14   Stevens became chairman of Reconstruction. November-December 1865
1865.12.18   13th Amendment abolished slavery. April-June 1865, November-December 1865
1865.12.24   Ku Klux Klan began at Pulaski, Tennessee. November-December 1865
1866.1.12    Gen. Grant ordered Negroes protected. January-April 1866
1866.1.15    Florida passed a Vagrant Act. January-April 1866
1866.2.5-6   Sen. Sumner spoke on liberty & equal rights. January-April 1866
1866.2.7      Black delegates talked with President Johnson. January-April 1866
1866.2.12    US began celebrating Lincoln’s birthday. January-April 1866
1866.2.22    Johnson spoke on Washington’s birthday.
1866.3.26    Pres. Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act.
1866.4.9      US Congress over-rode the civil rights veto. January-April 1866
1866.7.19    Ross & Cherokees made a treaty with the US. May-July 1866
1866.7.23    US Congress reduced the Supreme Court. May-July 1866
1866.7.24    Tennessee was readmitted as a state. May-July 1866
1866.7.30    Riot & police killed 34 blacks in New Orleans. May-July 1866
1866.7-12    Chief Red Cloud led Indian attacks. August-December 1866
1866.8.14    National Union Convention backed Johnson. August-December 1866
1866.8.20    Johnson proclaimed the insurrection ended.
1866.8.20    60,000 formed the National Labor Union. August-December 1866
1866.8-9      President Johnson spoke in 9 states. 
1866.9         Johnson began appointing Democrats. 
1866.12.3    Johnson asked Congress to readmit states. 
1866.12.21   Sioux ambushed Fort Phil Kearney soldiers. August-December 1866
1867.1.7      Congress sent impeachment to committee. January-March 1867
1867.1.8      Congress enfranchised blacks in Washington. January-March 1867
1867.1.        US Senate published report on lawless whites. Conventions
1867.1.15    Grant proposed districts for whites & Indians. Conventions
1867.1.29    Grant advised martial law for Texas. January-March 1867
1867.2.1      Grant warned of Indian or white extermination. Red Cloud’s War
1867.2.6      US Committee began impeachment hearings. January-March 1867
1867.3.1      Nebraska became the 37th state. January-March 1867
1867.3.2      US Congress passed the Reconstruction Act.
1867.3.2      US Congress revised federal taxes.  March 1867
1867.3.2      US Congress chartered Howard University. March 1867
1867.3.23    Congress passed the 2nd Reconstruction Act.
1867.4.9      US purchased Alaska for $7.2 million. April-December 1867
1867.4         Ku Klux Klan became vigilantes. April-December 1867
1867.5.11    Jefferson Davis was released on bail. April-December 1867
1867.6         House committee rejected impeachment. April-December 1867
1867.6.25    5,000 Chinese railway workers went on strike. April-December 1867
1867           700,000 blacks registered to vote in the South. April-December 1867
1867           Peabody Education Fund had $3.5 million. April-December 1867
1867           New York established free public schools. April-December 1867
1867           Abolitionists published Negro spirituals. April-December 1867
1867           Lydia Child wrote A Romance of the Republic.
1867.7.1      Geologist Hayden wrote to the Land Office. April-December 1867
1867.7.1      US Army & Indians Snake War ended. April-December 1867
1867.7.19    Congress passed the 3rd Reconstruction Act.
1867.7.20    Johnson approved Indians peace commission. Red Cloud’s War
1867.8.1      650 Cheyenne & Lakota resumed fighting. Red Cloud’s War
1867.8.12    Johnson replaced Stanton with Grant. April-December 1867
1867.8         National Labor Union met in Baltimore. April-December 1867
1867.8         Cameron edited Working Man’s Advocate.April-December 1867
1867.9         John Muir began a long walk and his journal. April-December 1867
1867.10.17   Albion Tourgée published his 10 principles. April-December 1867
1867.12.3    President Johnson denigrated Negroes. April-December 1867
1867.12.19   Comanches & Kiowas accepted land grant.  Red Cloud’s Warr
1867-68       10 states held constitutional Conventions.
1868.1.8      The Revolution newspaper for women’s rights. Johnson
1868.1.13    US Senators supported Stanton over Johnson
1868.2         Starving Kiowas & Comanches raided Texas. Red Cloud’s War
1868.2         New York endorsed Grant for president. Elections
1868.2.21    Johnson replaced Stanton with Thomas.
1868.2.24    House of Representatives impeached Johnson.
1868.3.2      US & Utes made a treaty with a Reservation. Red Cloud’s War
1868.3.5      US Senate trial of President Johnson began.
1868.3.11    Congress passed the 4th Reconstruction Act. 1868
1868.3.11    Samuel Tilden spoke for Democrats. Elections
1868.3.21    Ku Klux Klan founder Forest visited Columbus. 1868
1868.3.30    Ku Klux Klan murdered George Ashburn .1868
1868.4.29    US & Sioux made a treaty at Fort Laramie. Red Cloud’s War
1868.5         Dun estimated Vanderbilt’s worth $50 million. 1868
1868.5.16    US Senate acquitted President Johnson.
1868.5.21    Republican Convention nominated Grant. Elections
1868.5.30    Decoration Day holiday began. 1868
1868.6.1      Navaho Wars ended with a Reservation. Red Cloud’s War
1868           US wheat prices fell from $4 a bushel to 67¢. 1868
1868           US had about 250,000 prostitutes. 1868
1868           Lydia Child wrote “An Appeal for the Indians.”
1868.7.9      Democrats nominated Seymour & Blair. Elections
1868.7.20    14th Amendment was ratified. 1868
1868.7.28    US stopped restricting Chinese immigration. 1868
1868.6         Congress found 373 freed slaves were killed. 1868
1868.8         2,000 Indians were on the war path. Red Cloud’s War
1868.9.25    10th Cavalry rescued besieged soldiers. Red Cloud’s War
1868.10.28   US Army shot dead negotiating Black Kettle. Red Cloud’s War
1868.11.3    Electoral College 214-80 made Grant President. Elections
1868.11.23   Indian Affairs Commission published a report. Red Cloud’s War
1868.11.27   Custer’s cavalry killed 175 Indians at Washita. Red Cloud’s War
1868.12.9    Johnson’s message called for popular elections. 1868
1868.12.25   Woodhull predicted Vanderbilt’s stock rising. 1868
1868-72       Train funded The Revolution for female rights.     387
1869.1.12    National Convention of Colored Men began.            1
1869.1.19    Mrs. Stanton spoke for woman suffrage.              386
1869.2.26    US Congress passed the 15th amendment.              1
1869.2-3      Harvard Pres. Eliot wrote “New Education.”       463-4
1869.3.4      Ulysses S. Grant became US President.                1-3
1869.3.4      James G. Blaine became House Speaker.                3
1869.3         US Congress removed Georgia members.                4
1869.3         US national debt was $2.8 billion.                           4
1869.3.15    US required 3 states to pass voting rights.              5
1869.3.18    Gold fell to $130 per ounce.                                   5
1869.4.10    US treaty with Sioux & Plains Indians began.         32
1869.4.13    Grant hired a native Indian Affairs Commissioner.  34
1869.4.17    Wyoming Territory was organized.                          6
1869.4.17    US Army killed 35 “Dog Soldiers” (Indians).           32
1869.5.10    Transcontinental Railroad was completed.       6, 336
1869.5.13    Stanton & Anthony opposed 15th Amendment.    387
1869.5.15    National Woman Suffrage Association began.       387
1869.5.19    US Gov’t workers got 8-hour day at same pay.     6-7
1869.6-8      Powell explored Grand Canyon & Colorado River.    7
1869           Death rate of freedmen was reduced to 2%.           8
1869           Hayes was re-elected Governor of Ohio.                80
1869           Tweed made Chester Arthur a NY tax counsel.     137
1869           Hyatt invented industrial plastic from cellulose.    378
1869           Beecher sisters began a women’s magazine.        378
1869           Harper’s Minnie’s Sacrifice described slavery.       408
1869           Mark Twain published The Innocents Abroad.      521
1869.7.14    Grant declared neutrality to Cuban rebels.               7
1869.7         Henry & C Adams wrote “A Chapter of Erie.”        479
1869.9.1      National Prohibition Reform Party began.                8
1869.9.24    Gould & Fisk’s gold price caused Black Friday.   9,342
1869.10       Henry Adams wrote “Civil Service Reform.”            10
1869.11       American Woman Suffrage Association began.     387
1869.11.30   Mississippi & Texas got better constitutions.          11
1869.12.9    Uriah Stephens began secret Knights of Labor.      13
1869.12.10   Wyoming Territory gave women the vote.               6
1869.12       US Congress imposed martial law on Georgia.         4
1869.12       Grant named 3 men to the US Supreme Court.   12-3
1869.12       Colored National Labor Union met in DC.          13,16
1869.12       Grant asked Congress to act on Ku Klux Klan.        17
1868-70       North Carolina Gov. Holden suppressed KKK.         22
1869-72       Col. Grierson implemented Grant’s peace policy.      5
1870.1.10    Rockefellers began the Standard Oil Company.    281
1870.1.23    US Army killed 173 Piegan people.                        36
1870.2.1      William James decided on a moral path.           436-7
1870.2         Utah Territory gave women the right to vote.       388
1870.2.25    Hiram Revels was the first black US Senator.         15
1870.2.25    Olmstead wrote “Unplanned Growth of Cities.”     464
1870.3.2      Frederick Douglass wrote “Mixed Schools.”            28
1870.3.30    15th Amendment on voting rights became law.     15
1870.4.30    William James declared his belief in free will.       437
1870.5.14    Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly began.                  398
1870.5.31    US Congress passed first Enforcement Act.            17
1870.6.13    Grant opposed intervening in Cuba.                   17-8
1870.6         Union Pacific RR paid Chinese $32.50 a month.    338
1870.6.16    Chief Red Cloud spoke at Cooper Union.             33-4
1870.6.22    US Congress founded US Department of Justice.    18
1870           US Freedmen’s Bureau had 247,333 students.         8
1870           Ku Klux Klan defeated Republicans in elections.     18
1870           US railroad investments were $2.5 billion.      279,344
1870           Mary Baker wrote “The Science of Man.”             455
1870           Michigan U. began accepting female students.     464
1870           Emerson published Society and Solitude.          464-5
1870.7.14    US Naturalization Act became law.                        19
1870.9.6      Women began voting in the Wyoming Territory.  388
1870.9         Douglass started editing New National Era.       7,465
1870.9         J. S. Morgan loaned France $50 million.               279
1870.10       Henry Adams wrote “New York Gold Conspiracy.” 479
1870.12       5 Indian Territory nations made a constitution.      37
1870-71       US Census counted 38,925,598 people in the US.  20
1871.1.11    Victoria Woodhull petitioned the US Congress.     398
1871.1         US stopped weapons sales to France & Prussia.     20
1871-72       Douglass led National Colored Labor Union.      20,27
1871.2.28    Grant signed 2nd Act to enforce voting rights.       22
1871.3.3      US Congress passed Indian Appropriation Act.       21
1871.4         Woodhull began running for US President.           398
1871.5.8      United States & Britain signed a treaty.                 21
1871.3         Race riot in Mississippi killed about 30 blacks.        23
1871.3.22    Democrats removed Gov. Holden.                         22
1871.4         Alexander Graham Bell began teaching the deaf.  375
1871.4         Charles Adams wrote “An Erie Raid.”                   479
1871.4.20    US passed 3rd Enforcement Act against KKK.         23
1871.5.11    Woodhull spoke to the Suffrage Association.     398-9
1871.5.24    US Senate approved a treaty with Britain.             24
1871           Drexel, Morgan & Company formed.                    279
1871           Henry George wrote “Our Land & Land Policy.”    297
1871           Quaker Mill Co. made oatmeal.                            378
1871           Luther Burbank improved many plants.             378-9
1871           Julia Howe began a woman’s peace crusade.       402
1871           James Clarke wrote Ten Great Religions.             448
1871.7.8      New York Times exposed Tweed’s corruption.       38
1871.10.2    US arrested Brigham Young for polygamy.            26
1871.10.12   Douglass published “The Labor Question.”             26
1871.10       Chicago fire killed about 300 people.                     26
1871.10       Grant sent 7th Cavalry to South Carolina.              23
1871.10.17   Grant suspended habeas corpus in 9 counties.       25
1871.11       Grant made Arthur the NY Port Collector.            138
1871.11.17   National Rifle Association began in New York.        26
1871.11.20   Woodhull spoke on social freedom & free love.    399
1871.12.4    Grant criticized slavery in Cuba & Puerto Rico.       27
1871.12.11   Grant approved Civil Service Commission rules.     27
1871-75       Garfield was Chairman of Appropriations.            119
1871-81       Howells edited the Atlantic Monthly.                    507
1872.1.1-2   Standard Oil made $2.5 million in 2 days.            281
1872.2.26    Most railroad freight rates doubled.                     281
1872.3.1      Grant approved Yellowstone National Park.            27
1872.5.3      Liberal Republican Party Convention met.              28
1872.6.1      Grant pardoned secessionists.                               28
1872.6.6      Republican Party nominated Grant again.              29
1872.6.6      Equal Rights Party nominated Woodhull.              399
1872.6.10    US Congress ended the Freedmen’s Bureau.          28
1872           New York Port payroll was $1,800,000.                138
1872           Brace wrote The Dangerous Classes of NY.          289
1872           Buffalo hunters sent 1,200,000 hides east.          338
1872           P. T. Barnum’s Circus began in Brooklyn.             338
1872           Montgomery Ward sold products in a catalog.      381
1872           Julia Howe advised a Mother’s Day for Peace.      404
1872           Frothingham wrote The Religion of Humanity.      447
1872           Moody provided lessons for Sunday schools.        450
1872           Mark Twain published Roughing It.                  522-3
1872.7.10    Democratic Party nominated Greeley.                    29
1872.7         Alexander G. Bell published “Visible Speech.”       376
1872.7.18    Douglass wrote U. S. Grant and Colored People.    28
1872.9.4      Dana exposed Crédit Mobilier scandal.                  30
1872.11.2    Woodhull accused Rev. Beecher of adultery.     400-1
1872.11.2    Comstock had Woodhull & Claflin arrested.          401
1872.11.5    Grant won 29 of 35 states in the election.             30
1872.11.26   Anthony was arrested for voting at Rochester.     389
1872.12       US Congress ended the federal income tax.           31
1872-73       Many more Klansmen were convicted.                   27
1872-76       Frank & Jesse James robbed banks, railroads.      338
1873.1.14    Louisiana had 2 governors disputing an election.   43
1873.3.4      US Congress raised their salaries.                          41
1873.3.6      Grant ordered US Army to avoid Indian hostilities. 35
1873.4.1      US Coinage Act went into effect.                           47
1873.4.13    Whites killed blacks in the Louisiana militia.           44
1873.5.28    Grant talked with Sioux chiefs.                           35-6
1873.6         Jury found Woodhull & Claflin not guilty.             401
1873.6.19    Susan B. Anthony spoke at her sentencing.     389-91
1873           Navaho Reservation population fell to 2,000.         35
1873           Farmers’ Grange had 800,000 members.               46
1873           United States had 70,784 miles of railroads.    80,336
1873           Carnegie began producing steel.                         284
1873.9.13    British paid US $15.5 million for war damage.        28
1873.9         Grant sent 5,000 troops to Louisiana.                    45
1873.9         Financial panic spread in the United States.           47
1873.10       AAW for women began.                          392,404,406
1873.11       Tweed was sentenced to 13 years in prison.          39
1873.12       Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen began.         345
1873.12       Twain & Warner published The Gilded Age.      523-4
1873.12.23   Woman’s Christian Temperance Union began.      405
1873-78       US bankruptcies went from 5,183 to 10,478.      47-8
1874.1         Bell organized a convention on visible speech.     376
1874.2         National Grange issued Declaration of Purpose.    289
1874.6         Treasury Secretary Bristow reduced inflation.        53
1874.6.22    Arthur’s salary was reduced by $44,000.              140
1874           Julia Ward Howe published Sex and Education.    404
1874.7.4      Eads bridge over Mississippi was completed.          48
1874.9.14    3,500 White Leaguers attacked New Orleans.        55
1874.9.17    5,000 US troops defeated the Leaguers.                55
1874.10       Grant learned of the whisky tax fraud.                  58
1874.10       Fiske published Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy.    421
1874.11       Democrats gained 94 House seats to control it.     55
1874.11.18   WCTU had a national convention in Cleveland.     405
1874.12.14   Comstock Act banned obscenity in the mail.          49
1874.12       Riots & martial law at Vicksburg killed many.         54
1875.3.1      Grant signed a Civil Rights Act.                          57-8
1875.3.5      Diplomacy ended a US-Spain dispute.                   49
1875.3.13    Grant approved moving warriors to the Plains.       65
1875.3.28    Minor v. Happersett ruled 9-0 against voting.       392
1875.5.31    US & Hawaii agreed to a Reciprocity Treaty.          60
1875           Hayes was elected Ohio governor again.               80
1875           McCrary wrote a treatise on American elections.    84
1875           Blackwell wrote The Sexes Throughout Nature.    393
1875           Henry James published Roderick Hudson.            528
1875.9.30    Grant spoke on education at Des Moines.              60
1875.10       Mary Baker published The Science of Health.    455-6
1876.3.7      Alexander Graham Bell got a telephone patent.    377
1876.3.27    US v. Cruikshank weakened 14th Amendment.      44
1876.3.27    US v. Reese weakened 15th Amendment.        44, 70
1876.4.11    Hayes explained his pardoning principles.              80
1876.5.10    Centennial Exposition began in Philadelphia.          71
1876.6         Republicans nominated Hayes for President.          73
1876.6.25    Custer & 263 men were killed at Little Bighorn.      67
1876.6.27    Democrats nominated Samuel Tilden.                   73
1876           Gov. Hayes sent militia to protect a coal mine.       80
1876           Willard began editing WCTU’s Union Signal.         407
1876           H. Adams wrote Essays on Anglo-Saxon Law.      481
1876           Twain wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.      525
1876.7.4      Anthony accused US of persecuting women.        392
1876.8.1      Colorado became a state.                                  73-4
1876.11.7    Tilden had 184 electoral votes, Hayes had 166.     74
1876.12.14   US Congress debated a bipartisan commission.      75
1877.1.1      Howells published his biography of Hayes.             81
1877.1.4      Cornelius Vanderbilt left his son $95 million.        337
1877.1.10    US Congress proposed an Electoral Commission.    77
1877.1.29    Grant approved the Electoral Commission.             77
1877.2.9      Electoral Commission said Hayes won Florida.       77
1877.2.26    Grant met with Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee.     78
1877.2.28    Electoral Commission said Hayes won S. Carolina. 78
1877.3.1      Munn v. Illinois upheld Granger legislation.            81
1877.3.2      Electoral Commission said Hayes won 185-184.     78
1877.3.3      Haggin & Tevis got California land cheap.              87
1877.3.5      President Hayes gave his inaugural address.  78,81-3
1877.3.6      US Senate confirmed all Hayes nominations.          84
1877.3.12    William Evarts became US Secretary of State.        87
1877.3         Railroad owners colluded to reduce wages.       338-9
1877.3.21    National Farmer’s Alliance was organized.            334
1877.3.22    Hayes declined to use force in Louisiana.               85
1877.4.10    Hayes withdrew troops from South Carolina.         86
1877.4         Northern Cheyenne surrendered.                          95
1877.4.20    Indian agent Clum arrested 17 Apaches.              100
1877.4.24    Hayes withdrew troops from Louisiana.                 86
1877.4-5      Hayes government reformed customshouses.        88
1877.5.7      US Army defeated Lakota & Cheyenne.                 95
1877.5.17    First telephone switchboard was set up.              377
1877.6.15    Gen. Howard ordered the Nez Perces to move.      93
1877.6         Interior Sec. Schurz investigated Indian Bureau.    87
1877.6         Pinkerton wrote Molly Maguires & Detectives.        90
1877.6.22    Hayes banned political assessments.                89-90
1877.6-10    US Army & Nez Perces fought battles.                   93
1877           Hayes appointed 48 blacks from Louisiana.            86
1877           All former Confederate states leased prisoners.      92
1877           Lewis H. Morgan published Ancient Society.         466
1877           Henry James published The American.              528-9
1877.7.1      Democrats refused to fund the US military.           86
1877.7.8      US Army defeated Bannock, Shoshone, Paiutes.    96
1877.7.9      Bell Telephone Company began in Boston.           377
1877.7         US Congress funded public works in Louisiana.      90
1877.7         US troops killed 30 people in Chicago strike.          91
1877.7.16    Railroad worker strikes began.                            339
1877.7.18    Hayes sent troops to disperse strikers.            90,339
1877.7.20    Maryland militia killed 10 strikers at Baltimore.     339
1877.7.21    Socialist Parsons spoke to 6,000 in Chicago.       90-1
1877.7.21    Pennsylvania national guard killed 14 strikers.      339
1877.7-8      Jay Commission reformed election politics.            89
1877.9.4      Chief Crazy Horse was captured & killed.               95
1877.9         Hayes made a good-will tour in the South.            91
1877.10.5    Nez Perce Chief Joseph surrendered.                  94-5
1877.10.17   Hayes approved the Southern Pacific Railroad.      91
1877.11.29   US Senate confirmed Justice John Harlan.             92
1877.11.29   Edison recorded a voice & played it back.            366
1877.12.3    Hayes urged reforms for Indians.                          96
1877-78       Republicans barely controlled US Senate 37-37.     85
1877-78       Democrats controlled the US House 155-136.        85
1878.1.3      Knights of Labor agreed on purposes.               331-2
1878.1         US & Samoans made a treaty for Pago Pago.       100
1878.1.28    First commercial telephone switchboard began.   377
1878.2.28    Congress passed Silver Purchase over a veto.      101
1878.3-4      Hayes government made peace with Mexico.         87
1878.4         Hampton Institute accepted Indian students.         99
1878.5         Hayes had pardoned 284 people.                          92
1878.5.31    US Congress reduced greenbacks’ circulation.      101
1878.6.18    US Posse Comitatus Act became law.                   101
1878           US Congress funded Native American police.         97
1878           10,000 businesses failed in the United States.      102
1878           Gronlund wrote The Coming Revolution.              302
1878           Remington typewriters used a shift key.              379
1878           Child published Aspirations of the World.          410-2
1878           Royce got a Ph.D. at John Hopkins University.     429
1878           Powell published a report on arid lands.               466
1878           H. James wrote The Europeans & Daisy Miller.     529
1878.7.11    Hayes suspended Customs collector Arthur.         101
1878.7.15    Lincoln County feud began in New Mexico Terr.   103
1878.8.21    Lawyers began the American Bar Association.      103
1878.10.15   Edison Electric Light Company began.                  368
1878.11.5    Democrats gained control of the US Senate.        101
1878.11.12   Hayes settled a Paraguay & Argentina dispute.    102
1878.12.2    Hayes reported a $20,799,552 surplus.                102
1878.12       Pulitzer bought the St. Louis Dispatch.                 466
1878-92       Debs edited the Firemen’s Magazine.                345-7
1879.1.1      US began redeeming legal tender notes.              101
1879.3.1      Hayes vetoed the Chinese Exclusion Act.             103
1879.3         Merger formed National Bell Telephone Co.         377
1879.3         Ann Lockwood was sworn in to US Courts.           392
1879.3.18    Hayes-summoned Congress began.                     104
1879.4.29    Hayes vetoed the Army bill.                                104
1879.4.29    Rockefeller was accused of having a monopoly.   282
1879.5.12    Standing Bear & Poncas won their case.                98
1879.5         St. Patrick’s Cathedral opened in New York.         449
1879.6         Hayes signed an Army bill without riders.             105
1879           Knights of Labor accepted blacks & women.        332
1879           Echo Farms Dairy carried milk in glass bottles.     379
1879           Gair made paper bags & cardboard boxes.           379
1879           Henry Adams wrote The Life of Albert Gallatin.    481
1879           George W. Cable published Old Creole Days.       503
1879.9.29    Utes killed agent Meeker & 34 others.                   98
1879.11.1    Carlisle Indian Industrial School began.               100
1879-98       Willard was WCTU president.                          408-10
1879.11.7    Ritter patented a cash register.                           379
1879.12.1    Hayes reported the economy was growing.          106
1880.1         Henry George published Progress and Poverty.    297
1880.1.27    Edison got a patent for his electric light.              369
1880.3         Mark Twain published A Tramp Abroad.               525
1880.3.30    Hayes opened NY Metropolitan Museum of Art.    107
1880.5.18    Edison tested his electric locomotive.                   369
1880.6.5      Garfield nominated John Sherman in Chicago.      122
1880.6.7      Republicans nominated James Garfield.               113
1880.6.7      New Yorker Arthur was chosen as VP.                 142
1880.6         US Census counted 50,189,209 people.               110
1880.6.24    Democrats nominated General Hancock.              115
1880           Swift shipped beef in refrigerated railway cars.    379
1880           Berlitz began a language school in Boston.          467
1880           Delany published Principia of Ethnology.              468
1880           H. Adams published Democracy anonymously.     481
1880           George Cable published The Grandissimes.       503-5
1880.7.3      US agreed to Madrid Treaty on Morocco.             108
1880.7.4      New California constitution included initiatives.    108
1880.7.12    Garfield accepted the Republican nomination.      123
1880.8.4      Arthur met with Garfield & Conkling men.            142
1880.8.11    General Sherman declared that war is hell.          108
1880.9.17    NY Civil Service Reform Association began.          126
1880.9-11    Hayes traveled around the United States.         108-9
1880.9-11    Arthur ran the New York campaign.                     142
1880.11.2    Garfield defeated Hancock 214-155.                    116
1880.11.2    Republicans held the Senate again 37-37.            116
1880.11.2    Republicans regained the House 151-128.           116
1880.11.17   US diplomats made 2 treaties with China.            109
1880.12.6    Hayes asked for education funding.                     109
1880.12       Henry James published Washington Square.        529
1880.12.17   Morgan backed Edison Electric Illuminating Co.    370
1880.12.20   Blaine agreed to be US Secretary of State.      119-20
1881.1         New York Senate elected Platt a US Senator.       120
1881.1.24    Springer v. United States upheld income tax.       120
1881.2.1      Hayes accepted the Poncas’ decisions.                  98
1881.2.11    VP Arthur hosted a dinner in New York.               121
1881.2.22    Hayes banned alcohol sales at military bases.      110
1881.2.28    Garfield picked Levi Morton as Navy Secretary.    121
1881.3.4      Garfield was inaugurated as US President.        123-4
1881.3         Garfield reduced US bonds’ interest to 3.5%.       125
1881.3.13    Garfield learned Tsar Alexander II was killed.       125
1881.3.18    Arthur’s votes made 39 Senators chairmen.   126,143
1881.3.20    Garfield met with Senator Conkling for 3 hours.   126
1881.3.22    Garfield named 5 New Yorkers for Conkling.        126
1881.3.24    US Senate accepted Robertson as NY collector.    127
1881.4.14    Arthur asked Garfield to replace Robertson.         127
1881.4         Giteau asked Garfield for a job every day.            127
1881.4         Democrats’ filibusters blocked Republicans.          128
1881.5.4      Blaine got Garfield to withdraw 5 NY Stalwarts.    128
1881.5.5      Garfield withdrew New York nominees.                129
1881.5         Giteau was not allowed in the White House.        129
1881.5         George Beard wrote American Nervousness.        468
1881.5.16    New York’s Senators Conkling & Platt resigned.    129
1881.5.18    Senators confirmed Robertson as NY collector.     130
1881.5.21    Barton began American branch of Red Cross.       396
1881.5.24    VP Arthur went with Conkling to Albany.              130
1881.6         Blaine worked on Latin American issues.              130
1881           Readjusters helped blacks in Virginia.                  127
1881           Garfield appointed over 2,000 Readjusters.          127
1881           Garfield made Douglass deeds recorder in DC.     128
1881           Helen H. Jackson criticized US Indian policies.      159
1881           History of Woman Suffrage was published.          393
1881           Zion’s Watch Tower Tract Society began.             448
1881           Mrs. Eddy published Science and Health.             456
1881           Mark Twain wrote The Prince and the Pauper.     525
1881           Henry James published Portrait of a Lady.           529
1881.7.1      Garfield named diplomats so he could leave.        131
1881.7.2      Giteau shot President Garfield in the back.           131
1881.7.4      Towns held prayer meetings.                              132
1881.7.4      Booker Washington began Tuskegee Institute.     489
1881.7.13    Garfield’s pulse was down to 90.                         133
1881.7         Schurz wrote about Indian problems.                  148
1881.7.19    Chief Sitting Bull & his son surrendered.              148
1881.7.22    New York Senate elected 2 US Senators.             133
1881.8.8      Doctors operated on Garfield again.                    133
1881.8         Garfield was very weak & signed only 1 paper.    133
1881.8.27    Julia Sand wrote Garfield urging reforms.            133
1881.8.31    US Army killed the prophet Nakaidoklini.              148
1881.9.4      Edison lit up 400 electric lamps in New York.       370
1881.9.19    President Garfield died of infections.                    134
1881.9.20    Arthur took the Presidential oath in NY.               134
1881.9.20    Hurlbut negotiated for a naval station in Peru.     145
1881.9.22    Arthur was sworn in again at the Capitol.             143
1881.10.8    Arthur refused to replace Collector Robertson.     144
1881.10.22   Boston Symphony Orchestra began.                    380
1881.11.7    Giteau’s trial began with 5 prosecutors.               134
1881.11.22   Secretary of State Blaine reprimanded Hurlbut.    145
1881.11.29   Blaine proposed a Latin American conference.      145
1881.12.6    Arthur sent a detailed message to Congress.     146-7
1881.12.19   Blaine resigned; Grant advised Frelinghuysen.     146
1881-1908   Benjamin Tucker published periodical Liberty.      451
1881-1916   Royce taught philosophy at Harvard.                430-5
1882.1.2      Standard Oil Trust was organized.                       282
1882.1.2      Grover Cleveland became Mayor of Buffalo.         166
1882.2.25    US Congress passed the Reapportionment Act.    148
1882.3.29    McGivney founded the Knights of Columbus.        449
1882.4.4      Arthur vetoed stopping Chinese immigration.       150
1882.4.26    Arthur sent troops to Arizona to stop crimes.       150
1882.4.28    John Fox Slater Fund began with $1 million.        449
1882.5.3      E. Morgan got Arthur to sign Chinese Exclusion.   150
1882.5.15    Arthur approved a tariff commission.                   151
1882.5.15    Republicans reduced tariffs.                                152
1882.5         Chinese Exclusion Act will be law for 10 years.     344
1882.5.22    US signed a commercial treaty with Korea.          151
1882.6.3      Bell transmitted by a wireless telephone.             378
1882.6.30    Convicted Giteau was hanged in prison.               134
1882           Donnelly wrote Atlantis: Antediluvian World.        318
1882           Prohibition Party opposed all monopolies.            408
1882           Herbert Spencer visited the United States.           419
1882           William James became a Theosophist.                 437
1882           Roosevelt published The Naval War of 1812.        468
1882           Howells published A Modern Instance.              507-8
1882.8         US Congress overrode veto on Rivers funding.     151
1882.10       Press revealed Arthur has Bright’s disease.          152
1882.12.4    Arthur asked for more tariff reductions.               152
1882.12.20   US Navy asked for & got 4 new ships.                 153
1883.1.1      Cleveland became Governor of New York.            168
1883.1.16    Arthur approved US Civil Service Commission.      153
1883.1.19    Roselle, New Jersey got electric lighting.              371
1883.3.3      US Congress passed the “Mongrel Tariff Act.”      157
1883.4         Arthur visited Georgia & Florida & got malaria.     154
1883.5         Arthur attended opening of Brooklyn Bridge.        154
1883.5         Mark Twain published Life on the Mississippi.       525
1883.5.24    Brooklyn Bridge spanned 1,585 feet.                   380
1883           Cleveland & Roosevelt worked on NY reforms.     169
1883           Spreckels gained a sugar monopoly.                    290
1883           Henry George published Social Problems.            301
1883           Armour Refrigerator Line transported meat.         379
1883           Westinghouse used natural gas pipelines.            380
1883           US telegraph extended to Brazil.                         380
1883           Julius Schmid made condoms from lamb guts.     380
1883           Willard published Woman and Temperance.         409
1883           Ward published Dynamic Sociology.                 426-7
1883           The monthly Christian Science Journal began.      456
1883.7         US Navy sent ships to western Madagascar.         154
1883.8         Arthur fished in Yellowstone National Park.          155
1883.8.21    Mayo Clinic hired Sisters of Saint Francis.             380
1883.10.15   Justice Harlan dissented on 5 civil rights cases.    155
1883.10.22   New York Metropolitan Opera House opened.      380
1883.11.1    Retiring Gen. Sherman wrote about the West.      156
1883.11.6    Democrats used a race riot to regain Virginia.      156
1883.12.4    Arthur rejected a naval arms race.                    156-7
1883.12.17   Supreme Court upheld Indian independence.       157
1884.2         Arthur stopped US arms trafficking.                     158
1884.3.6      Suffragists demanded Arthur let women vote.      158
1884.3         Royce lectured on “Ideals of Right Conduct.”       431
1884.4         US recognized the Congo State of Leopold II.      158
1884.5.4      Ida B. Wells pleaded in court for equal rights.      158
1884.5.17    US Congress created Alaska Territory for gold.     158
1884.6.6      Republicans nominated Blaine for President.        160
1884.6         Lloyd wrote “Monopoly and Social Control.”      293-4
1884           US operated 163 schools for Indians.                  158
1884           T. T. Fortune wrote on land, labor & politics.    290-2
1884           Gronlund wrote Co-operative Commonwealth.     302
1884           Mergenthaler patented his linotype machine.       381
1884           California banned hydraulic mining.                     381
1884           William Jenny designed a 10-story “skyscraper.”  381
1884           William Halsted used cocaine as an anesthetic.    381
1884           H. H. Jackson published the novel Ramona.         397
1884           John Fiske wrote The Destiny of Man.        423,425-6
1884           American Society for Psychical Research began.   437
1884           Russell Conwell began Temple University.            469
1884.7.6      Cleveland railway ran on electricity.                     343
1884.7.10    Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland.       160,171
1884.7.16    Booker T. Washington spoke to educators.          489
1884.7.21    Story broke that single Cleveland had a son.  161,172
1884.10.6    Navy War College was founded at Newport.         162
1884.10       Ward published “Mind as a Social Factor.”        427-8
1884.10.31   McCulloch became US Treasury Secretary.           158
1884.11.3    Elk v. Wilkins decided Indians are not citizens.     162
1884.11.4    Cleveland won Electoral College 219-182.      161,173
1884.12.16   World’s Cotton Centennial Exposition began.        162
1885.1.4      Dr. Grant successfully removed an appendix.       381
1885.1         Royce wrote Religious Aspect of Philosophy.     431-2
1885.1         Cable wrote “The Freedman’s Case in Equity.”     505
1885.2.21    Washington Monument was completed.         162,381
1885.2.25    Congress banned wire fences on public land.       196
1885.2.27    Arthur opened Indian land to white settlers.        195
1885.2.28    Foran Act banned indentured service.            174,333
1885.2-3      Jay Gould cut railroad workers’ pay by 10%.        342
1885.3.3      Pres. Arthur approved 2 cruisers & 2 gunboats.    162
1885.3.4      President Cleveland was inaugurated.               174-6
1885.3.13    Cleveland told settlers to stay off Indian land.      177
1885.3         50,000 coal miners were on strike.                      181
1885.3         John Fiske wrote “Manifest Destiny.”                423-4
1885.4.3      Cleveland opened public land to settlers.             177
1885.4.17    Cleveland reversed Arthur’s Indian policies.         196
1885.6.25    Cleveland wrote that he did not favor friends.      178
1885           United States had 7.5% unemployment.              174
1885           Cleveland approved Interstate Commerce Act.     180
1885           Cleveland grew gold reserve to $151 million.       180
1885           Animal Husbandry Bureau found Salmonella.       180
1885           US had 325,000 Civil War pensioners.                  188
1885           American Economic Association began.             295-6
1885           Arthur Hadley wrote Railroad Transportation.       343
1885           Paper was made from ground-up wood.              381
1885           Baltimore electric trolley used overhead wires.     382
1885           Johnson brothers applied antiseptic methods.      382
1885           H. H. Jackson published Century of Dishonor.      397
1885           William James published his father’s works.         435
1885           Henry Beecher wrote Evolution and Religion.       447
1885           Howells published The Rise of Silas Lapham.     508-9
1885           Howells published Indian Summer.                 509-10
1885           Twain wrote Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.      526
1885.8.8      Over 1 million attended Grant’s funeral parade.    163
1885.9.30    Immigrants killed 28 Chinese in Wyoming.           178
1885.11.3    Whites in Seattle expelled 150 Chinese.               179
1885.11       National Tariff Reform League began.                  192
1885.12.8    Cleveland favored friendly foreign relations.         180
1885.12.8    William Vanderbilt left his son $200 million.         337
1885.12.12   Cleveland criticized lies in newspapers.                179
1885.12       Ely spoke on “The Needs of the City.”                  469
1885.12       Mark Twain published Grant’s Memoirs.               526
1885-86       Republicans controlled US Senate 37-34.             177
1885-86       Democrats controlled US House 182-141.            177
1886.1.4      Cleveland urged independent gov’t. branches.     180
1886.2         National Christian Scientist Association began.     457
1886.3         Treasury Dept. reduced customs fraud.               181
1886.3.25    Geronimo & Chiricahua accepted 2-year exile.      198
1886.4         Cleveland asked for better labor relations.        182-3
1886.5.1      100,000 trade unionists demanded 8-hour day.    184
1886.5.4      Police fought workers in Haymarket riot.              184
1886.5.10    US Supreme Court gave corporations = rights.     185
1886.5.10    Yiek Mo v. Hopkins defended Chinese rights.       185
1886.6.2      Cleveland got married in the White House.          185
1886           90% of California farm workers were Chinese.     181
1886           Strikes in the US doubled since 1885.                  182
1886           Cleveland approved 5 cruisers & 2 battleships.     186
1886           Cleveland reduced fraud against Indians.             198
1886           Rockefeller began the Natural Gas Trust.             283
1886           Carnegie published Triumphant Democracy.        286
1886           Colored Farmers’ National Alliance began.            334
1886           Willard wrote How to Win: A Book for Girls.         409
1886           Ethical Culture Societies began in big cities.         420
1886           Royce wrote a history of California 1846-56.        433
1886           Ely published The Labor Movement.                    469
1886           Coit began a settlement house in New York.        470
1886           Henry James published The Bostonians.          529-31
1886.7         Knights of Labor had 729,000 members.        182,342
1886.7         Huntington urged capitalists & workers to talk.    450
1886.9.4      Geronimo surrendered & was taken to Florida.     197
1886.10.28   Statue of Liberty was dedicated in New York.    186-7
1886.11       Democrats lost House seats, still led 167-152.      188
1886.11.18   Chester Arthur died.                                           163
1887.1         Blizzard killed 200 people & millions of cattle.      197
1887.1         Felt invented a calculating machine with keys.     382
1887.1.20    US planned naval base at Pearl Harbor, Oahu.     189
1887.2.8      Dawes Act allotted tribal land to families.             197
1887.2.16    Cleveland vetoed the Texas Seed bill.                  189
1887.2.20    Cardinal Gibbons talked to Pope Leo XIII.            450
1887.3.2      US Hatch Act funded colleges & agriculture.         189
1887.3.3      US Tenure of Office Act was repealed.     182,186,190
1887.3.3      Edmunds-Tucker Act banned polygamy.              190
1887.3.3      Anne Sullivan taught Helen Keller language.        378
1887.4.7      Interstate Commerce Act became law.                 190
1887.4.10    Catholic University of America began.            189,451
1887.4.17    Roger Mills argued for tax reform.                       194
1887.5.19    Mills tax bill passed House, but not the Senate.    195
1887           Drought reduced corn production.                       195
1887           Florida segregated blacks on railways.                 195
1887           James Hudson wrote Railways & the Republic.     344
1887.7.6      King Kalākaua signed a Hawaiian constitution.     191
1887.10.10   Edison Phonograph Company was organized.       373
1887.11.11   Illinois hanged 4 Haymarket anarchists.               185
1887.11.23   Louisiana forces killed striking workers.               193
1887.12.6    Cleveland asked for lower tariffs.                         193
1888.2.27    Railway brotherhoods went on strike.            344,346
1888.3.5      Union began a boycott of the CB&Q Railroad.      344
1888.3.12    US & Chinese signed a treaty in Washington.       199
1888.6.6      Democrats renominated Cleveland.                     200
1888.6.19    Republicans nominated Benjamin Harrison.    200,211
1888           Mark Hanna raised $100,000 for Republicans.      202
1888           Republicans gave $150,000 to NY bosses.           202
1888           Bellamy wrote Looking Backward.                    311-6
1888           Donnelly published Great Cryptogram.                 318
1888           Knights of Labor had 260,000 members.              342
1888           Parker Brothers sold toys & board games.            380
1888           Eastman began selling the Kodak camera.           381
1888           Willard published Woman in the Pulpit.                409
1888           Bryce wrote The American Commonwealth.         470
1888           Arnold wrote Civilization in the United States.   470-1
1888.7.13    US planned a Latin American conference.            200
1888.10.8    Conformist Chief Justice Waite began 22 years.   199
1888.11.8    Harrison won Electoral College 233-168.        203,212
1888.11.8    Republicans gained the US House 179-152.         212
1888.12       Cleveland criticized the wealthy.                       204-6
1888-89       Railroad workers were on strike.                         346
1889.1.1      Wovoka had a vision & began Ghost Dance.        198
1889.1.2      Banking houses met to reduce competition.    279-80
1889.1.10    Cleveland sent 2 warships to Samoa.                   206
1889.2.10    Harrison opened Sioux land to settlers.                220
1889.2         Carnegie wrote on trusts.                                    286
1889.2.22    Montana, Washington & 2 Dakotas joined US.      207
1889.3.2      Harrison opened Cherokee land to settlers.          220
1889.3.3      Cleveland approved Indian land for settlers.        214
1889.3.4      President Benjamin Harrison was inaugurated.     213
1889.3.5      US Senate confirmed 8 cabinet officers.               214
1889.3.12    Harrison gave Indian land to settlers.                  215
1889.4.22    50,000 people claimed land in Oklahoma.            215
1889.5.2      US made Indian land Oklahoma Territory.      215,220
1889.6         Carnegie wrote “Wealth” & urged charity.         286-7
1889           US Navy captured 8 Canadian ships.                    214
1889           US Army had 25,582 men & 11% desertion.        222
1889           Singer made electric sewing machines.                379
1889           David Wells wrote Recent Economic Changes.      382
1889           Bicycles with 2 equal wheels were sold.               383
1889           Gray patented a coin-operated telephone.           383
1889           Otis Company installed first electric elevator.       383
1889           Willard published Glimpses of Fifty Years.            410
1889           Central Conference of American Rabbis began.    451
1889           Wilson in The State urged general welfare.          471
1889           Blair published The Prosperity of the South.         471
1889.12       Conservative Brewer joined Supreme Court.         214
1889.3.15    US & Germany lost ships in cyclone at Samoa.     215
1889.5.31    Flood in Johnstown, Pennsylvania killed 2,208.     216
1889.6.5      Clara Barton led 50 nurses to help Johnstown.     216
1889.6.14    US, Germany & British governed Samoa.             216
1889.7.1      Harrison sent Douglass as minister to Haiti.         216
1889.7.8      Dow & Jones published their industrial average.   292
1889.9         Douglass represented US at Santo Domingo.       216
1889.9         Jane Addams & Gates founded Hull House.          413
1889.10.2    US hosted Latin American conference.                 216
1889.10.2    Blaine called for no armies in America.                217
1889.10.15   Carl Schurz warned about future US forests.     217-8
1889.11       Harrison approved admission of 4 states.             218
1889.12.3    Harrison laid out his legislative agenda.            218-9
1889.12.15   Indian police killed Chief Sitting Bull.                   220
1889.12       Mississippi restricted voting to keep blacks out.    219
1889.12       Twain: Connecticut Yankee in Arthur’s Court.       527
1889.12.19   Gen. Miles warned US gov’t. of treaty fraud.        221
1889.12.29   US Army killed many Sioux at Wounded Knee.     221
1889-90       Republicans controlled the US Senate 38-37.       212
1889-91       H. Adams wrote History of the US 1801-1817.     474
1890.1.15    Sioux surrendered at White Clay Creek.               221
1890.1         European influenza pandemic infected the US.     220
1890.1.25    United Mine Workers of America organized.         334
1890.2.14    Republicans changed the US House rules.            222
1890.2.18    NWSA & AWSA merged to form NAWSA.             394
1890.3.3      US Supreme Court let Mississippi segregate.        222
1890.3         US granted a 20-year lease to hunt seals.            233
1890.3.20    Senate blocked federal aid to public schools.        222
1890.3.24    US Supreme Court overruled Munn v. Illinois.      222
1890.6.27    Harrison made the Dependent Pension Act law.   222
1890           US Census counted 248,253 Native Americans.    222
1890           US railroad investments were $10 billion.       279,344
1890           J. P. Morgan inherited $15 million.                      280
1890           Riis published How the Other Half Lives.         307-11
1890           Donnelly published Caesar’s Column.              319-25
1890           Kellogg began Sanitas Food with Granola.           383
1890           WCTU led by Willard had 160,000 members.        394
1890           General Federation of Women’s Clubs formed.     397
1890           Irish Lease gave 61 speeches in Kansas.              398
1890           Woodward wrote Manual Training in Education.   471
1890           George Cable published The Negro Question.       507
1890           Howells published A Hazard of New Fortunes.      510
1890.7.2      Harrison made the Sherman Antitrust Act law.     223
1890.7.2      US joined Slave Trade Convention in Brussels.     223
1890.7.3      Idaho & Wyoming were admitted as states.         224
1890.7.14    Harrison approved the Silver Purchase Act.          224
1890.7.29    Harrison opposed lotteries in the mail.              224-5
1890.8         US Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act.      225
1890.9         US opened 900,000 acres to white settlers.          222
1890.9-10    US established 2 National Parks in California.       225
1890.10.1    Harrison made the McKinley Tariff bill law.           225
1890.10       W. James wrote Principles of Psychology.        438-46
1890.11       Eddy wrote Retrospection & Introspection.       457-9
1890,1892    Mahan published Influence of Sea Power books.  472
1891.1.8      Cleveland spoke on democracy.                           246
1891.1.10    American Sugar Refining Co. reorganized.           228
1891.2         Senate blocked Lodge’s Federal Elections Bill.      224
1891.3.3      Judiciary Act created 9 Circuit Appeal Courts.       229
1891.3.14    Murder of police chief led to killing 11 Italians.     228
1891.3         US Congress created forest reserves.                   229
1891.4-5      Harrison traveled to the west coast.                    229
1891.5.19    National Union Conference met in Cincinnati.       232
1891           4 more states enacted Jim Crow laws.                 232
1891           Coca-Cola had sugar, coca leaves & caffeine.       295
1891           Typhoid killed 2,000 people in Chicago.               351
1891           Whitcomb Judson invented the zipper.                383
1891           Strowger invented a rotary dial telephone.           383
1891           A St. Paul company sold electric ovens.               383
1891.7         Francis Parker spoke to teachers at Chautauqua. 481
1891.10.16   117 US sailors fought in a Chile bar-room.           230
1891.12.9    Harrison wrote a long message to Congress.     230-2
1891-92       US made several reciprocity treaties.             232,233
1891,1893    Cone published Gospel Criticism books.               452
1892.1         Debs spoke to a large labor rally in Chicago.        347
1892.2.12    US made Lincoln’s birthday a holiday.                  233
1892.2         Donnelly wrote the People’s Party platform.      318-9
1892.2.29    Harrison accepted a treaty with Canada.              233
1892.3.2      Ohio Supreme Court convicted Standard Oil.        283
1892.4.19    Harrison promised Indian land to settlers.            233
1892.5.5      Geary Act renewed Chinese exclusion.                 344
1892.5.5      President Harrison approved Chinese exclusion.   235
1892.5         Mark Twain published The Claimant.                   527
1892.5.21    Wells wrote Free Speech editorial on lynching.     415
1892.6.4      Harrison accepted Blaine’s resignation.                233
1892.6.10    Republicans nominated Harrison again.               234
1892.6.22    Democrats nominated Cleveland again.               234
1892           Morgan organized General Electric Company.       280
1892           Rockefeller gave away $1,350,000.                     283
1892           Havemeyer’s Sugar Trust controlled 98%.         294-5
1892           Duryea brothers tested a rotary-engine buggy.    383
1892           Froelic invented a gas-powered tractor.               383
1892           Macy & Company sold pasteurized milk.              384
1892           Royce published Spirit of Modern Philosophy.    433-5
1892           Abbott published The Evolution of Christianity.     452
1892           Baptists began Brotherhood of the Kingdom.       452
1892           H. Adams gave $1,000 to Columbia U. library.     481
1892.7.4      People’s Party nominated James Weaver.         235-6
1892.7.6      Pinkerton agents battled striking steelworkers.     237
1892.7.11    Harrison sent troops to Idaho silver mines.          238
1892.7.12    Pennsylvania sent 8,500 militia to Homestead.     237
1892.7.14    Harrison spoke to National Educational Assoc.      237
1892.7         Lockout & strike closed Homestead Steel.         287-8
1892.7.23    Idaho miners went back to work for same pay.    238
1892.8         27 died over a Tennessee coal strike.                  238
1892.9         Harrison nursed his wife & wrote for workers.      238
1892.10.12   Children pledging allegiance to the US began.      239
1892.10.15   Land of Crow people was opened to settlers.       239
1892.10       Rice told Page that Parker’s school was best.       487
1892.10.23   World Columbian Exposition began in Chicago.    239
1892.10.25   Harrison’s wife died of tuberculosis.                     239
1892.11.8    Cleveland won Electoral College vote 277-145.     239
1892.11.8    Democrats retained control of Congress.              239
1892.11       Wells published Southern Horrors on lynch law.   415
1892.12.6    Harrison reviewed his accomplishments.              240
1893.1.4      United States granted amnesty to polygamists.    240
1893.1.6      Great Northern Railway is finished to Seattle.       345
1893.1.12    Hawaii’s cabinet resigned.                                   241
1893.1.14    Queen Lili’uokalani proclaimed a constitution.      241
1893.1.14    Provisional government replaced Hawaii’s Queen. 241
1893.1.16    US Marines landed in Honolulu.                           241
1893.1.17    Americans supported Dole’s government.            241
1893.2.1      Minister Stevens proclaimed a US protectorate.    241
1893.2.2      Harrison named a Democrat to Supreme Court.   240
1893.2.13    Wells lectured in Boston on lynching.                   416
1893.2.14    US signed a treaty annexing Hawaii.                    241
1893.2         American Railway Union (ARU) began.                348
1893.2.23    Railroad bankruptcies began in the US.                242
1893.3.1      US Diplomatic Appropriations Act passed.      242,248
1893.3.4      Cleveland gave his inaugural address.             248-50
1893.3.9      Cleveland canceled annexation of Hawaii.      242,250
1893.3.25    US Supreme Court ruled against union leaders.    250
1893.4.6      New Mormon Temple opened in Salt Lake City.    452
1893.4.13    ARU & Northern RR workers began a strike.         348
1893.4.13    Gen. Coxey began a protest march in Ohio.         349
1893.4.18    ARU & strike leaders met at St. Paul.                   348
1893.4.21    125,000 United Mine Workers went on strike.      349
1893.5.5      Panic began at the New York Stock Exchange.     253
1893.6.9      200 executives met at St. Paul, Minnesota.          254
1893.6.26    Darrow persuaded Altgeld to pardon convicts.      259
1893.6.27    Silver price fell to 77 cents an ounce.                  254
1893.6.30    Altgeld sent 300 militiamen to help railroads.       259
1893           US had 966,012 Civil War pensioners.                  222
1893           642 banks & 194 railroads failed.                        255
1893           16,000 businesses became bankrupt.                  256
1893           Josiah Strong wrote The New Era.                       296
1893           Pullman Corporation had 2,573 palace cars.         352
1893           Williams performed first open-heart surgery.        384
1893           John Hopkins U began a Medical School.             384
1893           Woman of the Century included 1,470 women.    410
1893           Ward wrote The Psychic Factors of Civilization.    428
1893.7.1      Cleveland had secret surgery for cancer.              254
1893.7.3      Cleveland met with cabinet and sent troops.        260
1893.7.6      Mobs damaged 150 boxcars, burned 700 cars.     260
1893.7.9      Cleveland sent Navy, Marines & Army.                 260
1893.7.12    Knights of Labor advised arbitration.                   261
1893.7.12    Henry George spoke to 10,000 in New York.        261
1893.7.12    Turner spoke on the American frontier.               472
1893.7.26    US Labor Commission investigation began.          261
1893.8.7      Cleveland called Congress to repeal Silver Act.     255
1893.8         15% of US workers were unemployed.                254
1893.8.16    William J. Bryan gave an influential speech.         256
1893.8.27    Pullman was criticized for refusing arbitration.     261
1893.9.16    100,000 settlers got lots in the Cherokee Strip.    256
1893.10.20   Northern Pacific Railroad declared bankruptcy.     254
1893.10.26   Wells & Douglass protested Chicago Exposition.   417
1893.10.30   US Congress repealed the Silver Act.                   256
1893.11.5    Selden patented an automobile clutch.                384
1893.12.4    Cleveland gave his report to US Congress.           257
1893.12.7    Cleveland handed Hawaiian crisis to Congress.     251
1893.12       American Federation of Labor wanted 8-hr day.   258
1893.12.18   Cleveland advised Congress on Hawaii.                251
1893.12.30   US repealed the Silver Purchase Act.                   263
1893-95       Civil Service Commissioner Roosevelt stayed.       252
1894.1.4      Cleveland granted amnesty to polygamists.          262
1894.1.8      Chicago fire damaged Columbian Exposition.       262
1894.1         US Gov’t gold reserve fell to $69 million.              264
1894.2.8      US repealed the 1871 Enforcement Act.               262
1894.2.20    Anthony & Stanton spoke to Senate committee.   396
1894.3.25    US planned to coin 55,150,000 silver dollars.       264
1894.3.29    Cleveland vetoed the silver coinage.                    264
1894.4.20    100,000 coal workers went on strike.                  258
1894.4.28    160,000 United Mine workers were on strike.       258
1894.5.1      Many unemployed marched in Washington DC.    349
1894.5.1      Great Northern Railway strike succeeded.            354
1894.5-7      Ida B. Wells gave speeches in Britain.                  417
1894.6.12    400 American Railway Union delegates met.        354
1894.6         Douglass published The Lesson of the Hour.        262
1894.6.26    Pullman strike & boycott began.                          355
1894.6.28    US made September Labor Day a holiday.     262,355
1894           US farm mortgages totaled $2.2 billion.               263
1894           Kansas & Nebraska had drought, foreclosures.     263
1894           Boston began Immigration Restriction League.     266
1894           Lloyd wrote Wealth Against Commonwealth.        294
1894           Pullman gave dividends while wages fell 25%.     352
1894           Hershey developed a chocolate bar.                    384
1894           NAWSA demanded equal pay for equal work.       396
1894           Addams read Kingdom of God Is Within You.       413
1894           Muir published The Mountains of California.         473
1894           Howells published A Traveler from Altruria.       511-4
1894           Francis Parker published Talks on Pedagogics.     481
1894           Mark Twain published Pudd’nhead Wilson.           527
1894.7.3      US Senate passed the Wilson Tariff Bill.               262
1894.7.4      Hawaii became a republic.                                  262
1894.7.4      US troops arrived in Chicago to protect mail.        357
1894.7.5      Chicago railway strike became a riot.                   357
1894.7.5      Gov. Altgeld mobilized 3,000 state militia.            358
1894.7.6      Chicago strike riot caused $340,000 damage.       358
1894.7.10    US Marshal Arnold arrested Debs.                       360
1894.7.11    Debs & ARU began a general strike.              260,360
1894.7.12    Debs asked AFL & Gompers to mediate.           360-1
1894.7.30    NY Herald Tribune printed Wells on lynching.       417
1894.8         Pullman Co. rehired 1,900 employees.                 361
1894.8.18    Carey Act granted land to Idaho & Wyoming.       264
1894.8.27    Wilson Tariff Bill & income tax became law.         263
1894.9.4      12,000 garment workers went on strike in NY.     264
1894.11.6    Republicans gained the US House 253-93.           264
1894.11       US Treasury sold bonds to raise gold reserve.      264
1894.11.22   US & Japan agreed to a commercial treaty.          264
1894.12.3    Cleveland reported on foreign policy & gold.     264-5
1894.12.12   Carl Schurz spoke on civil service reforms.        265-6
1894.12.31   US Gov’t. had only $31 million in gold.                 265
1894-95       Democrats led US Senate 40-39-5.                      264
1895.1.21    US Courts let American Sugar be a monopoly.      267
1895.2.8      J. P. Morgan raised US gold to $107,550,000.      266
1895.2         Farmers Alliance argued people lost $8 million.    267
1895.2.20    Frederick Douglass died.                                     267
1895.2.21    New York World wrote Morgan got $5 million.      267
1895.3.8      Spanish gunboat attacked USS Alliance.               267
1895.4.8      US Supreme Court canceled US income tax.         263
1895.5.27    US Supreme Court approved Chinese exclusion.   268
1895.6.10    Sen. Lodge urged Monroe Doctrine use force.      269
1895.6.12    Cleveland declared neutrality on Cuban revolt.     367
1895.6         Taylor wrote “A Piece-Rate System of Wages.”     384
1895           Carnegie gave Pittsburgh a $25-million library.     288
1895           Wilbur Atwater calculated calories from food.       384
1895           Hartford Rubber Works made pneumatic tires.     384
1895           C. W. Post began the Postum Cereal Co.              384
1895           Over 300 motorcars were sold.                            385
1895           Ward & Bates wrote “America the Beautiful.”       385
1895           Stanton published The Woman’s Bible.                396
1895           Anti-Saloon League became national.                  410
1895           Ida Wells published A Red Record on lynching.    417
1895           George D. Herron published Christian State.     452-3
1895           Mrs. Eddy abolished pastors & retained Readers. 460
1895           Twain published his book on Joan of Arc.         527-8
1895.7.20    Cleveland advised British to use arbitration.         269
1895.8.26    Tesla made electric power from Niagara Falls.      384
1895.9.18    Booker T. Washington spoke in Atlanta.   268-9,490-2
1895.10.8    Work began to make Ohio River navigable.          270
1895.11.5    Utah granted women the right to vote.                270
1895.11       Ward wrote “Plutocracy and Paternalism.”        428-9
1895.12.2    Cleveland on his foreign & financial policies.     270-1
1895.12.7    British said Monroe Doctrine is illegal.                  269
1896.1.4      United States made Utah a state.                        270
1896.1.29    Grubbe used X-rays on breast cancer.                 385
1896.2.5      Plan raised US gold, gave Morgan $33 million.     272
1896.2.20    Senator Lodge urged support for Cuban rebels.   273
1896.3         Cleveland warned that Republicans would win.    272
1896.3.16    US Supreme Court set Texas-Oklahoma border.   273
1896.3.16    Lodge backed a literacy requirement.                  273
1896.3.27    First long-distance phone call Boston to NY.         378
1896.4.4      Cleveland offered to mediate for Spain & Cuba.   273
1896.4.23    Edison’s Vitascope projector showed movies.       374
1896.5.6      Samuel Langley flew a model airplane.                385
1896.5.18    Plessy v. Ferguson approved race segregation.    273
1896.5.18    Justice Harlan wrote a dissent on Plessy.          273-4
1896.5.29    Prohibition Party nominated Baptist Levering.      274
1896.6.4      Henry Ford tested his Quadricycle.                      385
1896.6.16    Republicans nominated Gov. William McKinley.    274
1896           Socialist leader De Leon edited The People.         296
1896           Sousa’s El Capitan ran on Broadway 112 times.    385
1896           B. Adams wrote Law of Civilization & Decay.        474
1896           G. W. Carver began teaching at Tuskegee.          492
1896.7.4      Socialist Labor Party nominated Matchett.            274
1896.7.10    Democrats nominated William J. Bryan.               275
1896.8.16    Gold was discovered in the Yukon Territory.        276
1896.6-11    Republican Party raised $3.5 million.                   276
1896.10.1    US Postal Office began Rural Free Delivery.         277
1896.11.3    McKinley won Electoral College vote 271-176.      277
1896.11.3    Republicans held US Senate 48-32.                     277
1896.11.3    Republicans held US House 206-124.                   277
1896.12.7    Cleveland advised peace with Cuba.                    277



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World Chronology to 30 BC
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