BECK index


Chronological Index

to 1865

World Chronology to 1830
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1950
Chronology of Europe to 1830

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(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)

c. 40-8,000 Asian land bridge allowed migration to America. Mayans
c. 11,000 Clovis people hunted mammoths with spears. Mayans
c. 5,000 Corn (maize) was grown in Mexico. Mayans
c. 4,000 Beans were grown in Mexico. Mayans
c. 4,000 Peru grew llamas, corn, potatoes, and cotton. Mayans
c. 2700 Pyramids were built in Peru. Mayans
c. 1500 Olmecs lived near Gulf of Mexico. Mayans
c. 900-200 Chavin culture grew coca in Peru. Mayans
c. 850 Corn farming improved in Peru. Mayans
c. 550 Zoque built pyramids in Chiapas. Mayans
c. 50 Mayans used hieroglyphics.

c. 250 Tikal Mayans began building large pyramids.
c. 300 Teotihuacan had about 80,000 people. Mayans
378 Mayan Tikal ruler conquered Uaxactun.
378 Smoking Frog began ruling Uaxactun. Mayans
c. 450 Ohio river valley people built mounds. Northern America
562 Mayan Caracol ruler Lord Water defeated Tikal.
578-628 Butz Chan ruled Mayan Copan.
615-83 Pacal ruled Mayan Palenque.
628-95 Smoke Imix ruled Mayan Copan.
631 Mayan Caracol ruler Lord Kan II defeated Naranjo.
631-81 Six Tun Bird Jaguar ruled Mayan Yaxchilan.
659 Mayan Palenque ruler Pacal made war on Yaxchilan.
679 Petexbatun sacrificed Tikal ruler Shield Skull. Mayans
681-742 Shield Jaguar II ruled Mayan Yaxchilan.
682-734 Ah Cacau ruled Mayans Tikal.
695 Mayan Tikal captured Jaguar Paw of Calakmul.
695-738 Eighteen Rabbit ruled Mayan Copan.
698-727 Shield God K ruled Mayan Petexbatun.
710 Naranjo ruler Smoking Squirrel raided the Yaxha. Mayans
711 Mayan Tonina captured Palenque king Kan Xul II.
738 Quirigua ruler Cauac Sky sacrificed 18 Rabbit. Mayans
c. 750 Teotihuacan was smashed and burned. Mayans
761 Mayan Tamarindito sacrificed 4th Petexbatun king.
c. 800-1400 Mound builders had cities in Mississippi Valley. Northern America
808 Last date was recorded in Mayan Yaxchilan.
810 Last date was recorded in Mayan Quirigua.
822 Last date was recorded in Mayan Copan.
849-1221 Itza Maya occupied Chichen Itza.
889 Last date was recorded in Mayan Tikal.
c. 900 Zapotec centralized government ended. Mayans
c. 950 Toltecs became prominent in valley of Mexico.
1004-07 Thorvald Erikson explored northeastern America.
1030-63 Eight-Deer ruled the Mixtecs. Toltecs
c. 1168 Toltec Tollan was destroyed.
c. 1200 Pueblo people lived in Mesa Verde. Anasazi
1325 Tenochtitlan was founded in Mexico. Aztecs
1358 Tlatelolco was founded in Mexico. Aztecs
1371-1426 Tezozomoc ruled Tepanecs. Aztecs
1372-91 Acamapichtli ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1391-1414 Huitzilihuitl ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1395 Mexica and Tepanecs conquered Tlaxcala. Aztecs
c. 1400 Hopi lived peacefully north of Mexico. Anasazi
1409-18 Ixtlilxochitl ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1414-26 Chimalpopoca ruled the Mexica. Aztecs
1418-72 Nezahualcoyotl ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1426-28 Maxtla ruled Tepanecs. Aztecs
1427-40 Itzcoatl ruled the Aztecs.
1428 Aztecs destroyed Tepanec Azcapotzalco.
1438-71 Pachacuti ruled Inca empire.
1440-68 Moteuczoma Ilhuicamina ruled the Aztecs.
1441 Ah Xupan Xiu led revolt that destroyed Mayapan. Mayans
1444 Aztecs defeated Chalca and sacrificed 500.
c. 1450 Quiché Mayans reached their maximum power.
c. 1450 Mohawk Hiawatha began Iroquois federation.
1451-54 Tenochtitlan suffered famine. Aztecs
1465 Aztec empire annexed Chalco.
1469-81 Axayacatl ruled Aztec empire.
1471-93 Topa Inca ruled Inca empire.
1472-1516 Nezahualpilli ruled Texcoco. Aztecs
1478 Tarascans defeated the Mexica. Aztecs
1486-1502 Ahuitzotl ruled Aztec empire.

1492-1504 Columbus colonized, explored Caribbean.
1493 Pope Alexander VI gave America to Spain. Columbus
1493 Syphilis appeared in Europe. Columbus
1493-1526 Huayna Capac ruled Inca empire.
1494 Spain and Portugal made Tordesillas Treaty. Columbus
1495 Columbus enslaved 1,600 Tainos.
1496 Oaxaca Zapotecs revolted against unfair trade. Aztecs
1500 Colon brothers were sent to Spain in chains. Columbus
1500 Portuguese Cabral discovered South America. Brazil
1502-09 Ovando governed Española (Haiti). Caribbean
1502-20 Moteuczoma Xocoyotl ruled Aztecs. Mexico
1505 African slaves were brought to Española. Caribbean
1509 Ponce de Leon colonized Puerto Rico. Caribbean
1509-23 Diego Colon governed Española. Caribbean
1511 Velazquez and Narvaez conquered Cuba. Caribbean
1511 Montesinos criticized conquest at Santo Domingo. Caribbean
1511 Noronha sent 35 slaves from Brazil to Portugal.
1512 Laws of Burgos were promulgated. Caribbean
1513 Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean. Panama
1514 Spain devised Requirement to warn natives. Caribbean
1516 Las Casas was appointed Protector of Indians. Caribbean
1517 Pedrarias had Balboa beheaded. Panama
1517 Velazquez sent Cordoba to explore Yucatan. Mexico
1517 Contract to import 4,000 African slaves was made. Caribbean
1519 Smallpox wiped out Tainos on Española and Cuba. Caribbean
1519-21 Cortes led the conquest of Mexico.
1522 Carlos V confirmed Cortes as governor.
1524 Cortes promulgated ordinances for New Spain.
1524 Spaniards fought over Honduras and Nicaragua. Central America
1524-33 Francisco Pizarro explored and invaded Peru.
1524-41 Alvarado conquered Guatemala, killing 4 million. Central America
1526-32 Huascar and Atahualpa fought Inca civil war. Incas, Peru
1527 Slaves revolted on Puerto Rico. Caribbean
1527-41 Montejo subjugated Yucatan. Mexico
1528 Narvaez began exploring Florida. Soto
1530 Carlos V banned making Indians slaves. Mexico
1531 Cult of the Virgin began in Guadalupe. Mexico
1532 Quiroga founded a hospital in Mexico City.
1532 Martim Afonso de Sousa founded Sao Vicente. Brazil
1533 Francisco Pizarro took gold and killed Atahualpa.
1533 Mexico bishop Zumarraga exposed Guzman.
1534 Pedro Alvarado invaded Ecuador. Peru
1534, 1541 Cartier explored St. Lawrence River.
1535 Francisco Pizarro founded Lima.
1535 Carlos V assigned Peru to Pizarro and Almagro.
1535-50 Viceroy Mendoza governed Mexico.
1536 Pope Paul III defended American Indians. Las Casas
1536 Manco organized an Inca rebellion. Peru
1537 Almagro took Cuzco from Pizarrists. Peru
1537 Las Casas used peaceful conversion in Vera Paz. Caribbean
1537-57 Irala governed Paraguay. South America
1538 Hernando Pizarro defeated and killed Almagro.
1538 Quesada met Chibchas and founded Bogota. New Granada
1539-42 Soto explored from Florida to the Mississippi.
1540-42 Mixton War enslaved 5,000. Mexico
1540-42 Coronado led expedition north to Kansas.
1541 François authorized colonization of America. Canada
1541 Almagrists assassinated Francisco Pizarro.
1541 Valdivia founded Santiago in Chile. Peru
1542 Spain's New Laws tried to reform encomiendas. Peru
1542 Alonso Alvarado defeated Almagrists at Chupas. Peru
1542 Cabrillo explored the California coast. Mexico
1544 Las Casas became bishop of Chiapas.
1545 Rich silver deposits were discovered at Potosi. Peru
1545 800,000 natives died of a new plague in Mexico.
1545-46 Natives wiped out Bahia and Sao Tomé in Brazil.
1546 Gonzalo Pizarro defeated and killed Viceroy Vela.
1548 Gasca defeated and executed Gonzalo Pizarro.
1549 Tomé de Sousa was first royal governor of Brazil.
1549 Nobrega led first Jesuits to America in Bahia. Brazil

1550 Las Casas debated Sepulveda on Indians.
1550 Valdivia founded Concepcion in Chile. South America
1550 Zapotecs rebelled against Spanish rule. Mexico
1550-64 Viceroy Velasco governed Mexico.
1551 Lima ecclesiastical council condemned coca. Peru
1552 Las Casas published 8 tracts on colonial reform.
1553-54 Giron led a revolt in Cuzco but was defeated. Peru
1553-58 Caupolican led Araucanian revolt in Chile. South America
1556 Nobrega wrote Conversion of the Heathen. Brazil
1562 European diseases infected natives of Bahia. Brazil
1562-75 Ibarra conquered northwest Mexico.
1565 Menendez massacred Huguenots at Fort Caroline.
1566 Inca Titu Cusi signed a treaty, became Christian. Peru
1568 Hawkins fought Spaniards at San Juan de Ulua. Caribbean
1569 Ercilla began publishing his poem La Araucana. South America
1569-82 Viceroy Toledo governed Peru. Peru
1572 Francis Drake attacked Panama. Central America
1574 Moya brought the Inquisition to Mexico.
1574 Toledo organized forced labor in Peru.
1576-80 Epidemic killed two million natives in Mexico.
1580 Garay planned city of Buenos Aires. South America
1585-87 Raleigh sponsored colony at Roanoke.
1586 Drake with 19 ships raided Cartagena. New Granada
1587 Caldera mediated treaties with Chichimecs. Mexico
1591-93 Inquisition purged Jewish influence in Brazil.
1593 Jesuits came to Chile.
1594 Raleigh explored the Orinoco River. Guiana
1596 Drake destroyed Santa Marta. New Granada
1598 Araucanian horsemen defeated Spaniards. Chile
1598.6 Clifford led attack on Puerto Rico. West Indies
1598-1608 Oñate explored and governed in New Mexico. Northern Mexico

1600 Silver-mining Potosi had 150,000 people. Peru
1602 French formed the Canada Company.
1602 Parker attacked and captured Puerto Bello. Central America
1607 Plymouth Company colony was abandoned. Plymouth
1607 Jamestown began; Pocahontas saved Smith.
1608 Felipe III allowed Jesuits into Rio de la Plata.
1608 Champlain founded Quebec.
1608-97 Missionary Vieira worked for reforms in Brazil.
1609 African slaves revolted at Veracruz. Mexico
1609 Hudson explored Hudson River for the Dutch. New Netherland
1610 Spanish Inquisition came to Cartagena. New Granada
1610 Yaquis made peace with Spaniards in Sonora. Northern Mexico
1610 Indians rebelled at Durango. Mexico
1611 France sent Jesuits to Canada.
1611-16 Dale and Gates governed Jamestown strictly.
1612 Bishop Trejo founded Jesuit college at Cordoba. Rio de la Plata
1612 Valdivia implemented reforms in Chile.
1612 Virginia Company was granted Bermuda. Jamestown
1612 Jamestown charter was revised; lottery began.
1613 Argall destroyed French colonies in Canada.
1614 Amsterdam company founded New Netherland.
1614 Rolfe exported tobacco, married Pocahontas.
1616.2 Champlain mediated Huron-Algonquin peace.
1616 Groenewegen founded Kykoveral by Essequibo. Guiana
1616 Rolfe and Pocahontas visited England.
1618 Raleigh was executed to satisfy Spain. Guiana
1619 Virginia elected first Assembly.
1619.8 Dutch sold 20 Africans in Jamestown. Virginia
1620.11.21 41 pilgrims signed the Mayflower compact.
1621.3 Pilgrims and Wampanoag Massasoit made treaty.
1621 Dutch West India Company was chartered.
1621.10 Pilgrims, Wampanoags celebrated thanksgiving.
1621-23 Viceroy Gelves reformed Mexico.
1621-56 Bradford governed Plymouth almost every year.
1622.3.22 Powhatans and others killed 347 settlers. Virginia
1622 King James banned selling weapons to Indians. Plymouth
1623 Dutch and Walloons built Fort Orange. New Netherland
1624.5 Dutch fleet captured Salvador in Bahia.
1624 British formed the West Indies Association.
1624 Archbishop Serna excommunicated Gelves. Mexico
1624 Champlain made peace with the Iroquois.
1624-28 Mohawks battled and defeated Mahicans. Iroquois
1625 English colonists landed at Barbados. West Indies
1625 Charles made Virginia a royal colony.
1626 Felipe IV ordered offensive war in Chile.
1626 Minuit purchased Manhattan Island. New Netherland
1626 Pilgrims bought out their stockholders.
1627 Richelieu founded Company of 100 Associates. Canada
1628 Piet Heyn captured lucrative Spanish fleet. Dutch, Mexico
1628 Endecott began the colony of Salem. Massachusetts
1629.3 Charles granted Massachusetts Bay to Puritans.
1629 Tavares' slave raid took 5,500 Indians in Guaira. Brazil
1629 Araucanians captured Pineda. Chile
1630 Dutch fleet occupied Recife and Olinda.
1630 Winthrop began Massachusetts Bay colony.
1632 Récollet Sagard published a Huron dictionary. Canada
1632-75 Cecil Calvert was Maryland proprietor. Calverts
1633-34 Smallpox wiped out Massachusetts Indians. Connecticut
1634 Spaniards invaded Providence Island. West Indies
1634 Champlain founded Three Rivers.
1635 Dutch and Brazilians fought Sugar War.
1635 Massachusetts required church attendance.
1636.1 Salem banished Roger Williams. Massachusetts
1636 Harvard College was founded. Massachusetts
1636-38 Massachusetts, Connecticut fought Pequots.
1637 Massachusetts expelled Anne Hutchinson.
1637-44 Maurits governed Pernambuco for the Dutch.
1638.3 Williams and Hutchinsons founded Rhode Island.
1638 Minuit founded New Sweden by the Delaware. New Netherland
1638 New Haven and Hartford elected governments. Connecticut
1639 Plymouth freemen elected representatives.
1640-68 Portugal fought Spain for independence. Brazil
1641.3 Rhode Island government was elected.
1642 Maisonneuve founded Montreal. Canada
1642 Massachusetts annexed New Hampshire.
1643.3 Virginia required Anglican conformity.
1643.5 Confederation of New England formed.
1643 Mohegans defeated the Narragansetts. New England
1643 Williams wrote about American Indians.
1643-45 Kieft's War killed 1,600 Indians. New Netherland
1644.3 Parliament granted Rhode Island a charter.
1644.4.18 Indians killed 500 settlers in Virginia.
1644 Megapolensis published a book on Mohawks. New Netherland
1644 Williams published Bloudy Tenent of Persecution.
1644.10.14 William Penn was born in London.
1644-48 Dutch traded guns to Mohawks for furs. Iroquois
1645 Pessicus led Narragansett attack on Mohegans. New England
1646 Ward published Simple Cobler of Aggawam. New England
1646-47 Massachusetts fined Dr. Child for petitions. New England
1647-48 Dutch privateers took 249 Brazilian ships.
1647-64 Stuyvesant governed New Netherland.
1648 Plymouth colony paid off its debt.
1649 Maryland protected free exercise of religion.

1650 Anne Bradstreet's poetry was published. New England
1650 Pynchon published The Meritorious Price. New England
1650 Hartford Treaty divided Long Island. New England, New Netherland
1651 British Navigation Act protected shipping. Virginia
1651 English began colonizing Guiana.
1651 Dutch arrested English colonists in Delaware. New Netherland
1651 Eliot founded Natick for Christian Indians. New England
1651.10 Massachusetts took over Maine. New England
1651-95 Juana Inés wrote poetry, plays, and essays. Mexico
1652 Barbados Charter included elected assembly. West Indies
1652-54 First Anglo-Dutch War was fought. New England, New Netherland
1652-60 House of Burgesses governed Virginia.
1653 Jesuits returned to Sao Paulo. Brazil
1653 Most Iroquois made peace with the French.
1654.1 Dutch surrendered Recife to Portuguese.
1654 Swedes captured Fort Casimir from Dutch. New Netherland
1654-57 Williams was president of Rhode Island.
1655 Admiral Penn took Jamaica from Spaniards. British West Indies
1655 New Amsterdam imported African slaves. New Netherland
1655 900 Indians invaded Manhattan. New Netherland
1655.9 Dutch ended New Sweden colony. New Netherland
1656.5 Mohawks massacred Hurons at Isle of Orleans. Iroquois
1656 Dutch and Jews occupied Cayenne. Guiana
1657-65 Massachusetts persecuted Quakers. New England
1658 Mohawks drove missionaries out of Onondaga. Iroquois
1658 Holyoke published Doctrine of Life. New England
1659 French founded St. Domingue on Haiti.
1659-76 John Winthrop Jr. governed Connecticut. New England
1660-77 Berkeley governed Virginia again.
1661 Vieira was expelled from Brazil.
1661 Rio de Janeiro executed tax rebel Barbalho. Brazil
1661, 1663 Eliot published the Bible in Algonquian. New England
1662 Portugal took over the Brazil Company.
1662 Connecticut stopped hanging witches. New England
1663.2 Louis XIV took over the Company in Canada. French
1663 Charles II granted Carolina to 8 supporters.
1663 Dutch fought the Esopus tribe. New Netherland
1664 Colbert chartered French West India Company.
1664 Puerto Rico began granting slaves asylum. West Indies
1664 Duke of York granted New Jersey to proprietors.
1664.9.5 Dutch surrendered New Netherland to English.
1664, 1676 French took Cayenne back from the Dutch. Guiana
1664-68 Col. Nicolls governed New York benevolently.
1664-88 James was proprietor of New York.
1665-67 Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought. Virginia
1666 Pirates raided Costa Rica and Maracaibo. Central America, West Indies
1667 Breda Treaty gave New York to English.
1667 Breda Treaty gave Surinam back to Dutch. Guiana
1667 Breda Treaty gave Acadia back to French. Canada
1667 Iroquois League and French made peace. New France, Canada
1667 Hurricane destroyed 10,000 houses in Virginia.
1668 Peace between Spain and Portugal opened trade. Brazil
1668-71 Morgan's pirates raided Panama. Central America, West Indies
1669 Penn in prison wrote No Cross, No Crown.
1669 Locke wrote Fundamental Constitutions. Carolina
1670 English founded Charles Town, South Carolina.
1670.9 London jury acquitted Penn and Quakers.
1671 Plymouth made Metacom surrender his arms.
1671 Penn was imprisoned six months for preaching.
1672 George Fox preached in Maryland.
1672-74 Third Anglo-Dutch War was fought. New York
1672-82 Frontenac governed Canada. Frontenac
1673 Marquette explored the Mississippi River. Canada
1673 Spaniards fortified San Agustin, Florida. Georgia
1673.8 Dutch took over New York for six months.
1673-95 Zumbi led quilombos revolt in Brazil.
1674 Stapleton convened Leeward Islands assembly. West Indies
1674-80 Governor Andros favored New York City.
1674-82 Joseph West governed Carolina.
1674-83 Quakers controlled West Jersey.
1674-88 Laval was first bishop of Quebec. Canada
1675.6 Metacom's War in New England began.
1675 Popé and others were tried in Santa Fe. Northern Mexico
1675 Quakers began settling in West Jersey.
1675.9.9 New England called out 1,000 militiamen.
1675-76 Metacom's War killed 3,600.
1676.2 1,500 Indians raided Massachusetts. Metacom's War
1676.5.10 Governor Berkeley declared Bacon a rebel.
1676.8.12 Metacom was killed at Mount Hope.
1676.9.19 Bacon's rebellion burned Jamestown.
1676.10.26 Bacon died of dysentery.
1676-81 Randolph investigated New England colonies.
1677.1 Bacon's rebellion in Virginia ended.
1677.12 John Culpepper led revolt in North Carolina.
1678 Dominicans formed university in Guatemala. Central America
1679 New Hampshire became a royal province. New England
1680 Buccaneers sacked Caracas. New Granada
1680.8 Popé led a united attack on Santa Fe. Northern Mexico
1681.2.24 Charles II granted Pennsylvania to Penn.
1681 Pope Innocent XI sanctioned Bethlehemites. Central America
1682.4 La Salle claimed Louisiana for Louis XIV.
1682.4 Penn wrote "Frame of Government."
1682.12.4 First Assembly of Pennsylvania met.
1683.6 Penn signed treaty with Lenni-Lenape.
1683 Van Horn and Laurent raided Veracruz. Mexico
1683-85 New York developed a democratic Assembly.
1684 Senecas besieged Fort St. Louis. Canada
1684.10 Massachusetts charter was judged forfeited. New England
1685 Louis XIV's Code Noir regulated slavery. West Indies, Louisiana
1685, 1690 Slaves on Jamaica revolted. West Indies
1686.8 Spaniards destroyed Stuart's Town in Carolina.
1686-89 Andros governed New England Dominion.
1687.3.19 La Salle was murdered in Louisiana.
1687 Denonville went to war against the Iroquois. Canada
1687 Wise led tax resistance in New England.
1688 Barbados adopted a slave code. South Carolina
1688 Mennonites of Germantown protested slavery. Pennsylvania
1689.4.19 Massachusetts arrested Governor Andros. New England
1689.5 Leisler took over New York.
1689 Privateer Casse attacked Surinam and Berbice. Guiana
1689-97 King William's War fought French. Canada, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania
1689-98 Frontenac governed Canada during war.
1689-1714 Maryland was a royal colony.
1690.2 French and Indians destroyed Schenectady. Canada
1690.5 Phips of Massachusetts captured Port Royal. Canada, New England
1690.10 British attack on Quebec led by Phips failed. Canada, New England
1691.3 New York governor Sloughter removed Leisler.
1691 William granted Massachusetts a new charter. New England
1692 High grain prices caused a riot in Mexico City.
1692 Salem witch trials hanged 19 people.
1692-97 Fletcher governed New York corruptly.
1693 New York supported Anglican ministers.
1693 Penn wrote plan for European peace.
1694 Penn wrote about people called Quakers.
1695 College of William and Mary was founded. Virginia
1696 Louis XIV cancelled beaver permits. Canada
1696 Board of Trade formed for Navigation Acts. Massachusetts, Pennsylvania
1696-98 Spaniards conquered Tarahumaras. Northern Mexico
1697 Ryswick Treaty tried to end piracy. West Indies
1697 Salvatierra founded a mission in Baja California. Northern Mexico
1698 Brazil's long gold rush began.
1698-1700 Scottish colonists failed in Panama. Central America
1698-1727 Samuel Cranston governed Rhode Island.
1699 Iberville founded Biloxi in Louisiana. Canada
1699 Woolen Act banned colonial exports. Massachusetts
1699 Virginia law required church attendance.

1700 Sewall published The Selling of Joseph. Massachusetts
1700 New York banned Catholic priests.
1701.5.23 Captain Kidd was hanged in London. Massachusetts
1701 Connecticut began college that became Yale.
1701.7 Cadillac started a trading post at Detroit. Canada
1701.8.6 38 chiefs made treaty with French Canadians. Canada
1701.10.28 Penn granted Charter of Privileges.
1702 Cotton Mather wrote Magnalia Christi Americana.
1702 New Jersey was unified as a royal colony.
1702.9 South Carolina governor Moore burned San Agustin.
1702-13 Queen Anne's War. Canada, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina
1702-38 New Jersey was under governor of New York.
1703 Jesuits introduced printing in Rio de la Plata.
1703 La Hontan wrote New Voyages to North-America. Canada
1703-25 Rigaud de Vaudreuil governed Canada.
1704.2.29 French and Abenakis attacked Deerfield. Canada, Massachusetts
1704 Weekly Boston News-Letter began. Massachusetts
1705 Massachusetts raised duty on imported Africans.
1706.1.17 Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston.
1706 South Carolina established Anglicans.
1707 John Williams published Redeemed Captive. Massachusetts
1707 New York arrested Presbyterian Makemie.
1707-24 Saltonstall governed Connecticut.
1708 Spain allowed slaves to purchase their freedom. West Indies
1708 French privateers raided the Essequibo colony. Guiana
1708 Indian agent Nairne made peace with Choctaws. South Carolina
1709 Selkirk was rescued from Juan Fernandez Island. Chile
1709 Louis XIV banned selling beaver to English. Canada
1709 English expedition against Canada failed. Massachusetts, New York
1710 Cotton Mather published Essays to Do Good.
1710.9 Nicholson's forces captured Port Royal. Canada, Massachusetts
1710-22 Col. Spotswood governed Virginia.
1711.8 British naval attack on Quebec failed. Canada, Massachusetts
1711.9 5,800 French captured Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1712 Massachusetts banned importing Indian slaves.
1712 New York slave rebellion was suppressed.
1712 South Carolina founded the first land bank.
1712.11 Cassard's pirates raided Surinam and Berbice. Guiana
1713.3 Carolinians and Indians defeated Tuscaroras. North Carolina
1713 Utrecht Treaty gave slave trading to British. Mexico
1713 French ceded Acadia to England. Canada, Massachusetts
1714 English conformity law required oaths. Pennsylvania
1714 Calvert proprietors of Maryland were restored.
1715 Tuscaroras went north, joined Iroquois league. North Carolina
1715 South Carolina fought the Yamasees.
1716.1 Cherokees signed a treaty with the English. South Carolina
1717 Wise wrote Vindication of the Government.
1717 Alabamas helped French build Fort Toulouse. Louisiana
1718.3 Chief Brims united the Creeks at Coweta. South Carolina
1718 Joao V approved selling Indians in Sao Luis. Brazil
1718 Bienville founded New Orleans as a capital. Louisiana
1718 New York allowed Jews to be naturalized.
1718.11 Virginia navy killed Blackbeard.
1718-32 Woodes Rogers governed the Bahamas. West Indies
1719 Louisiana began importing African slaves.
1719 South Carolina Assembly replaced proprietors.
1720 Maryland had 80,000 people and 25,000 slaves.
1720-21 John Law created a French financial bubble. Canada
1721.5 South Carolina became a royal colony.
1721 Cotton Mather advocated smallpox inoculation. Massachusetts
1721 Cotton Mather published Christian Philosopher.
1722 Weekly Jamaica Courant began publishing. West Indies
1722 Gaceta de Mexico began its monopoly on news. Mexico
1722 Franklin wrote Silence Dogood secretly.
1722-24 Dummer's War fought Abenakis in Maine. Massachusetts
1723 A Belgian set up a printing press in Cuba. West Indies
1723 Pennsylvania issued £45,000 in paper money.
1724 Meneses founded the Brazilian Academy. Brazil
1724 Louisiana excluded Jews and Protestants.
1725 University of Caracas was founded. New Granada
1726-46 Beauharnois governed Canada.
1727 Colden wrote History of the Five Indian Nations. Iroquois
1727 Franklin started the Junto discussion group.
1727 Maryland Gazette began publishing. Maryland
1727-49 William Gooch governed Virginia.
1728 Dominicans began a university at Havana. West Indies
1728 Caracas Company was given a trade monopoly. New Granada
1729 Franklin wrote "Busy-Body." Journalism
1729 Franklin wrote on paper money.
1729 Franklin bought the Pennsylvania Gazette.
1729 North Carolina became a royal colony.
1729-31 French and Choctaws fought Natchez. Louisiana
1730 Almeida began regulating diamond mining. Brazil
1730 Mompo led a revolt in Asuncion. Rio de la Plata
1730 Virginia passed Tobacco Inspection Act.
1730-41 Jonathan Belcher governed Massachusetts. Massachusetts
1731 Barbados Gazette began publishing. West Indies
1731 Viceroy Armendariz executed Antequera. Rio de la Plata
1731 Louisiana became a royal colony,
1731 Franklin's Junto began first circulating library.
1732 Brazil restricted women from emigrating.
1732 George II granted Georgia a non-profit charter.
1733.2 Oglethorpe led settlers south of Savannah River.
1733 British passed the Molasses Act. Massachusetts, New York, Virginia
1733 Virginia had 88,000 Europeans, 42,000 Africans.
1733-58 Franklin published Poor Richard's Almanac.
1734 Escandon pacified Sierra Gorda in Mexico.
1734-52 Johnston governed North Carolina.
1735.4.3 Georgia banned importing slaves and alcohol.
1735 Jury acquitted publisher Zenger in New York.
1736 Franklin became Assembly clerk.
1736 Parks began publishing weekly Virginia Gazette. Virginia
1736.12 Franklin founded Union Fire Company.
1736, 1739 Bienville attacked the Chickasaws. Louisiana
1737 Franklin became deputy postmaster.
1737.9 Walking Purchase took land from Delawares. Pennsylvania
1738 Bogota got its first printing press. New Granada
1738 Whitefield came to Georgia.
1739.9 Slaves rebelled near Charles Town.
1739.10 England declared war on Spain. West Indies, Rhode Island, South Carolina
1740.5 2,000 English and Indians attacked San Agustin. Georgia
1740 Whitefield preached in New England. Great Revival
1740 South Carolina had 39,000 African slaves.
1741 English attacked Cartagena. Massachusetts, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina
1741 Zinzendorf's Moravians founded Bethlehem. Pennsylvania
1741-57 William Shirley governed Massachusetts. New England
1742 Edwards wrote about the revival of religion.
1742 Franklin invented a more efficient stove.
1742 Cherokees, Catawbas, and Iroquois made treaty. South Carolina
1742.6.22 Spanish fleet attacked St. Simons Island. Georgia
1742.7 Georgia repealed prohibition of alcohol.
1743 Stephens succeeded Oglethorpe in Georgia.
1743-53 Admiral George Clinton governed New York
1743-56 James Glen governed South Carolina.             

1744.3 France and England declared war. British
1744.6.28 New England captured Louisbourg.             
1744 Franklin founded American Philosophical Society.
1744 Jonas Green revived the Maryland Gazette.
1744-48 King George’s War fought the French.New England
1745, 1747 70 ships going to Martinique were captured. French West Indies      
1746 College of New Jersey began at Princeton.         
1746 North Carolinans refused to pay taxes.               
1746-51 William Johnson was New York’s Indian agent.
1746-52 La Jonquiere governed New France.              
1746-55 Viceroy Güemes prospered in Mexico.                 
1747.5 British navy defeated La Jonquiere’s 5 ships. New France
1747 Spaniards fought Comanches. Texas
1747.11.17 Franklin’s “Plain Truth” advocated defense. 
1747-49 La Galissoniere governed New France
1747-57 Jonathan Belcher governed New Jersey.
1748 Joao V ended ransom expeditions in Brazil
1748.10.18 Treaty gave Louisbourg back to France
1748-49 Creoles began protesting Caracas Company. New Granada
1748-49 Pennsylvania made treaties with Indian tribes.
1749.3 George II approved grant to the Ohio Company.
1749 Peru had two major Indian revolts.
1749 Franklin wrote on education, began Academy.
1749.8.2 Iroquois gave Croghan 200,000 acres by Ohio. New France
1749-52 Edward Cornwallis governed Halifax. New England
1749-53 Franklin experimented with electricity.
1750.1 Mayhew preached right to representation. New England
1750.1 Portugal and Spain agreed on borders of Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1750 Smallpox killed 40,000 in Belem. Brazil
1750 Georgia repealed its anti-slavery law.
1750-77 Jose I ruled Portuguese empire with Pombal. Brazil
1751.8.15 Franklin appealed for a hospital. 
1751-58 Robert Dinwiddie governed Virginia
1752.4 Franklin started first fire insurance company.
1752-55 Duquesne governed New France
1752-72 Gravesande directed Essequibo & Demerara. Guiana
1753 Chile monopolized tobacco.
1753 French built forts in Ohio valley. New France
1753 Dinwiddie sent Washington to Fort Le Boeuf. Virginia
1753-73 Franklin was deputy postmaster of America.
1754.5.28 Washington led attack on French
1754.6 English colonists met at Albany.New York Franklin
1754 Spain and Portugal agreed to dominate. Brazil  Guiana
1754 New York City public library began. 
1754.7 Washington surrendered Fort Necessity. English-French War
1754.8 Virginia House authorized £20,000 for defense.
1754.11 British authorized £1,000,000 for war on French.
1754, 1762 Woolman wrote against slavery. Pennsylvania
1754-56 Guarani War moved Jesuit missions in BrazilRio de la Plata
1755.1 Georgia’s first elected Assembly met.
1755.4 Virginia deported 1,150 Acadians to England.
1755.6.16 British defeated French Acadians.
1755 Brazil restored Indian rights. 
1755 Cuba established a general post office.
1755 Connecticut Gazette began publishing. New England
1755 Mitchell published map of Mississippi Valley. Virginia
1755.7 Cherokees sold 360 square miles to England. 
1755.11.25 Pennsylvania passed Franklin’s Militia Act. 
1755.7.9 French & Indians defeated Braddock’s British.
1755-60  Viceroy Ahumada tried to reform Mexico.
1756.4.14 Pennsylvania declared war on Delawares. 
1756.5.17 England declared war against France. English-French War
1756 Connecticut had 3,587 slaves.  New England
1756 James Davis published North Carolina Gazette.  
1756 Gov. Morris broke into Philadelphia warehouses. Sugar Tax
1756.8 Montcalm and French captured Fort Oswego.
1756-60 Lyttelton governed South Carolina
1756-63 War increased British debt to £122,603,336. Sugar Tax
1757.2 Pennsylvania sent Franklin to London. 
1757 Brazil abolished Indian slavery. 
1757 Pennsylvania spent £127,000 on military.
1757.8 French captured Fort William Henry. 
1758.2 Loudoun asked northern colonies for 6,992 men. New France
1758.3 New England voted to raise 13,800 soldiers.  New France
1758.5 8 ships from France ended Canadian famine.  New France
1758 Viceroy Cevallos moved Indians across Uruguay. Brazil
1758 University in Chile began teaching law. 
1758 English deported 5,637 French prisoners. 
1759.7 Edmund Atkin made a treaty with Choctaws.  Carolinas
1758.7.26 France surrendered Ile Royale and Ile St. Jean.   New France
1758.7.26 English took over Fort Niagara.  
1758.7.31 French abandoned Fort Carillon.   New France
1758.10 Penn restored Iroquois land in the west. Pennsylvania
1758.11.25 English took over destroyed Fort Duquesne. Virginia
1759.2 Pennsylvania taxed land for £100,000. 
1759 Bahia founded Brazilian Academy. 
1759 Canada’s war expenses reached 30 million livres. New France
1759 English colonies raised 17,000 to invade Canada.
1759 Cherokees and Creeks declared war on English.
1759.9.18 French surrendered Quebec to the English.  
1759-88 Carlos III ruled Spanish empire.  Rio de la Plata New Granada
1760 Brazil expelled 600 Jesuits. 
1760 British Navy captured 30 smuggling ships. Sugar Tax
1760.9.8 French surrendered Montreal to the English
1760-61 South Carolina fought Cherokees.  
1761 Spain and Portugal made Treaty of Pardo. Brazil
1761 Smallpox killed 94,000 in Puebla and Mexico City.
1761 Spaniards killed 400 Comanches at Taos. North Mexico
1761.11 King Canek led by Mayan revolt. Mexico
1761.12.17 Cherokees made peace with South Carolina
1762 Spaniards invaded Brazil, besieged Colonia. 
1762 James Johnston became Georgia’s printer. 
1762 James Otis Jr. wrote vindicating legislature. New England
1762.8 Delawares met with Iroquois at Easton.  Pontiac
1762.11.3 France secretly ceded Louisiana to Spain. British Canada
1762-63 British invaded and occupied Cuba
1763.2.10 Spain gave Florida to England in treaty. Mexico Georgia
1763.2.10 France ceded New France to England.   New England Sugar Tax Canada
1763.3 Delaware’s Neolin prophesied new religion. Pontiac
1763.4 Boston merchants opposed tax on molasses.  Sugar Tax
1763.4.27 Pontiac held a war conference.  
1763.5.7 Pontiac tried to take Fort Detroit. 
1763.5 Indians took over three forts. Pontiac
1763 Rio de Janeiro became Brazil’s capital. 
1763 England annexed Dominica, Tobago, Grenada. West Indies
1763 England devalued New England’s money. 
1763 13 colonies debt was £2,097,000. Pontiac
1763 American economy went into a depression. Sugar Tax
1763.7 General Amherst used smallpox against Indians. Pontiac
1763.7 Grenville ordered Customs officials to colonies. Sugar Tax
1763.8.6 Chief Pontiac was defeated at Bushy Run. Canada
1763.8 British took over West Florida from Spaniards. Western Frontier
1763.10.7 George III reserved west for Indians. Virginia Pontiac Western Frontier
1763.10 Pontiac ended war against English. 
1763.10 Rhode Island merchants opposed Sugar Act. 
1763.11.10 Creeks ceded land to Georgia.  
1763.11 South Carolina gave Indians gifts. 
1763.12 Patrick Henry called George III a tyrant in court. Virginia
1763-64 African slaves revolted in Berbice, Guiana

1764.1.27 New York City merchants urged protests. Sugar Tax
1764.2 Franklin persuaded Paxton Boys to go home.
1764.4.5 England passed Revenue Act (Sugar Act).  West Indies Sugar Tax
1764 Gazette de St. Domingue began publishing. Haiti
1764 Currency act banned paper money in colonies.  Sugar Tax
1764 Otis wrote Rights of British Colonies Asserted.  Sugar Tax
1764.8.10 Gov. Murray established two courts for Canada.
1764.10.31 North Carolina Assembly opposed British tax.  Sugar Tax
1764.11.4 Gov. Hopkins read Rights of Colonies Examined. Sugar Tax
1765.1.14 Pitt called for repeal of the Stamp Act.  
1765.3.22 British Stamp Act became law.  
1765.5 Croghan convened Indian congress at Fort Pitt. Western Frontier
1765.5.15 British Quartering Act passed. Stamp Act
1765.5.30 Patrick Henry spoke against the Stamp Act
1765.6.8 Massachusetts urged a congress in New York. Stamp Act
1765.6.24 Newport Mercury published Henry’s resolutions. Stamp Act
1765 Quito revolted against prohibition of alcohol.  Peru New Granada
1765 13 English colonies had 1,750,000 people.  Stamp Act
1765.8.14 Loyal Nine in Boston hanged Oliver in effigy. Stamp Act
1765.8.17 Croghan held Indian conference at Detroit. Western Frontier
1765.8.26 New York Stamp Distributor McEvers resigned. Stamp Act
1765.8.27 Newport mob attacked Distributors’ houses.  Stamp Act
1765.9.19 New Jersey bar refused to use stamps.  Stamp Act
1765.10 9 colonies attended congress in New York. Stamp Act
1765.10 Dulany wrote on the propriety of imposing taxes. Stamp Act
1765.10.31 200 New York merchants boycotted English.   Stamp Act
1765.11.1 American newspapers stopped publishing.  Stamp Act
1765.11.14 400 Philadelphia merchants boycotted English.  Stamp Act
1765.11.25 New York Gazette published without stamps.  Stamp Act
1765.12.6 200 Boston merchants stopped British imports. Stamp Act
1765.12 Dickinson warned Pitt 13 colonies would unite. Stamp Act
1765-71 Visitador Galvez reformed Mexico’s finances.
1766.1.14 Pitt called for repeal of the Stamp Act.
1766.1.17 London merchants urged repeal of Stamp Act.  
1766.2.13 British Parliament questioned Franklin. Stamp Act
1766.2.22 Commons voted to repeal the Stamp Act.  
1766.3.27 Commons voted to reduce tax on molasses. Stamp Act
1766.6.28 Grand Vicar Briand arrived in Quebec. Canada
1766 Bland wrote on the rights of British colonies. Stamp Act
1766-70 Guy Carleton governed Canada
1767.2 Carlos III expelled Jesuits. Rio de la Plata Mexico
1767.6.24 Viceroy Croix ordered Jesuits in Mexico arrested.
1767.6.29 Townshend Revenue Act was enacted. 
1767.10.1 Parliament suspended New York Assembly. Townshend Acts
1767.11.20 Townshend duties went into effect. 
1767.12.4 Newport adopted non-consumption. Townshend Acts
1767.12 Dickinson published Letters from a Farmer.  Townshend Acts
1768.1.20 Massachusetts legislature opposed taxes.  Townshend Acts
1768 13 English colonies demanded representation. Townshend Acts
1768.10.1 700 British soldiers came to Boston. Townshend Acts
1768.11.3 Iroquois ceded land in Fort Stanwix treaty. Western Frontier
1769.1.2 American Philosophical Society elected Franklin. Townshend Acts
1769 Jose Basilio da Gama wrote poem O UraguaiBrazil
1769 Colonies made non-importation agreements. Townshend Acts
1769-84 Serra founded and led California missions.
1769-84 Jonathan Trumbull governed Connecticut. Confederation
1770.1.31 426 women in Boston pledged not to use tea. Townshend Acts
1770.3.5 British soldiers in Boston killed five in a mob. Townshend Acts
1770.4 England repealed Townshend duties except tea. 
1770 Murray brought Universalism to New England.  Townshend Acts
1770.7.6 George III ordered martial law in Massachusetts. Tea Tax
1771.5.16 Militia fought Regulators in North Carolina. Western Frontier
1771 Jose I took over Brazil’s diamond mines. 
1771 Connecticut prohibited the slave trade.  Tea Tax
1771-79 Viceroy Bucarelli promoted missions, education. Mexico
1772.6.9 100 Sons of Liberty boarded the GaspeeTea Tax
1772 Scientific Academy subsidized in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1772.11.2 Sam Adams began correspondence committees. Tea Tax
1772-80 Jauregui governed Chile.  
1773.5.1 England passed the Teax Act.  
1773 Pope Clement XIV abolished the Jesuits. Brazil
1773 Charleston imported 8,000 slaves. Townshend Acts
1773 Quebec annexed Indian territory. Canada
1773.9 Phillis Wheatley published her poems. Townshend Acts
1773.10 Daniel Boone led settlement of Kentucky.  Western Frontier
1773.11 Gov. Dunmore granted veterans western land.  Western Frontier
1773.12.16 Bostonians dumped British tea in the sea. Tea Tax
1773.12.27 Worcester formed American Political Society. Tea Tax
1774.1.29 British Parliament lectured Franklin.  Tea Tax
1774.3.31 George III approved the Boston Port Bill. Tea Tax
1774.4 Quebec Act annexed land north of the Ohio. Western Frontier
1774.5.17 Rhode Island delegates proposed a congress. Tea Tax
1774.5.28 Virginians recommended an American congress. Tea Tax
1774.6 9 colonies endorsed the continental congress.  Tea Tax
1774 Benezet wrote The Potent Enemies of America. Tea Tax
1774 Wilson wrote on the authority of Parliament.  Tea Tax
1774 Jefferson wrote on the rights of British America.  Tea Tax
1774 Ann Lee and Shakers came to New York.Tea Tax
1774 Hearne established Fort Cumberland. Canada
1774.9.3 General Gage fortified Boston.  Tea Tax
1774.9.5 First Continental Congress met at Philadelphia. 
1774.9.6 Worcester Convention banned British courts. Tea Tax
1774.9.27 Continental approved non-importation.  
1774.10.9 Dunmore led Virginians against Indians. Western Frontier
1774.10.11 Massachusetts formed Provincial Congress. Continental Congress
1774.10.14 Continental Congress stated “Rights and Grievances.” 
1774.10.26 Massachusetts formed a militia. Continental Congress
1774.12 Franklin in England tried to avert civil war. Continental Congress
1775.2.1 Pitt’s plan for reconciliation was defeated. Continental Congress
1775.3.23 Patrick Henry asked for liberty or death.  Continental Congress
1775.4 11 colonies elected delegates to Continental Congress.  
1775.4.19 British attacked Lexington and Concord.  British War
1775.4.23 Congress voted to raise 13,600 men.  British War
1775.5.1 British offered Virginia slaves freedom to fight. British War
1775.5.1 Quebec Act went into effect.  Canada
1775.5.10 Georgia joined the Congress. British War
1775.5.10 Allen’s volunteers took Fort Ticonderoga. British War Canada
1775.5.10 2nd Continental Congress met in Philadelphia.  British War
1775.5.29 Congress sent Jay’s letter to Canada.  British War
1775.6.12 British declared martial law in Massachusetts. British War
1775.6.15 Congress elected Washington commander. British War
1775.6.17 Americans defeated British on Breed’s Hill. British War
1775 New Englanders were excluded from fisheries. Canada
1775.7.5 Congress adopted a petition to George III. British War
1775.7.12 Congress created 3 Indian departments. Frontier
1775.7.26 Congress elected Franklin postmaster general. 
1775.8.23 George III ordered rebellion suppressed. Congress
1775.9.25 Allen was defeated & captured at Montreal.   Congress Canada
1775.11.7 Gov. Dunmore declared martial law in Virginia. Congress
1775.11.13 Americans took over Montreal.  Congress Canada
1775.12.31 Americans were defeated at Quebec. Congress Canada
1775-77 John Hancock was president of Congress.    British War 1777
1776.1.10 Paine published Common Sense
1776.3.17 British army left Boston. Congress
1776.4.6 Congress declared free trade. 
1776.5.4 Rhode Island declared independence. Congress
1776.5 10,000 British soldiers arrived in Canada.   Canada
1776.6.7 R. H. Lee proposed independence. Declaration of Independence
1776.6.12 Virginia adopted Mason’s “Declaration of Rights.”Declaration of Independence
1776.6.15 Arnold’s army abandoned Montreal.  Canada
1776.6.29 Virginia convention adopted a constitution. Declaration of Independence
1776.7.4 Congress approved independence unanimously. Declaration of Independence
1776.7 Americans attacked Cherokees. Frontier
1776.8.27 British defeated Americans on Long Island.
1776.9.8 Washington advised defensive war.
1776.9.22 British hanged Nathan Hale as a spy.
1776.12.20 Congress met in Baltimore. 1776
1776.12.26 Washington captured 918 Hessians in Trenton. 1776
1776-78 Paine published American Crisis1776 1777 1778-79
1776-83 British army occupied New York City.
1777.1.1 Washington ordered army not to plunder.  1777
1777.1.9 Cartagena’s royal library was opened to public. New Granada
1777.1 Legislative Council met in Quebec.  Canada
1777.2 Congress allowed price controls to help the poor. 1777
1777.3.7 Shawnees attacked Boonesborough. Frontier
1777 Viceroy Cevallos invaded Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1777 Vermont abolished slavery. Confederation
1777.8.6 400 Iroquois and Brant attacked 800 Americans. Frontier
1777.9.26 Howe’s British army entered Philadelphia. 1777
1777.10 Men rebelled against conscription in Baltimore. 1777
1777.10.17 Burgoyne surrendered 5,791 men at Saratoga. 1777
1777.10.31 Congress elected Henry Laurens president. 1777
1777.11.15 Congress adopted Articles of Confederation. 1777
1777.12.17 Franklin made alliance with France. 1777
1777-95 George Clinton governed New York.  Confederation
1778.5.4 Congress ratified treaties with France. 1778-79
1778.5.8 Governor Carleton dismissed Chief Justice Livius. Canada
1778.6 Tories and Iroquois defeated Americans. Frontier
1778.6.17 France declared war on England. 1778-79
1778 Free trade was implemented in Venezuela. New Granada
1778 Spain banned miscegenation in colonies. Mexico
1778 2,500 American soldiers died at Valley Forge.1778-79
1778 Chief Blackfish led invasion of Kentucky.  Jefferson
1778.7.4 Virginians led by Clark captured Kaskaskia.  Canada
1778.7.8 French fleet arrived at Delaware Bay. 1778-79
1778.9.17 United States recognized Delaware nation. Frontier
1778.10.19 Hamilton criticized war profiteering.  1778-79
1778.10.2 Governor Haldimand granted land to Iroquois. Canada
1778.12.9 Congress elected John Jay president. 1778-79
1778.12 British Navy took over St. Lucia.  West Indies
1778.12.17 British and Indians took over Fort Vincennes.Frontier
1778-84 Viceroy Vertiz ruled Rio de la Plata
1779.2 George Rogers Clark captured Fort Vincennes. Frontier
1779.5.11 British besieged Charleston.  1778-79
1779.6 Washington ordered attacks on Iroquois. Frontier
1779.6.21 Spain declared war on England. Frontier Canada
1779 French seized St. Vincent and Grenada. West Indies
1779.9.23 John Paul Jones captured Serapis.  1778-79
1779.9.28 Congress elected Huntington president.  1778-79
1780.1.31 Massachusetts constitution abolished slavery.  1780-81
1780.5.12 British captured Charleston.  1780-81
1780 Clavijero published Historia antigua de Mexico
1780 French West Indies had 437,738 African slaves.
1780 Massachusetts abolished slavery.  Confederation
1780-81 Tupac Amaru II led Inca revolt in Peru
1780-83 Indians revolted against Spaniards. Rio de la Plata
1780-85 John Hancock governed Massachusetts. Shays’s Rebellion
1781.1.1 American recruits mutinied at Princeton. 1780-81
1781.1.2 Virginia ceded land north of the Ohio. 1780-81
1781.3.1 13th state ratified Articles of Confederation. 1780-81
1781.3.16 Socorro and San Gil resisted taxes. New Granada
1781.3-5 Galvez and Spaniards captured Pensacola.  Frontier
1781.4 20,000 comuneros marched to Bogota. New Granada
1781.6.12 William Pitt condemned the British war.  1780-81
1781 15 Universalists refused to pay tax to a church.  Washington
1781.8 Spanish troops regained Bogota.  New Granada
1781.10.19 Cornwallis surrendered 8,087 men. 1780-81
1782.1.7 Robert Morris began bank of the United States. Peacemaking
1782.2.27 British Parliament voted to stop the war. Peacemaking
1782.4.19 Netherlands recognized the United States. Peacemaking
1782 Viceroy Caballero granted a general amnesty. New Granada
1782 Chauncey wrote Salvation of All MenConfederation
1782.7.27 Franklin wrote on the costs of the war. Peacemaking
1782.12.14 British fleet sailed from Charleston. Peacemaking
1783.1.20 British ceded East and West Florida to Spain. Frontier
1783.4.15 Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris.  Peacemaking
1783.5 Continental officers began order of Cincinnati. Confederation
1783.6.8 Washington wrote letter to governors. Peacemaking
1783 Inca revolt in Huarochiri failed. Peru
1783 Treaty established British territory in Belize. Central America
1783 Noah Webster published his first speller. Shays’s Rebellion
1783.7.2 British barred American ships from West Indies.  Confederation
1783.9.3 British ceded Ohio valley to Americans. Canada
1783.9 British regained Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Kitts. West Indies
1783.11.25 British troops and Tories left New York. Peacemaking
1783.12.20 Virginia ceded Ohio land claims to Congress. PeacemakingFrontier

1784.4.23 Congress adopted plan for adding states. Frontier
1784.6.9 Hamilton opened private Bank of New York. Confederation
1784.7 North Carolina ceded Tennessee to Congress.Frontier
1784.7.22 Spain closed Mississippi to American ships.  Confederation Frontier
1784.8.30 France opened 7 ports to American ships. Confederation
1784.10.22 Treaty of Fort Stanwix was signed.  Confederation Frontier
1784.12.14 Settlers formed state of Franklin in the west.  Frontier
1784-88 United States suffered a depression. Confederation
1784-90 Viceroy Croix banned famous books in Peru.
1784-1803 Lasuen was president of California missions.
1785.1.11 Congress began meeting in New York.  Confederation
1785.1.21 Treaty of Fort McIntosh was signed. Confederation Frontier
1785.5-11 Creeks made war on Georgians.  Frontier
1785 Bilingual Montreal Gazette began. British North America
1785.10 Pennsylvania Council elected Franklin president. Confederation
1785.11 Cherokees ceded land to Americans at Hopewell. Confederation
1785-86 85,000 people died of starvation in Bajio. Mexico
1785-88 John Adams was minister to Britain. Confederation
1785-89 Jefferson was minister to France. Confederation
1785-94 Henry Knox was Secretary of War. Confederation
1786.1.10 Virginia approved separation of Kentucky. Frontier
1786.1.16 Virginia adopted Statute of Religious Freedom. 1786
1786.1.31 Shawnees signed treaty at Fort Finney. 1786
1786.2 Governor Anza made peace with Comanches. North Mexico
1786.2.28 British refused to evacuate northwest garrisons. 1786
1786 Joel Barlow wrote The Anarchiad.  Shays’s Rebellion
1786.8.22 Massachusetts delegates discussed debt relief. Shays’s Rebellion
1786.9.5 Shays’ rebels blocked Massachusetts Court.Shays’s Rebellion
1786.9 Rhode Island court found a law unconstitutional. Shays’s Rebellion
1786.11.3 Creeks signed treaty fixing Oconee River border. Frontier
1786-87 Shawnees, Creeks, Cherokees fought settlers.  Frontier
1787.1.4 Massachusetts governor called out 4,400 troops. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.1 John Adams wrote Defence of the Constitutions. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.2 Military forces ended the Shays’s Rebellion.
1787.4 Madison listed vices of United States politics. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.4.16 Royall Tyler’s The Contrast played in New York. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.5.25 Constitutional Convention began in Philadelphia.
1787 British West Indies had 461,864 African slaves. 
1787 Barlow wrote The Vision of ColumbusShays’s Rebellion
1787 Noah Webster founded The American Magazine. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.7.13 Congress passed Northwest Ordinance. Shays’s RebellionFrontier
1787.8.1 Land was opened to Continental Army veterans. Frontier
1787.9.17 Convention adopted United States Constitution
1787.9.28 Congress submitted Constitution to 13 states. 
1787.10.5 Samuel Bryan argued against the Constitution.  
1787.10.18 “Brutus” article by Robert Yates was published. Ratification
1787.10.27 Federalist Papers by “Publius” began to appear. Ratification
1787.11 Federalist Papers #6-9 by Hamilton appeared.  Ratification
1787.11.22 Mason’s “Objections to Constitution” appeared. Ratification
1787.11.22 Madison published Federalist #10.  Ratification
1787.12 3 states ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1788.6.21 9th state ratified the US Constitution.  Ratification
1788.6-7 Virginia & New York ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1788 Spain allowed American ships in Mississippi. Frontier
1788.7.3 Kentucky convention applied for statehood. Frontier
1788.9.1 Congress banned whites from Cherokee land. Frontier
1788-96 Ambrosio O’Higgins governed Chile
1788-1808 Carlos IV ruled Spanish empire. Rio de la Plata Chile
1789.1 Federalists won first congressional elections.  New Government
1789.4.30 Washington was inaugurated as President. New Government
1789.5.10 Brazilian rebel Tiradentes was arrested. Brazil
1789 Clavijero published history of Baja California. Mexico
1789 Ramsey wrote History of American RevolutionRatification
1789.9 US Treasury Dept. was created. New Government
1789.9.24 US Judiciary Act became law. New Government
1789.9.25 US Congress sent 12 amendments to states. Bill of Rights
1789.10.22 Miamis and Shawnees defeated US Army. Frontier
1789.12.21 Georgia sold 25,400,000 acres to Yazoo Co. Frontier
1789-94 Viceroy Güemes reformed Mexico, banned books.
1789-1838 US Government relocated 81,282 Indians. Removal
1790.1.9 Washington gave annual message to Congress. New Government
1790.1 Hamilton made “Report on the Public Credit.”  New Government
1790.3.17 Quakers asked Congress to abolish slavery. New Government
1790.5.29 13th state ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1790 Census counted 3,699,535 people in US. New Government
1790 Judith Sargent wrote “On Equality of the Sexes.”Washington
1790 King’s College began in Windsor, Nova Scotia. British North America
1790.7 Congress passed Hamilton’s debt bill. New Government
1790.8.7 Creeks ceded land to Georgia. Frontier
1791.2 Ogé’s slave revolt in St. Domingue was defeated. Haiti
1791.2.25 Hamilton’s bank bill became law. New Government
1791.3.3 Congress passed excise tax on luxuries. Washington Whiskey Rebellion
1791.3.15 Jefferson reported to Congress on commerce. Washington
1791 St. Domingue had 452,000 African slaves. Haiti
1791 Macomb bought 4 million acres. Frontier
1791 New Foundland got a permanent court of justice. British North America
1791 Upper Canada had 14,000 people. British North America
1791.7.2 Cherokees ceded land in the Treaty of Holston. Frontier
1791.7.4 US Bank began selling stock. Washington
1791.8 Boukman led slave revolt in St. Domingue. Haiti
1791.10.31 Freneau’s National Gazette began publishing. Washington
1791.11.4 Miami’s Little Turtle defeated US Army. Frontier Jefferson
1791.12.5 Hamilton presented economic plan to Congress. Washington
1791.12.15 US Bill of Rights was ratified. 
1791.12.26 Constitutional Act divided Canada in two. British North America
1791-94 Western farmers opposed liquor tax. Whiskey Rebellion
1792.3 New York State Bank began. Washington
1792.4.5 Washington vetoed a bill as unconstitutional. 
1792.4.21 Tiradentes was hanged.  Brazil
1792.5.1 Kentucky became the 15th state in the US. Frontier
1792 Barlow wrote Advice to the Privileged OrdersAdams
1792 Lower Canada had 155,000 people.  British North America
1792.8.11 US Supreme Court found a law unconstitutional. Washington
1792.9.17 Upper Canada Assembly began at Newark. British North America
1792.12.17 Lower Canada Legislative Assembly began. British North America
1792-93 Canadian Mackenzie crossed British North America. Jefferson
1792-94 South Carolina banned importing slaves. Washington
1792-95 Abolitionist Sonthonax governed St. Domingue. Haiti
1792-1808 John Wentworth governed Nova Scotia. British North America
1792-1816 Prince Regent Joao ruled Brazil
1793.1.23 Madison published “Parties” essay. Washington
1793.2.1 France declared war on England, Spain, Holland. America
1793.3.4 President Washington began second term. America
1793.4.8 Genet arrived at Charleston. America
1793.4 Upper Canada Gazette began. British North America
1793.4.19 Washington proclaimed American neutrality. America
1793.6 Jefferson advised Genet. America
1793 Nariño was banished from America. New Granada
1793 Slaves revolted in the French West Indies
1793 4,000 people died of yellow fever in Philadelphia. America
1793 Lower Canada banned importing slaves. British North America
1793 Mountain was first Anglican bishop of Quebec. British North America
1793.7.12 Washington asked France to recall Genet. America
1793.8.8 Supreme Court declined to advise US President. America
1794.2.10 Quebec’s governor urged Indians to help British. America
1794.2 British seized Martinique and American ships. America
1794.2.24 Washington offered reward to catch criminals.Whiskey Rebellion
1794.3.4 Congress proposed 11th amendment. America
1794.3 Eli Whitney got a patent on his cotton gin. Washington
1794.3.27 Washington authorized ships for US Navy. America
1794.4.16 Washington appointed Jay envoy to Britain. America
1794.4.28 Adams broke tie in Senate on British trade. America
1794.5 Toussaint joined republican French. Haiti
1794.5.27 Washington named Monroe minister to France. America
1794.5.31 Lower Canada passed Alien and Sedition Act. British North America
1794 York became the capital of Upper Canada. British North America
1794.8.14 Western delegates demanded excise tax repeal. Whiskey Rebellion
1794.8 Brackenridge mediated with whiskey rebels. Whiskey Rebellion
1794.8.20 US Army defeated Indians at Fallen Timbers. Frontier
1794.10-11 3,000 soldiers suppressed Whiskey Rebellion.  
1794.11.8 Chickamauga wars ended in a peace treaty. Frontier
1794.11.19 Jay & Grenville agreed on US-British treaty. America British North America
1795.1 Georgia sold 35 million acres to Yazoo Co. Frontier
1795.6.24 Senate approved Jay’s Treaty with changes. Washington
1795 Economic Society of Guatemala began.  Central America
1795 Spanish army suppressed slave revolt on Cuba. Puerto Rico
1795 Spain left Española, and the English invaded. Haiti
1795 Spain strengthened forts on the Mississippi. Frontier
1795.8.3 Indians ceded land to US in Wayne’s treaty.Frontier
1795.8.18 Washington signed treaty with Ohio Indians. 
1795.8.19 Washington sent address to Cherokees. 
1795.10.27 Spain ceded territory to the US. Mexico Washington Frontier
1795.11.9 Washington met with warriors from 11 tribes. 
1795-96 Second Maroon War was fought in Jamaica. West Indies
1795-97 Fedon led a rebellion in Grenada. West Indies
1796.3 Washington agreed to pay Barbary pirates. 
1796.5 Congress funded Jay’s treaty. Washington
1796.6.1 Tennessee became the 16th state in the US. Frontier
1796 British withdrew troops from northwest. Frontier
1796.8 Spain went to war against England.  Mexico
1796.9.19 Washington published “Farewell Address.” 
1796.12 Spain opened Mississippi River to US ships. Frontier
1796-1802 British governed Guiana.  
1796-1806 Lazaro Ribera Espinosa ruled Paraguay. Rio de la Plata
1797.3.4 John Adams became 2nd US President. 
1797.4 Toussaint’s republicans defeated the English. Haiti
1797.5.15 US Congress began special session. Adams
1797.5.16 Adams declared policy of neutrality. 
1797.7.10 US Congress funded 3 Navy ships. Adams
1797.7 Callender exposed Hamilton’s adultery. Adams
1797.7.21 MacLane hanged for trying to seize Quebec. British North America
1797.8 Society of United Irishmen began. Adams
1797.9.17 Seneca chiefs sold land to Holland Company. Frontier
1797.12 Miranda claimed Spanish American junta. New Granada
1797-1803 Johnstone governed Dominica badly. West Indies
1798.2.15 Lyon and Griswold fought in Congress. Adams
1798.3 Spain ceded land to US east of Mississippi. Frontier
1798.3-10 Hédouville governed St. Domingue for France. Haiti
1798.5.9 Day of prayer resulted in riots in Philadelphia. Adams
1798.5 US Congress authorized 9 warships. Adams
1798.6.18 Naturalization Act extended time to 14 years. Adams
1798.6.26 Judge Peters ordered Bache arrested for libel.Adams
1798 Judith Sargent published The Gleaner.  Adams
1798.7.6 Alien Enemies Act authorized deportations. Adams
1798.7.9 US Direct House Tax became law. Adams
1798.7.14 US Sedition Act banned “malicious” writing. Adams
1798.8.16 France ended embargo of American ships. Adams
1798.10.1 Lyon published Scourge of AristocracyAdams
1798.10 Lyon was re-elected while in jail for sedition. Adams
1798.11.16 Gov. Garrard signed Kentucky Resolutions. Adams
1798.12.20 Barlow wrote “On Certain Political Measures.”  Adams
1798.12.24 Madison’s Virginia Resolutions were enacted. Adams
1799.1.15 Adams began negotiating a treaty with France. 
1799.1.30 Congress passed the Logan Act. 1799-1801
1799.1-3 Fries rebellion stopped tax collection.  1799-1801
1799.2.1 Washington urged Adams to make peace. 
1799.2.9 Adams authorized trade with Toussaint’s Haiti. 
1799.3-5 Fries tax rebellion was suppressed. 1799-1801
1799.4.24 Library of Congress was started. 1799-1801
1799.5 Justice Chase indicted Callender for sedition. 1799-1801
1799 Road from Lima to Callao was completed. Peru
1799 Revolutionaries in La Guaira were punished. New Granada
1799.11.14 Kentucky passed more resolutions. 1799-1801
1799.12.14 George Washington died of illness. 1799-1801
1799-1805 Robert Shore Milnes governed Lower Canada. British North America
1799-1808 Republican McKean governed Pennsylvania. 1799-1801

1800.5.1 Republicans won elections in New York. 1799-1801
1800.5.10 Land Act gave American settlers credit. 1799-1801
1800.5 Adams fired McHenry and Pickering. 
1800 Census found 5,308,483 in US, 893,602 slaves. 1799-1801
1800.7 Tripoli threatened war against the United States. America’s Naval War
1800.10.1 Spain ceded Louisiana to France.  Frontier
1800.10 Gabriel and 25 slaves were hanged for revolt. 1799-1801
1800.12 Toussaint’s troops occupied Santo Domingo. Haiti
1800.12 Electors gave 73 votes to Jefferson and Burr. 1799-1801
1801.1 Harrison became governor of Indiana Territory. Frontier
1801.1 Tripoli made demands of the United States. America’s Naval War
1801.1.31 Adams nominated Marshall as Chief Justice. 
1801.2.2 US Senate ratified altered French treaty. Adams
1801.2.13 Federalist Senate added 23 new judges.Adams
1801.2.17 House elected Jefferson President. 1799-1801
1801.3.4 Thomas Jefferson became 3rd US President. 
1801.5.13 Gallatin began work as Treasury Secretary. Jefferson
1801.5.14 Tripoli declared war on the United States. America’s Naval War
1801 St. Domingue became self-governing. Haiti
1801 McGill University began.  British North America
1801.8.1 USS Enterprise defeated the Tripoli.  America’s Naval War
1801.8 20,000 attended religious revival in Kentucky. Frontier
1801.12.7 Republican Macon became House Speaker. Jefferson
1801.12 Marbury sued Secretary of State Madison. Jefferson
1801.12.19 US Senate ratified treaty with France. Louisiana
1801-12 Harrison governed Indiana Territory. 1805-06
1802.1 Congress rejected fugitive slave bill.  Jefferson
1802.1 US agreed to pay British creditors £600,000. Jefferson
1802.2.2 Congress authorized US Navy against Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1802.2 French seized 20 American ships at Cap Français. Jefferson
1802.3.3 Congress repealed Judiciary Act of 1801. Jefferson
1802.3.16 Jefferson approved West Point military academy.
1802.4.24 Congress set Georgia’s western border. Jefferson
1802.4.30 Ohio became 17th state in US. Jefferson
1802.6.17 Tripoli seized USS FranklinAmerica’s Naval War
1802.6.25 Morocco declared war on the United States. America’s Naval War
1802 Napoleon’s army tried to restore slavery. West Indies Haiti
1802 Republicans won most US elections.  Jefferson
1802.10 Spain closed New Orleans to American trade. Louisiana
1802-03 French Army lost 50,000 men in Haiti
1803.2.19 Jefferson approved Ohio’s constitution. 
1803.2.24 Marbury v. Madison ended unconstitutional law. 1803-05
1803.2.28 Congress authorized 4 more warships. America’s Naval War
1803.3.2 Stuart v. Laird authorized federal courts. 1803-05
1803.3.26 US Senate increased import duties 2.5%. America’s Naval War 1803-05
1803.4.27 Toussaint died in a French prison.  Haiti
1803.5.2 France sold Louisiana to the United States. 
1803.5.18 USS John Adams captured the MeshudaAmerica’s Naval War
1803 Canadian courts gained jurisdiction over Indians. British North America
1803.10 Jefferson reduced US Navy budget. 1803-05
1803.10.20 US Senate ratified Louisiana Purchase. 
1803.10.31 Tripoli captured USS Philadelphia and 307 men.  America’s Naval War
1803.12.14 Spain declared war on England. Louisiana
1803.12.20 US Army took over New Orleans. Louisiana
1803-08 Viceroy Iturrigaray raised money for war. Mexico
1803-08 General Ferrand governed Santo Domingo.   Haiti
1804.1.1 Haiti was proclaimed an independent republic. 
1804.2.16 Decatur’s USS Intrepid killed 33 Tripolitans. America’s Naval War
1804.2.16 Hamilton favored Clinton over Burr. 1803-05
1804.2.24 Mobile Act created a customs district. 1803-05
1804.2.25 Republican caucus nominated Clinton for VP. 1803-05
1804.3.12 Congress removed judge John Pickering.  1803-05
1804.4.25 New York’s Governor Clinton defeated Burr. 1803-05
1804.5.14 Lewis & Clark expedition left St. Louis. Exploration
1804.6.15 United States ratified 12th amendment. 1803-05
1804 Dessalines had thousands of French killed. Haiti
1804 Republicans won most Congressional elections. 1803-05
1804 Blackburn started a school for Cherokee boys. 1803-05
1804.7.11 Burr killed Hamilton in a duel. 1803-05
1804.8.7 USS Constitution blockaded Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1804.8 Burr met with British ambassador Merry. 
1804.10.2 Claiborne became Governor of New Orleans. Louisiana
1804.10.8 Dessalines was crowned Emperor Jacques. Haiti
1804.10.11 Lear negotiated treaty with Morocco. America’s Naval War
1804.11.7 Lewis & Clark expedition reached Pacific Ocean. Exploration
1804.12.12 Spain declared war on Britain. Mexico
1804-07 South Carolina imported 39,310 slaves. 1807-09
1804-14 Arrillaga governed California
1805.1.2 Envoy Monroe arrived in Madrid. 1805-06
1805.1.8 Jefferson decided not to pay tribute to Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1805.2 US Senate acquitted Justice Chase. 1803-05
1805.3.2 Congress gave Louisiana rights. 
1805.3.3 US Senate banned armed commerce. 1805-06
1805.4  Federalists won elections in Massachusetts. 1805-06
1805.6.3 United States ransomed 307 men from Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1805 Bustamante began El Diario de Mexico
1805 Seneca Chief Red Jacket defended his religion. 1803-05
1805 Kentucky court recognized a free African’s rights. 1805-06
1805 Mercy Warren published history of US revolution. 1805-06
1805 Quebec Mercury began in English. British North America
1805.7 Gov. Harrison made a treaty in Indiana Territory. 1805-06
1805.7.30 United States sent 18 Navy ships to Tunis Bay. America’s Naval War
1805.9.23 Lewis & Clark expedition returned to St. Louis. Exploration
1805.10 Stephen published War in Disguise1805-06
1805.10.21 British Navy showed dominance at Trafalgar. 1805-06
1805.11 Miranda appealed to US for help. New Granada 1805-06
1805.12.1 Jefferson was warned of Burr conspiracy. 
1805.12.3 Jefferson criticized Spain in annual message. 1805-06
1806.1.8 Pike’s expedition reached Sandy Lake. Louisiana
1806.3.5 John Randolph began opposing Jefferson. 1805-06
1806.4.12 US Senate ratified the treaty with Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1806.4 British blockaded New York harbor. 1805-06
1806.5.23 Smallpox vaccine came to Peru
1806.6-8 British occupied Buenos Aires. Rio de la Plata
1806 Louisiana adopted the Code Noir.  
1806 Le Canadien began in French. British North America
1806.7.24 Sen. Dayton sent Burr an encouraging letter.  
1806.7.29 Burr sent Wilkinson a letter in cipher.  
1806.9.4 Blennerhassett suggested Ohio should secede. Burr
1806.9.23 Burr demanded Spaniards evacuate Orleans. 
1806.10.17 Pétion defeated Dessalines who was killed. Haiti
1806.11.3 Jackson received $3,500 from Burr for boats.  
1806.11.5 Kentucky D.A. Daveiss charged Burr in court. 
1806.11.15 Pike named a mountain “Grand Peak.” Exploration
1806.11.15 US Non-importation Act went into effect. 1805-06
1806.11.25 Wilkinson took control of New Orleans. Burr
1806.11.27 Jefferson banned invading Spanish territory. 1805-06 Burr
1806.12.12 Wilkinson began arresting Burr conspirators. 
1806.12.14 Jackson persuaded Burr to disavow rebellion. 
1807.1.7 England ended American coasting privileges. Embargo
1807.1.11 Burr and 55 people surrendered to militia. 
1807.2 British invaded Montevideo. Rio de la Plata
1807.2 Goman rebelled against Pétion. Haiti
1807.2.26 United States ended slave trade after 1807. Embargo
1807.2-6 Spaniards detained Pike’s expedition. North Mexico Exploration
1807.3.15 Jefferson rejected treaty with England.Embargo
1807.3.25 British abolished the slave trade. Embargo
1807.6.22 British removed 4 men from the ChesapeakeEmbargo
1807.7.2 Jefferson ordered British ships out of US waters. Embargo
1807.8.12 Napoleon closed Portuguese ports to British. Brazil
1807.9.4 Fulton demonstrated his steamship invention. Embargo
1807.9 Tecumseh spoke at a conference. Jefferson
1807.12.1 Burr was acquitted by a jury. 
1807.12.22 Embargo Act banned foreign trade by US ships. Embargo
1807, 1814 Slaves revolted in Bahia. Brazil
1807-11 James Henry Craig governed Lower Canada. British North America
1808.1.1 British made the slave trade illegal. West Indies
1808.1.8 2nd US embargo made punishment harsher. Embargo
1808.1.22 Joao and 10,000 nobles arrived at Bahia. Brazil
1808.3.7 Brazilians welcomed Joao to Rio de Janeiro. 
1808.3.12 3rd embargo banned all US exports. Embargo
1808.3 Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro began publishing. Brazil
1808.4.12 US Congress expanded Army to 8 divisions. Embargo
1808.4.25 US Enforcement Act increased penalties. Embargo
1808.5.6 Napoleon forced Fernando VII to abdicate. Peru Bolivar Mexico
1808.5 Tenskwatawa founded Prophetstown. Jefferson
1808 Brazil imported £2,000,000 of British goods. 
1808 Cherokees reformed their laws.  Jefferson
1808 1,130 Chickamaugas moved to Arkansas. Jefferson
1808.8 Jefferson sent US Army and Navy north. Embargo
1808.9.15 Rebels seized Viceroy Iturrigaray. Mexico
1808.10 Verdad and Talamantes died in prison. Mexico
1808-10 Chile’s Governor Carrasco repressed dissent. 
1809.1.4 Junta in Seville rescinded Law of Consolidation.Mexico
1809.1.22 Spain included Americans in Central Junta. Chile Peru
1809.2.4 Connecticut refused to enforce Embargo
1809.3.1 Non-Intercourse Act ended the US Embargo
1809.3.4 Madison became the 4th US President. 
1809.3.7 Madison’s cabinet was confirmed.  
1809.5.31 Dolly Madison held first evening levee. 
1809.6.27 John Quincy Adams became minister to Russia. Madison
1809 Spain allowed Panama to trade with Jamaica. Central America
1809.8.9 Madison banned trade with Britain.  
1809.10 Spain’s Junta decreed equal representation.Mexico
1809.8.19 Creoles formed a junta in Quito. New Granada
1809.9 Camilo Torres published Memorial de agraviosNew Granada
1809.9.30 Harrison made treaty with Miamis and others. New Granada
1809.12 Irving wrote his History of New York.
1809-18 Pétion was President of southern Haiti

1810.1 Belgrano began publishing Correo de ComercioRio de la Plata
1810.2 Brazil and British agreed to a trade treaty. 
1810.4.16 Fletcher v. Peck upheld a property sale. Madison
1810.5.1 US Congress closed ports to warring nations. Madison
1810.5.3 Caracas Junta withdrew from Spanish empire. Bolivar
1810.5.17 Governor Craig seized Le Canadien press.  British North America
1810.5.22 Revolutionary Cabildo began in Buenos Aires. Argentine Revolution
1810.5.25 Buenos Aires overthrew its government. Argentine Revolution
1810.6.2 Gaceta de Buenos Aires began publishing. Argentine Revolution
1810 Juan Egaña wrote Plan of GovernmentChile
1810 Census found 7,239,881 in US, 1,191,362 slaves. Madison
1810.7.20 Viceroy Amar was overthrown at Bogota. Bolivar
1810.8.2 Spanish troops defeated Quito uprising. Peru
1810.8 Many Indians joined Tecumseh’s confederacy. Madison
1810.9.16 Hidalgo called for a revolution in Mexico
1810.9.18 Santiago Cabildo Abierto met, elected Zambrano. Chile
1810.9.23 Americans declared West Florida Republic. Madison
1810.9.24 Bishop Abad excommunicated Hidalgo & Allende. Mexico
1810.10.15 Hidalgo’s army entered Valladolid. Mexico
1810.10.27 Madison claimed West Florida for the US. 
1810.11.2 Madison announced non-intercourse with British.
1810.11.7 Revolutionaries defeated royalists at Suipacha. Peru
1810.11.7 Calleja’s royalists defeated Hidalgo’s army. Mexico
1810.11 Madison named 2 justices to US Supreme Court.
1810.11.15 Tecumseh got aid from the British.  Madison
1810.12.5 Hidalgo ordered Indian lands returned. Mexico
1810.12.7 Claiborne took over West Florida for the US. Madison
1810.12 Morelos and revolutionaries captured Acapulco. Mexico
1810.12.18 Buenos Aires formed the Junta Grande. Argentine Revolution
1810.12.22 Congress represented provinces in Bogota. New Granada
1811, 1816 Brazil’s Joao sent military to annex Banda Oriental. 
1811.1 66 slaves died in rebellion near New Orleans. Madison
1811.1.15 US Congress approved invasion of East Florida. Madison
1811.1.17 Royalists defeated Hidalgo’s revolutionaries. Mexico
1811.1.22 Rebel Casas arrested Gov. Salcedo and Herrera. North Mexico
1811.2.20 US Congress did not renew the US Bank. Madison
1811.3.2 Venezuelan Congress met in Caracas. Bolivar
1811.3.4 Liberal Moreno died suspiciously at sea. Argentine Revolution
1811.3.21 Hidalgo and Allende were captured. Mexico
1811.4.1 Monroe began running the State Dept. Madison
1811.5.14 Paraguay’s military took over Asuncion.Argentine Revolution
1811.5 Red Jacket called Americans crooked. Madison
1811 British navy seized 17 slave ships at Salvador. Brazil
1811 Steamboat operated on Ohio and Mississippi. Madison
1811.7.4 Chile’s first National Congress began.  
1811.7.7 Venezuelan Congress declared independence. Bolivar
1811.7.27 Tecumseh met with Harrison at Vincennes. Madison
1811.7.31 Inquisition executed Hidalgo. Mexico
1811.9.25 Cadiz Cortes repealed governors’ powers. Puerto Rico
1811.10 General Brock began governing Upper Canada. British North America
1811.11.7 US Army defeated Indians at Tippecanoe. Madison
1811.11 Henry Clay was elected Speaker of the House. Madison
1811.11.15 Jose Miguel Carrera became dictator of Chile
1811.11.27 Representatives formed New Granada Federation. New Granada
1811.12 US Congress voted to arm merchant ships. Madison
1811.12.21 Congress signed Venezuela’s new constitution. Bolivar
1811-20 Christophe as King Henri ruled northern Haiti
1812.1.13 Buenos Aires became an Intendancy. Argentine Revolution
1812.2.15 Congress promulgated Free State of Quito. New Granada
1812.3.1 Tecumseh told Harrison tribes wanted peace. Madison
1812.3.12 Spain’s liberal constitution went into effect. Mexico
1812.3 US Army had only 5,000 fit soldiers. Madison
1812.3.26 Earthquake in Venezuela killed 14,000. Bolivar
1812.4.4 US enacted 90-day embargo. Madison
1812.4 Louisiana became 18th state in the US. Madison
1812.4.23 Venezuela Congress made Miranda dictator. Bolivar
1812.5.6 800 in Albany petition to repeal the embargo. Madison
1812.6.16 England repealed offensive Orders in Council. Madison
1812.6.17 US Congress declared war against England. Madison Canada
1812.6.20 Federal Republican opposed war, led to riots. American-British War
1812 Spain adopted a liberal constitution. New Granada
1812 English became legal language in Guiana
1812 Benjamin Rush published Medical Inquiries. 1778-79
1812.7.1 American citizens were ordered to leave Quebec. Canada
1812.7.17 British took over Fort Mackinac. American-British War
1812.7.25 Miranda capitulated to royalists. Bolivar
1812.8 Boston town meeting condemned the war. American-British War
1812.8.16 British defeated US Army at Detroit. American-British War Canada
1812.8.19 USS Constitution sank the Guerriere. American-British War
1812.9.25 Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Tucuman. Argentine Revolution
1812.10.5 Lizardi published The Mexican ThinkerMexico
1812.10.12 1,500 militia were called out from Tennessee. American-British War
1812.10.13 1,300 Americans retreated from Queenstown. American-British War
1812.10.13 General Brock was killed in Queenstown battle. Canada
1812.11 Pino gave Cortes a report on New Mexico. North Mexico
1812.11.25 Morelos and revolutionaries entered Oaxaca. Mexico
1812.12.15 Bolivar wrote “Manifesto of Cartagena.”  
1812.12.26 Joel Barlow died in Poland. American-British War
1812-15 George Prevost governed Canada.  
1812-16 Miranda lived and died as a Spanish prisoner. Bolivar
1812-16 Panama was the capital of New Granada. Central America
1813.1.8 Madison named Armstrong Secretary of War. American-British War
1813.1 US Congress authorized $16 million loan. American-British War
1813.1.22 British defeated Americans at the River Raisin. American-British War
1813.2.2 Federalists blocked annexation of Floridas. American-British War
1813.2.20 Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Salta. Argentine Revolution
1813.2.28 Bolivar’s patriots invaded Venezuela. 
1813.3.29 Republicans defeated royalists at Rosillo. North Mexico
1813.4.6 Gutierrez claimed to be president of Texas
1813.4.15 US Army captured British garrison at Mobile.American-British War
1813.4 US Army burned capital buildings at York. American-British War Canada
1813.4 Tecumseh led 600 recruits to Fort Malden. American-British War
1813.4.25 British and Indians besieged Fort Meigs. American-British War
1813.4.27 Royalists defeated Chileans at Yerbas Buenas.
1813.4-8 Army of Morelos besieged fortress at Acapulco.Mexico
1813.5.5 Tecumseh’s warriors defeated Kentucky militia. American-British War
1813.5.9 Madison sent Gallatin and Bayard to Russia. American-British War
1813.6 Bogota made Nariño dictator for life. New Granada
1813.6.15 Bolivar promised Venezuelans victory over Spain.
1813 Egaña started Instituto Nacional de Chile
1813.7.6 Bolivar seized 200,000 pesos to pay soldiers. 
1813.8.6 Bolivar liberated Caracas, established republic.
1813.8.18 Royalists defeated rebels at Medina River.  North Mexico
1813.8.30 Red Stick Creeks killed 517 at Fort Minns. American-British War
1813.9.10 Perry’s 9 ships defeated a British squadron. American-British War
1813.10.5 Harrison’s army defeated British in Ontario. American-British War
1813.10.5 Tecumseh was killed in Thames battle. Canada
1813.10.16 Harrison agreed to truce with Indians. American-British War
1813.11.6 Congress of Anahuac declared independence. Mexico
1813.11.9 Jackson’s army defeated Red Sticks at Talladega. American-British War
1813.11.14 Spaniards defeated Belgrano at Ayohuma. Argentine Revolution
1813.11 British Navy blockaded southern coast of US. American-British War
1813.11.29 Georgia’s militia burned Autosee and Tallassee.American-British War
1813.12.11 Napoleon recognized Fernando VII in Spain. Bolivar
1813.12.17 Madison signed an Embargo Act. American-British War
1813.12.19 British captured 358 soldiers at Fort Niagara. American-British War
1813.12.23 Royalists defeated rebels led by Morelos. Mexico
1813.12.30 British burned Black Rock and Buffalo. American-British War
1813-15 Alejandro Ramirez reformed Puerto Rico
1813-16 Viceroy Calleja defeated rebels in Mexico.  
1814.1.2 Caracas assembly gave Bolivar supreme power.  
1814.1.6 Madison agreed to negotiate with British. 1814-15
1814.1 Nariño defeated royalists in Popayan.  New Granada
1814.1.31 Buenos Aires made Posadas Supreme Director. Argentine Revolution
1814.2.8 Bolivar ordered Spanish prisoners shot. 
1814.3 Fernando VII regained Spanish throne. Mexico
1814.3.27 Jackson’s army defeated Red Stick Creeks. 1814-15
1814.4.11 Napoleon’s abdication freed British forces. 1814-15
1814.4.14 United States ended the embargo. 1814-15
1814.4.25 British Navy blockaded entire US coast. 1814-15
1814.5.3 Chileans made treaty accepting Fernando VII.
1814.5.11 Royalists defeated republicans and Nariño. New Granada
1814.5.30 British restored captured colonies to France. West Indies
1814 Worcester wrote a book on war customs. Peace
1814.7.5 US Army recaptured Fort Erie. 1814-15
1814.7.6 US-British peace conference met at Ghent. 1814-15
1814.7.16 Royalists led by Boves regained Caracas. Bolivar
1814.7.25 US Army and British both lost at Lundy’s Lane. 1814-15
1814.8.9 Creeks ceded territory at Fort Jackson.  1814-15
1814.8 Creeks ceded 23 million acres to US.
1814.8.17 Morales’ royalists defeated Bolivar at Aragua. 
1814.8.24 British burned the Capitol and the White House. 1814-15
1814.8.29 Alexandria surrendered to the British. 1814-15
1814.8.31 Prevost led invasion of US from Montreal.  1814-15
1814.8-9 British besieged Fort Erie for 48 days. 1814-15 Canada
1814.9.4 Secretary of War Armstrong resigned. 1814-15
1814.9 Bolivar returned to Cartagena. 
1814.9 Battle of Plattsburg lasted six days. 1814-15
1814.9.13 British attacked Fort McHenry in Baltimore. 1814-15
1814.10.2 Royalists led by Osorio defeated Chileans. 
1814.11.7 Jackson attacked Pensacola against orders. 1814-15
1814.11.10 Pumacahua led Incas who seized Arequipa. Peru
1814.12.15 26 New England delegates met at Hartford. 1814-15
1814.12 Noah Worcester published a book against war. 1815-1817
1814.12.24 British & Americans signed treaty at Ghent. 1814-15 Canada
1814-20 Nariño was a prisoner. New Granada
1814-40 Francia governed ParaguayArgentine Revolution
1815.1.8 Jackson’s army defeated British at New Orleans. 1814-15
1815.2.16 US Senate ratified peace treaty with Britain.  1814-15
1815.3 British shot at escaping American prisoners. 1815-1817
1815.5.8 Bolivar resigned from Colombian Army. 
1815.5.12 Morillo with large Spanish army entered Caracas. Bolivar
1815 Dodge wrote War Inconsistent with ReligionPeace
1815 Massachusetts Peace Society began.
1815.7.3 US & British signed commercial treaty in London. 1815-1817
1815.7.9 Congress declared independence of Rio Plata. Argentine Revolution
1815.7-9 Americans and Indians made treaties. 1815-1817
1815.8 New York formed first peace society. 1815-1817
1815.8 Dodge began the New York Peace Society.
1815.8-12 Morillo and Morales besieged and took Cartagena. Bolivar
1815.9.6 Bolivar wrote his “Jamaica Letter.”  
1815.12.11 Indiana became the 18th state in the US. 1815-1817
1815.12 Madison reported public debt of $120 million. 1815-1817
1815.12 Massachusetts Peace Society began.  1815-1817
1815.12 Cuffe paid for 38 blacks to go to Sierra Leone.1815-1817
1815.12.22 Morelos was executed for heresy and treason.  Mexico
1815-20 Henry Clay was Speaker of US House. Monroe Era Missouri
1815-22 Lt. Col. Sola governed Alta California.
1816.1.1 Philadelphia Female Tract Society began.  1815-1817
1816.1.9 Slavery abolition convention met in Philadelphia. 1815-1817
1816.1 Haiti’s President Pétion gave Bolivar weapons.
1816.2 Bernardo O’Higgins joined San Martin’s army. Chile
1816.3.16 Republicans nominated Monroe for President. 1815-1817
1816.3.19 Compensation Act raised Congressmen’s pay. 1815-1817
1816.3.20 Joao VI began ruling Brazil as king. 
1816.4.10 Madison approved a national bank. 1815-1817
1816.4.17 US Congress created Erie Canal commission. 1815-1817
1816.5.13 American Bible Society began in New York. 1815-1817
1816.5 Morillo’s royalists occupied Bogota. Bolivar
1816.5 Channing spoke against war in Boston. 1815-1817
1816.5 Black Hawk signed a peace treaty.
1816.6.2 Bolivar decreed slaves freed as soldiers. 
1816.6.9 Indians protested not returning to hunting lands. Canada
1816 US Congress raised tariffs to 20%. Monroe Era
1816 US Government debt peaked at $127 million. Monroe Era
1816 American Colonization Society was founded. Monroe Era
1816 Elias Boudinot published Star in the WestCherokees
1816 Channing gave his first “Discourse on War.”
1816.7 Rio Plata United Provinces stated independence. Argentine
1816.7.27 US, Jackson & Creeks defeated Choctaws.
1816.9.12 Aury set up government at Galveston. Texas
1816.9.14 Jackson signed peace treaty with Cherokees. 1815-1817
1816.9.20 Chickasaws ceded land to US. 1815-1817
1816.10.24 Choctaws ceded land to US. 1815-1817
1816.12.3 Madison suggested future innovations. 1815-1817
1816.12.21 American Colonization Society was founded. Slavery
1816.12.31 Bolívar returned to Venezuela.
1816-21 Viceroy Apodaca ruled New Spain. Iturbide California
1817.1.7 2nd United States Bank began in Philadelphia. Monroe Era
1817.1.9 Joao VI made his son Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1 Portuguese troops occupied Montevideo. Brazil Argentine Revolution
1817.1 Portugal’s João VI made Pedro Prince Royal. Brazil
1817.1 General Píar refused to help Bolívar.
1817.1 Maryland recognized the Sisters of Charity. Women
1817.1.22 Brazil took Montevideo & Oriental Province. Argentine
1817.1.23 US Congress repealed Compensation Act. 1815-1817
1817.2.12 San Martín’s army defeated royalists in Chile.
1817.2 US retaliated against British trade restrictions. 1815-1817
1817.2 US Congress passed the public works bill. Monroe Era
1817.2 1st Unitarian Church was founded in Baltimore.
1817.3.1 Mississippi became the 19th state in the US. 1815-1817
1817.3.1 US formed Alabama Territory.Monroe Era
1817.3.3 Madison vetoed the public works bill. Monroe Era
1817.3.6 Revolt broke out in Pernambuco, Brazil.
1817.3.15 New York funded building the Eric Canal. Monroe Era
1817.3 Viceroy Montalvo established Royal Audiencia.Venezuela
1817.4.7 200 slaves attacked whites in Maryland. Monroe Era
1817.4.11 Píar’s army defeated royalists at San Felipé. Venezuela
1817.4.15 Lafitte joined Mexican republic. North Mexico
1817.4 Gallaudet & Clerc began a school for the deaf. Monroe Era
1817.4.16 Admiral Lobo demanded Recife’s junta surrender. Brazil
1817.4.17 Spaniards left Angostura. Venezuela
1817.4.17 US and Britain agreed on a Great Lakes treaty. Monroe Era
1817.5 Sauks and Foxes began getting annuities. Black Hawk
1817.5.26 Recife hanged 12 rebels. Brazil
1817.6 Cienfuegos ended Spain’s tobacco monopoly. Cuba
1817.6 Royalists wiped out Americans at Matagorda. Texas
1817.6.29 Governor Freire de Andrade arrived in Recife. Brazil
1817 Cuba had 225,268 slaves.
1817 New York planned to end slavery in 1827. Monroe Era
1817 United States had over 300 newspapers. Monroe Era
1817 Eaton published The Life of Andrew Jackson
1817 Jackson sold 40 slaves for $24,000.
1817 Tennessee banned selling a suing slave.
1817 North Carolina outlawed killing a slave.
1817.7.8 Cherokees ceded 2 million acres to US.
1817.7 Revolutionaries captured 1,731 royalists at sea. Venezuela
1817.7.18 Bolívar’s revolutionaries occupied Angostura.
1817.7.30 Marshal Liñán’s army besieged Mina’s rebels. Mexican
1817.8 Spaniards evacuated Guayana province. Venezuela
1817.8 Washington Irving visited Walter Scott.
1817.9.3 Bolívar confiscated royalists’ property.
1817.9 Bryant’s “Thanatopsis” poem was published. Monroe Era
1817.9 Osborn began publishing The PhilanthropistAbolitionists
1817.9.22 John Q. Adams became Secretary of State. Monroe Era
1817.9.29 Michigan & Ohio made a treaty with 7 tribes. 1817
1817.10 Bolívar set up government at Angostura.
1817.10.16 General Píar was executed for treason. Venezuela
1817.11.3 Bank of Montreal began with $350,000. Canada
1817.11 Monroe appointed Wirt Attorney General.
1817.11 US Army burned a Creek village in Georgia.
1817.11.30 Creek warriors killed 36 US soldiers on a ship.
1817.12.2 Monroe recognized Latin American republics.
1817.12.10 US admitted slave state of Mississippi. Monroe
1817.12.16 Griscom began society to prevent pauperism. Monroe
1817.12.16 Calhoun demanded Seminole reparations.
1817.12.23 US Army occupied Amelia Island. Florida
1817-20 Cuba imported 77,000 African slaves.
1817-21 US fought First Seminole War.
1817-23.1 O’Higgins ruled Chile as Supreme Director.
1817-25 President Monroe governed United States.
1818.1.6 Jackson letter criticized President Monroe.
1818.1.30 Bolívar and Páez combined their armies.
1818.1.30 Monroe told Calhoun not to attack Spaniards. Florida
1818.1-3 Jackson led 1,000 volunteers to Fort Scott.
1818.2.12 Talca patriots declared Chile independent.
1818.2.13 John Adams wrote on the American Revolution. Monroe
1818.2 Morillo replaced Viceroy Montalvo with Samano. Venezuela
1818.3.3 João VI banned Masonic societies. Brazil
1818.3.13 Clay argued for public improvements.Monroe
1818.3.14 Jackson found fresh scalps at Fort Fowltown.
1818.3 US Congress approved veterans’ pensions.Monroe
1818.3.16 Republicans fought royalists at El Semen.  Venezuela
1818.3.25 Clay argued for Latin American republics.Monroe
1818.3.29 Haiti’s President Pétion died.
1818.4.1 1,400 Creek warriors joined General Jackson.
1818.4.5 Chileans defeated Osorio’s royalists at Maipu.
1818.4.7 Spaniards surrendered Fort St. Mark’s to US. Florida
1818.4.8 US Navy hanged two Seminole chiefs.
1818.4 Bolívar escaped from assassination attempt.
1818.4 Jackson had 300 houses burned in Florida.
1818.4 Gourlay warned against lawbreaking. Canada
1818.4.16 US-Canada treaty banned warships on Lakes.
1818.4.18 US Senate ratified Rush-Bagot treaty. Monroe
1818.4.29 Jackson had 2 British men executed.
1818.5.2 Páez led republicans retreating from Cojedes. Venezuela
1818.5.2 Bishop Plessis sent missionaries to Red River. Canada
1818.5.12 Madison spoke to the Agricultural Society. Monroe
1818.5.13 Monroe approved Americans staying in Florida.
1818.5 Presbyterian Church condemned slaveryAbolitionists
1818.5.28 Gov. Masot surrendered Pensacola Fort. Florida
1818.6.2 Jackson wrote Monroe he could take Cuba.
1818.6.27 Bolívar began printing weekly Orinoco Post.
1818 Brazil had 3,805,000 people w/ 1,040,000 slaves.
1818 Francia began imprisoning political enemies. Paraguay
1818 Dutch stopped participating in the slave trade. West Indies
1818 Illinois banned slavery and black voting. Monroe
1818 Free Port Act aided Nova Scotia shipping. Canada
1818 Illinois Constitution banned slavery.
1818 An average slave cost $1,000.
1818 Connecticut disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1818 Crocker wrote Observations on Real RightsWomen
1818 Shakers issued Memorial to New Hampshire. Peace Societies
1818.8 Steamship line connected Buffalo to Detroit. Monroe
1818.8.25 Bank of Canada began with £200,000.
1818.10.19 Chickasaws sold a third of Tennessee. Jackson
1818.11.28 Adams sent Spain a Florida ultimatum.
1818.12.3 Illinois became 21st US state. Monroe
1818.12 Abolition committee formed in Philadelphia. Missouri
1818.12 Missouri territory had 10,000 slaves.
1818.12.18 MacGregor & 417 English took over Portobello. Panama
1818.12.21 Gourlay & Niagara Spectator editor arrested. Canada
1818-19 Duke of Richmond governed Lower Canada.
1818-21 Kindelan governed Haiti.
1818-21 Smallpox epidemic devastated Canada natives.
1818-28 Maitland governed Upper Canada.
1818-38 Frederick Douglass was a slave.
1818-43 President Boyer governed Haiti.
1819.1 New road connected Nashville to New Orleans. Jackson
1819.1.20 Clay accused Jackson of acting without orders.
1819.1.30 US Congress ratified US-British Convention. Jackson
1819.2.2 Dartmouth decision protected corporations. 1818-19
1819.2.6 Illinois passed the Apprentice Labor Act. 1818-19
1819.2 Chile and Argentina allied to invade Peru.
1819.2 US Senate censured General Jackson.
1819.2 Frances Wright’s Altorf played in New York.
1819.2.15 Elected delegates met at Angostura. Venezuela
1819.2.16 Venezuela’s Congress elected Bolívar President.
1819.2.22 Spain ceded Florida to the US. Florida Slavery
1819.2.27 Cherokee chiefs confirmed 1817 treaty.
1819.3.3 US Congress passed Civilization Act. Choctaws
1819.3.6 US Supreme Court McCulloch v. Maryland1818-19
1819.3 Roger Taney defended anti-slavery Gruber. Monroe
1819.3.19 US Congress tried to control slave smuggling. 1818-19
1819.3-8 Monroe & Calhoun toured the South & West. 1818-19
1819.4.2 Páez’s forces defeated Spanish cavalry. Venezuela
1819.4 Supe city in Peru declared independence.
1819.5 Santander’s army beat royalists in Casanare. Colombia
1819.5 Haiti’s army ended 13-year peasants’ revolt.
1819.5 Channing preached value of Unitarianism. 1818-19
1819.6.9 Rio Plato Director Pueyrredon resigned and fled. Argentine
1819.6 First steamboat crossed the Atlantic Ocean. 1818-19
1819.6.22 Dr. Long led taking of Nacogdoches in Texas.
1819 Rio de Janeiro had 113,000 residents. Brazil
1819 Spaniards made a treaty with Navajos. New Mexico
1819   85 banks in the US folded. Banking Crisis
1819 Underwood sold canned food in Boston. 1818-19
1819 US War & Treasury departments were corrupt. Banking Crisis
1819 US gave American Colonization So. $100,000. 1818-19
1819 US Congress funded Anti-Slave Trade Act.Abolitionists
1819 Willard wrote A Plan for Improving Female Ed.  Women
1819.8.7 Bolívar’s army defeated royalists at Boyaca.
1819.8.21 Upper Canada expelled Robert Gourlay.
1819.9.11 Bolívar made Santander VP of New Granada.
1819.12.7 Monroe discussed Depression in his address.
1819.12.14 Alabama became the 22nd US state. 1818-19 Slavery
1819.12 Niles’ Register printed Rufus King’s speeches.Abolitionists
1819-20 Washington Irving serialized his Sketch Book.
1820.1 Spain made Puerto Rico a province.
1820.1 First free blacks emigrated to Liberia. 1818-19
1820.1 Emerson began his journal “The Wide World.”
1820.2.4 San Martín’s revolutionary army took Valdivia.
1820.3.6 Monroe signed first Missouri Compromise.
1820.3.9 US Land Act lowered price to $1.25 an acre. Missouri
1820.5.15 US Congress approved death for slave traders. Missouri
1820.6.17 Viceroy Apodaca revived press freedom. Mexican
1820.6.29 US ship Dallas captured Spanish AntelopeSlavery
1820 Central America had 1,227,000 people.
1820 Panama got its first printing press.
1820 US census counted 1,538,038 slavesMissouri
1820 Arkansas Territory offered land to Cherokees. 1819-21
1820 United States had 525 Freemason lodges. Adams
1820 Robert Baldwin led reform in Upper Canada.
1820 Cotton was 42% of US exports. Slavery
1820 US census counted 233,634 free Negroes. Slavery
1820 Maine Constitution enfranchised all citizens. Slavery
1820 Boston segregated black students. Slavery
1820 Liberal Congregationals formed a conference. Unitarians
1820 Joseph Smith saw a pillar of light.
1820.10.8 Haiti’s “king” Henri Christophe killed himself.
1820.10.9 Guayaquil in Ecuador declared independence. Colombia
1820.10.13 Viceroy Apodaca released Mexican prisoners.
1820.10 Bolívar’s army occupied Mérida and Trujillo.
1820.10.18 Choctaws traded 6 million acres to US.
1820.10.26 President Boyer, 20,000 soldiers reunited Haiti.
1820.11 Ecuador’s army beat revolutionaries at Quito. Colombia
1820.11.27 Bolívar & Morillo agreed on 6-month armistice.
1820.11.30 Cáceres Junta captured Santo Domingo fortress.
1820.12.6 San Martín’s army defeated royalists. Peru
1820.12.17 Congress declared Republic of Colombia.
1820.12.22 Webster’s oration urged end of slavery. 1819-21
1820.12.29 Trujillo Cabildo declared independence. Peru
1820-21.10 Republicans besieged Cartagena for 14 months. Colombia
1820-23 Aldea was Chile’s corrupt finance minister.
1820-24 Martin Rodriguez governed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1820-28 9th Earl of Dalhousie governed Canada.
1820-39 Taliafero was US Indian Agent to Sioux et alSioux
1821.1.1 Portuguese troops rebelled in Belém. Brazil
1821.1.1 Colombia’s Congress met at Cucuta.
1821.1 Lisbon Cortes reduced Brazil to a colony.
1821.1.17 Mexico granted Moses Austin 200,000 acres. Texas
1821.1.28 Maracaibo revolted against Spain. Colombia
1821.2.4 Iturbide persuaded Guerrero to join him.
1821.2.19 US Senate ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty. Florida
1821.2.21 Liberal troops removed Bahia’s Governor. Brazil
1821.2.24 Iturbide’s Iguala Plan proclaimed independence.
1821.3.7 João VI made his son Pedro regent in Brazil.
1821.3 Troy Council funded a female academy. Women
1821.3 Channing’s lecture impressed Emerson.
1821.3.19 Bustamente joined Iturbide.
1821.3.26 NW Co. merged with Hudson’s Bay Co. Canada
1821.4.1 Col. Herrera’s forces occupied Cordoba, Mexico. Mexican
1821.4.15 Monroe appointed Jackson governor of Florida. 1819-21
1821.4.21 Rio de Janeiro elected 160 representatives. Brazil
1821.4.26 João VI left Brazil to return to Portugal.
1821.5 Northern Peru was independent.
1821.5.29 Santa Anna’s forces entered Jalapa. Mexican
1821.6.2 San Martín met with Viceroy La Serna. Peru
1821.6 Brazil incorporated the Cisplantine Province.
1821.6.24 Bolívar’s army defeated royalists at Carabobo.
1821.6.25 Central American deputies proposed peace.
1821 Laws of the Cherokee Nation was published.
1821 Royal Charter established McGill University. Canada
1821 US produced 29% of world cotton. Slavery
1821 African Co. performed plays in New York.Slavery
1821 Wright wrote Society & Manners in America.
1821 Lucretia Mott became a Quaker minister.
1821.7.5 Buceli forced Viceroy Apodaca to resign. Mexican
1821.7.12 Colombia’s Constitution was signed at Cucuta.
1821.7 Juntas took power in Brazil’s provinces.
1821.7 Jackson began governing Florida Territory. Monroe
1821.7.19 Colombia freed all future natives born there.
1821.7.28 Peru declared independence.
1821.8.3 San Martín became protector of Peru.
1821.8.3 Viceroy O'Donojú arrived at Vera Cruz. Mexican
1821.8.10 US admitted Missouri as a slave state.
1821.8.24 Viceroy O'Donojú and Iturbide made a treaty.
1821.8.27 Peru abolished Indian tribute & forced labor.
1821.8.28 Regent Pedro decreed a constitution for Brazil.
1821.8.30 Colombia’s Congress of 57 deputies met.
1821.8.31 Durango surrendered to independent Mexicans.
1821.9.1 Portugal’s Cortes claimed power in Brazil.
1821.9.4 Russia extended territory south to 51°.  1819-21
1821.9.15 Central Americans signed Independence Act.
1821.9.21 Salvador declared independence. Central America
1821.9.22 Mexico Regency included Iturbide & Yáñez.
1821.9.27 Iturbide entered Mexico, Santa Anna, Vera Cruz.
1821.9.28 Peru imposed a 20% tariff on imports.
1821.10.3 Bolívar became President of Colombia.
1821.10.8 Viceroy O'Donojú died. Mexico
1821.10 Niles’ Weekly Register urged wider suffrage.Monroe
1821.10.27 Costa Rica seceded from Spain. Central America
1821.11.10 Last Spaniards left Venezuela. Colombia
1821.11.21 General Sucre agreed to truce with Guayaquil. Colombia
1821.11.28 Panama declared independence from Spain.
1821.12.11 Prince Pedro agreed to leave Brazil
1821.12 Peru expelled unmarried Spaniards.
1821.12 James Fenimore Cooper published The Spy.
1821.12.24 Spanish army from Panama reached Quito. Colombia
1821-22 8,000 troops fought over Montevideo. Brazil
1821-26 Bernardino Rivadavia reformed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1821-39 Lundy published Universal Emancipation.
1822.1.5 Central American Junta joined Mexico.
1822.1.11 Viceroy La Serna ordered Sangallo town burned. Peru
1822.1 Petitions persuaded Pedro to stay in Brazil.
1822.1 Pedro made Bonifacio Home & Foreign Minister. Brazil
1822.1 Quadrilateral Treaty united some Argentines.
1822.1.22 Haiti Senate authorized unification.
1822.1.26 Iturbide arrested 17 eminent liberals.
1822.2.9 Cáceres turned Santo Domingo over to Boyer.
1822.2 Lydia Francis joined a Swedenborgian Society.
1822.2.19 Portuguese Col. Madeira ruled Salvador in Bahia. Brazil
1822.2.24 Elected Mexican Congress opened.
1822.3.13 Mora published “Supreme Civil Authority.” Mexico
1822.3 Minas Gerais Junta accepted Pedro’s rule. Brazil
1822.4.7 Bolívar’s army fought royalists at Bombona.
1822.5 Washington Irving published Bracebridge Hall.
1822.5.18 Mexican Congress approved an army of 20,000.
1822.5.19 Mexico rump Congress made Iturbide Emperor.
1822.5.24 Sucre’s army took over Quito. Colombia
1822.5-6 Vesey planned a slave revolt in Charleston. 
1822.6.3 Pedro called for General Assembly elections. Brazil
1822.6.3 Salvadorans drove out Guatemalan troops. Central America
1822.6.6 Royalists surrendered to Bolívar in Pasto.
1822.6 Denmark Vesey’s revolt failed.  1822-23
1822.6.16 Bolívar made Sucre President of Ecuador.
1822.6.17 United States recognized Colombia. Monroe
1822.6.22 General Filisola took over Guatemala. Central America
1822 Panama banned the slave trade.
1822 William Church devised mechanical typesetter. 1822-23
1822 Gourlay wrote on Upper Canada statistics.
1822 Lower Canada had 427,465 people.
1822 Rhode Island disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1822 US colony of Liberia was started. Slavery
1822 Frances Wright wrote A Few Days in Athens
1822 Quakers formed Pennsylvania Peace Society.
1822.7.6 Peru and Colombia made a treaty.
1822.7.12 Pedro proclaimed Brazil independent. Brazil
1822.7.13 Bolívar annexed Guayaquil into Colombia.
1821.7.21 Iturbide was crowned Emperor of Mexico.
1822.7.26 Bolívar and San Martín met as allies. Peru
1822.8.5 Canada Trade Act let US import goods.
1822.8.26 Iturbide arrested Mier & 18 deputies.
1822.9.21 San Martín left Peru.
1822.9.28 Treasurer Medina exposed Mexico’s deficit.
1822.10.12 Pedro acclaimed Constitutional Emperor of Brazil.
1822.10.31 Iturbide dissolved the Mexican Congress.
1822.11.4 Mexico annexed Central America.
1822.11 Emerson’s essay was in The Christian Disciple.
1822.12.1 Pedro I was crowned Emperor of Brazil.
1822.12.2 Santa Anna declared Vera Cruz a republic. Mexican
1822.12.12 US recognized Iturbide’s government. Monroe
1822,1824 London loaned Peru £1,816,000.
1823.1.5 Boyer suspended cathedral chapter salaries. Haiti
1823.1 Spaniards defeated Peruvians at Torata.
1823.1 Mexico accepted Central America independence.
1823.1.23 US recognized Argentina, Chile, and Mexico.Monroe
1823.2.1 Mexican army called for a republican assembly.
1823.2.9 Filisola & Guatemalans entered San Salvador. Central America
1823.2 Green v. Biddle affirmed interstate contracts. Monroe
1823.2 James Fenimore Cooper published The Pioneers.
1823.2.23 Mexican soldiers freed political prisoners.
1823.2.28 Peru’s army made Aguero President.
1823.3.18 Colombia and Peru made a new treaty.
1823.3.19 Emperor Iturbide abdicated.
1823.3.29 Filisola separated Central America from Mexico.
1823.3.29 103 deputies opened Mexican Congress.
1823.3.30 3 Chilean provinces formed a Union.
1823.4 Mexican Congress granted S. Austin a colony. Texas
1823.5.3 Brazil’s Constituent Assembly opened.
1823.5.10 Honduras joined the Central American union.
1823.5.11 Iturbide left Mexico.
1823.5 Catherine Beecher began Hartford Female Seminary.
1823.5-7 José de Lima e Silva led Brazil’s army of 14,000.
1823.6.5 Santa Anna began federalism in San Luis Potosi. Mexico
1823.6 Spanish royalists took over Lima, Peru.
1823 Brazil had 1,147,525 slaves.
1823 US Supreme Court case Johnson v. McIntoshLaws
1823 Upper Canada’s arrears were £100,000.
1823 Mississippi banned black meetings & reading. Slavery
1823 George Flowers helped shipped blacks to Haiti. Wright
1823 William Ladd wrote essays on peace and war.
1823.7.1 Central Americans declared independence.
1823.7 Bolívar’s army defeated Agjalongo’s Pastusos.
1823.7  Haiti & France agreed on 100-million indemnity.
1823.6-7 Letters of Wyoming supported Jackson. Elections
1823.7.17 Adams warned Russia about Oregon. 1822-23
1823.7.24 Colombia’s navy defeated Spaniards on a lake.
1823.8.3 Mexican troops left Costa Rica & Nicaragua. Central America
1823.8.12 Andradas started O Tamoyo newspaper. Brazil
1823.8 Slaves revolted in Demerara-Essequibo colony. British Guiana
1823.8 10,000 slaves revolted in Demerara, Guiana.
1823.8.16 Peru’s Congress elected Tagle President.
1823.9.10 Peru Congress gave Bolívar supreme authority.
1823.9 Seminoles made a treaty with the US.
1823.9.21 Joseph Smith saw lighted Moroni.
1823.10 Charlton Fisher began editing Quebec GazetteCanada
1823.11.11 Pedro had troops dissolve Brazil’s Assembly.
1823.11-12 Pedro had his Council draft a constitution. Brazil
1823.12.2 Monroe announced Latin American policy.
1823.12.8 Webster urged helping the Greek revolution. Monroe
1823-24 English Thomas Cochrane led Brazil’s navy.
1823-26  General Freire was Chile’s Supreme Director.
1823-32 Captain-General Vives kept order in Cuba.
1823-37 General Torre governed Puerto Rico.
1824.1.14 Speaker Clay explained his American System. Elections
1824.1 James Fenimore Cooper published The Pilot.
1824.2.10 US Congress gave surveys & canals $30,000. 1824
1824.2.14 64 Congressmen nominated Crawford. Elections
1824.2 Callao mutiny led to Tagle regaining Lima. 
1824.2.17 Peru’s Congress made Bolívar dictator.
1824.2-6 Chumash rebelled at Santa Barbara. California
1824.3.2 Gibbons v. Ogden on interstate commerce. 1824
1824.3.11 War Dept. began the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 1824
1824.3.13 US-Britain convention suppressed slave trade. 1824
1824.3 Last Portuguese troops left Portugal. Brazil
1824.3.22 Whites were executed for killing an Indian. 1824
1824.3.25 Brazil’s liberal constitution was promulgated.
1824.4.1-2 Webster gave a speech on free trade. 1824
1824.4.8 Bolívar recognized natives’ land in Peru.
1824.4 Calhoun agreed to be Jackson’s running mate.Elections
1824.4.17 US & Russia agreed on 54° 40’ border. 1824
1824.5.22 US Congress increased tariff to over 30%. Elections
1824.5.24 Monroe signed bill for harbors and dams. 1824
1824.5.25 US Congress increased tariff to over 30%. Elections
1824.5.25 American Sunday School Union began. 1824
1824.5.26 United States was first to recognize BrazilMonroe
1824 English loaned 30 million pesos to Colombia.
1824 Central America abolished slavery.
1824 Cochrane crossed Panama’s isthmus.
1824 Santa Fé Trail was established. New Mexico
1824 202 women weavers went on strike. 1824
1824 Lafayette visited the United States. 1824
1824 Merino sheep were brought to New England. 1824
1824 Wagon trains traded merchandise at Santa Fé. New Mexico
1824  Canada Co. bought land in Upper Canada
1824 Upper Canada counted 150,066 people.
1824 New York supported African Free Schools.Slavery
1824 Lundy began Haitian Emigration Society.
1824 Worcester started public schools. Women
1824 Dorothea Dix wrote Conversations on Common Things.
1824.7.6 Mexico made New Mexico a territory.
1824.7.8 Haiti canceled communal land in the east.
1824.7.13 Mexico passed its Election Law.
1824.7.13 Coahuila y Texas banned importing slaves.
1824.7 Lydia Francis published her novel Hobomok.
1824.7.19 Mexican firing squad executed Iturbide.
1824.8.4 US recognized Federation of Central America. Monroe
1824.8.6 Bolívar’s cavalry beat royalists on Junin plain.
1824.9.1 Mexico elected President Guadalupe Victoria.
1824.9 Chiapas chose Mexico over Guatemala.
1824.10 Workingman’s Gazette was founded.1824
1824.10 A mob ravaged black homes in Providence. Slavery
1824.11 Moise reformed Beth Elohim Congregation. 1824
1824.11 Jackson won popular vote for President. Elections
1824.11.22 Central America promulgated its constitution.
1824.12.7 Bolívar invited 6 nations to a Panama congress.
1824.12.7 Monroe gave his last annual address. Florida Cherokees
1824.12.9 Patriots defeated royalists at Ayacucho, Peru.
1824.12 Lydia Francis wrote Evenings in New England.
1824.12.22 Bolívar resigned the presidency of Colombia.
1824.12.24 Sucre’s army entered Cuzco. Bolívar
1824.12.24 Mexico granted political amnesty.
1825.1.3 Robert Owen bought 20,000 acres by Wabash. 1824
1825.1.22 President Monroe signed the Choctaw treaty.
1825.1.25 Monroe advised Indian resettlement. Cherokees
1825.2.2 Rio la Plato & Britain signed commercial treaty. Argentine
1825.2.9 Sucre declared Upper Peru independent.
1825.2.9 Clay helped House elect Adams President. Elections
1825.2.12 Creeks sold 4,700,000 acres to the US.
1825.2.20 Sucre entered La Paz. Peru
1825.2-3 Robert Owen spoke to the US Congress twice. New Harmony
1825.3.3 Monroe approved $450,000 for roads & canals. 1824
1825.3.17 French Charles X decreed Haiti’s independence.
1825.6.2 Osage tribe ceded more land. Cherokees
1825.6 British prohibited US trade with West Indies.  1825-27
1826.1 Last Spanish garrison left South America. Bolívar
1826.1 James Fenimore Cooper published The Last of the Mohicans.
1826.1.24 Creeks traded land to the US.
1826.2.5 New Harmony Community of Equality began.
1826.2.13 American Temperance Society began. 1825-27 Beecher
1826.3 Wright founded Nashoba commune.
1826.4.8 John Randolph & Henry Clay fought a duel. 1825-27
1826.4.26 United States made a treaty with Denmark. 1825-27
1826.5.2 United States recognized Peru. Monroe 1825-27
1826.5 Pedro I abdicated the throne of Portugal. Brazil
1826.6.8 Tories destroyed Mackenzie’s printshop.
1826.6.8 Garrison printed Whittier’s “Exile’s Departure.”
1826.6.22 Central American Congress began in Panama. Bolívar
1826.6-7 Four large nations confederated at Panama. Bolívar
1826 United Provinces elected Rivadavia president. Argentine
1826 Haiti exported only 16 tons of raw sugar.
1826 Governor Torre reduced slaves’ work hours. Puerto Rico
1826 California banished Jedediah Smith.
1826 Livingston completed penal code for Louisiana. 1825-27
1826 Anne Royall published Sketches of History. 1825-27
1826 Cherokees had 18 mission schools.
1826 A mob drove blacks out of Cincinnati. Slavery
1826 Slaves revolted on the Decatur. Abolitionists
1826 Zephaniah Kingsley published his Treatise. Abolitionists
1826.7.4 John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died. 1825-27
1826.7-8 Bolivia adopted a constitution. Bolívar
1826.8.5 Ojibwe signed Fond du Lac treaty. Black Hawk
1826.8.11 Peru revived the tax on natives. Bolívar
1826.9 Lydia Francis began Juvenile Miscellany.
1826-27 Lead mining led to conflict with Winnebagos. 1825-27
1826-34 Rideau Canal to Ottawa River cost £800,000. Canada
1826-40 Cheyenne, Kiowas & Comanches fought.
1826-44 Levi Coffin helped 3,000 slaves escape. Abolitionists
1827.1.1 Bolívar granted amnesty to Venezuelan rebels.
1827.1 Quakers began the Free Produce Society. Abolitionists
1827.1 Emerson wrote the word “Transcendentalism.”
1827.1.27 Slave-trader Woolfolk beat Lundy.
1827.1.31 Mexican army ended Fredonia republic. 1825-27
1827.2.2 Martin v. Mott allowed mobilizing state militias. 1825-27
1827.3 Owen’s socialist New Harmony broke up. Elections
1827.3 Blacks began printing Freedom’s Journal. 1825-27 Abolitionists
1827.5.18 Arce led a federal attack on San Salvador. Central America
1827.6 Rivadavia resigned, and Dorrego took power. Argentine
1827 Arsenal exploded at Port-au-Prince. Haiti
1827 Strachan founded King’s College in Toronto. Canada
1827 Florida limited voting to whites. Slavery
1827 Jefferson’s heirs sold 130 of his slaves. Abolitionists
1827 US had 140 anti-slavery societies. Abolitionists
1827 Lundy published Wright’s Nashoba Book.
1827 Sedgwick published her novel Hope Leslie. Lydia Maria Child
1827 Owen’s New Harmony community ended.
1827 James Fenimore Cooper published The Prairie.
1827.7.4 New York freed its 10,000 slaves. Abolitionists
1827.7 Joanna Bethune began a school for infants. Women
1827.7.26 Cherokees declared independence.
1827.8 Britain’s commercial treaty exploited Brazil.
1827.9.9 Jim Bowie killed Major Wright with his knife. 1825-27
1827.9.22 Joseph Smith removed the golden plates.
1827.10.7 Masonry critic Morgan’s corpse was identified. 1825-27
1827.10 Mechanics’ Union of Trade Associations began. 1825-27
1827.10.27 Mexico ratified British friendship treaty.
1827.11.13 US & Britain signed a trade agreement. 1825-27
1827.12 Cuzco’s Prefect Gamarra led a rebellion. Bolívar
1827.12 Jacksonian Democrats controlled US Congress. 1825-27
1827.12.20 Mexican Congress expelled all Spaniards.
1827-28 Green’s daily Telegraph promoted Jackson. 1828
1827-29 Petitions demanded end to slavery in DC. Abolitionists
1827-30 Brazil imported 175,000 slaves.
1828.1.12 Mexico made a treaty with the United States.
1828.2 Washington Irving published his Columbus biography.
1828.4 Noah Webster published American Dictionary. 1828
1828.5.17 Peru declared war and invaded Bolivia. Bolívar
1828.5.19 US Congress passed a 40% tariff. 1828
1828.6.13 Hammond’s Gazette exposed Jackson. 1828
1828.6 Irish & German troops mutinied at Rio. Brazil
1828.6.24 Bogotá welcomed the return of Bolívar.
1828 Francia took over Paraguay’s Catholic church.
1828 Sagra published his Annals of Science & Arts. Cuba
1828 Louisiana’s Black Code was repealed. 1828
1828 Sarah Hale began Ladies Magazine in Boston. 1828
1828 Beecher began publishing Spirit of the Pilgrims. 1828
1828 “Coffin Handbill” exposed Jackson’s crimes. 1828
1828 Weed, Anti-Masonic Enquirer opposed Jackson. 1828
1828 Argus of Western America supported Jackson. 1828
1828 Jackson’s Creek orphan Lyncoya died.
1828 Franklin & Armfield formed a partnership. Slavery
1828 Women in Dover went on strike.
1828 Zilpah Grant began Ipswich Female Academy. Women
1828 Workingmen’s Party began in New York. Wright
1828 Dix published Meditations for Private Hours.
1828 Lydia Child wrote Moral Lessons in Verse.
1828 Lydia Child wrote First Settlers of New-England.
1828 Grimké sisters moved from South Carolina to Pennsylvania.
1828 William Ladd led the American Peace Society.
1828.7.14 Umpquas attacked Smith’s Oregon expedition. 1828
1828.7 Heighton began Mechanics’ Free Press. 1828
1828.7 Wright spoke on the Christian party in politics.
1828.8.2 Jackson’s slave trading was revealed. Elections
1828.8.27 Brazil & Buenos Aires recognized Uruguay. Argentine
1828.8.27 Bolivia proclaimed Bolívar “President-Liberator.”
1828.9 Mexico elected moderate President Pedraza.
1828.9-10 Federal army withdrew from Salvador. Central America
1828.10 Peruvian ships blockaded Colombian ports. Bolívar
1828.10 Lydia Francis married David Child.
1828.10.26 Mexico outlawed Freemasonry.
1828.11.7 New York elected Van Buren Governor. Elections
1829.11.12 Lydia Child published The Frugal Housewife.
1828.11 56% of votes elected Jackson US President. Elections
1828.12 Lavelle replaced and executed Dorrego. Argentine
1828.12.19 South Carolina voted right to nullify US laws. 1828
1828.12.20 Georgia decreed jurisdiction over Indians. Cherokees
1828.12.26 600 girls in a Dover mill went on strike. 1828
1828-32 Boudinot edited Cherokee Phoenix.
1828-35 John Colborne governed Upper Canada.
1829.1 Mexico elected President Guerrero.
1829.1 Emerson became a Unitarian minister.
1829.1.18 Walker’s Appeal urged slaves to revolt. 1828
1829.2.5 Salvadoran army besieged Guatemala City. Central America
1829.2.27 Colombians fought Peruvians at Tarqui. Bolívar
1829.3.4 Jackson was inaugurated US President.
1829.3 Working Men’s Party protested bank charters. Jackson
1829.3.22 Van Buren became US Secretary of State. Jackson
1829.3.23 Jackson wrote a letter to the Creeks.
1829.4.9 Morazán’s army plundered Guatemala City. Central America
1829.4 Gov. Houston resigned to live with Cherokees. 1829
1829.4.26 Wright opened the Hall of Science.
1829.5-12 Evarts wrote essays against Indian removal.
1829.6.11 Joseph Smith copyrighted The Book of Mormon.
1829 Inflation caused Brazil’s bank to close.
1829 Kendall discovered fraud in the Treasury Dept. Jackson
1829 Skidmore wrote The Rights of Man to Property. 1829
1829 Welland Canal connected lakes Ontario & Erie. Canada
1829 1,200 blacks left Cincinnati to go to Canada. Slavery
1829 George M. Horton published Hope of Liberty. Abolitionists
1829 Robert Young published Ethiopian Manifesto. Abolitionists
1829 Willard wrote History of the United States. Women
1829 Catherine Beecher wrote Improvements in Education.
1829 Wright published Course of Popular Lectures.
1829 Wright & Owen co-edited The Free Enquirer.
1829 Channing published a book on Fénelon.
1829 Cooper wrote The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish.
1829.7 Gold was discovered in Georgia. Cherokees
1829.7.22 McKenney set up Indian Board for Emigration. Cherokee
1829.8.8 Allen tested a steam locomotive. 1829
1829.8 Central America expelled troublemakers.
1829.8 Garrison began working with Lundy.
1829.8.23 Jackson spoke to 21 Chickasaw chiefs.
1829.8.31 Peru’s Congress made Gamarra President.
1829.9.7 Central America recognized no religious orders.
1829.9.15 Mexico abolished slavery. Texas 1829 Abolitionists
1829.9 Spanish reconquest of Mexico failed.
1829.9 Walker published Appeal to Coloured Citizens.
1829.11.2 Mexican Treasury Minister Zavala resigned.
1829.11.9 Yucatán’s Governor López declared secession. Mexico
1829.12.2 Pres. Guerrero exempted Texas on slavery. 1829
1829.12.4 Vice President Bustamante censured Guerrero. Mexico
1829.12.8 Jackson’s address was on Indian tribes. Cherokees Chickasaws
1829.12.8 Jackson proposed ending the Electoral College.
1829.12 Rosas became governor of Buenos Aires. Argentine
1829.12 Metamora play was on King Philip’s War. Cherokees
1829.12 Petitions against Indian removal began.
1829-12.19 Georgia passed laws against Cherokees.
1829.12.25 President Guerrero resigned.
1829-30 Washington Irving worked in the London embassy.
1829-34 Presbyterian Finney led revivals in New York. New Harmony
1829-38 NY Port Collector Swartwout stole $1,222,705. Depression
1829-62 Robinson was Upper Canada’s Chief Justice.
1830.1.1 Vice President Bustamante claimed power. Mexico
1830.1 Whites drove blacks out of Portsmouth, Ohio. Slavery
1830.1.19 Mississippi took jurisdiction over Indians. Choctaws
1830.1.19 SC Senator Haynes asserted state rights. 1830-31
1830.1.20 Colombia elected Sucre President. Bolívar
1830.1.21 Olancho rebels surrendered to federals. Central America
1830.1.26 Senator Webster defended the US Constitution. 1830-31
1830.2 Garrison refused to pay a fine for libel.
1830.2 David Child got 6 months for libel.
1830.3.26 Joseph Smith published The Book of Mormon.
1830.4.6 Joseph Smith began a Church of Christ.
1830.4.6-8 Frelinghuysen spoke against Indian removal.
1830.4.6 Mexico ended foreign colonization. 1830-31
1830.4.6 Joseph Smith began a Church of Christ.
1830.4 Brigham Young read The Book of Mormon.
1830.4.17 Chile Conservatives defeated Liberals in battle.
1830.4.27 Bolívar retired and said goodbye at Bogotá.
1830.5 President Jackson vetoed 4 bills.
1830.5.17 General Flores declared Ecuador independent. Bolívar
1830.5.19 Horace Everett spoke against Indian removal.
1830.5.28 President Jackson signed Indian Removal Act.
1830.5.29 Jacksonians’ Preemption Act helped settlers
1830.6.4 Sucre on his way to Quito was murdered. Bolívar
1830 Haiti could not pay its foreign debt.
1830 Cuba used vacuum boilers for sugar work.
1830 Jedidah Smith led first wagon train in the West. 1830-31
1830 Astor sold Pacific Fur Company for $58,000. 1830-31
1830 Grayson published Vice Unmasked. 1830-31
1830 United States had 330 state banks. 1830-31
1830 US Census counted 12,866,020 people. 1830-31
1830 US Census counted 2,009,043 slaves.
1830 US slaves were valued at $577 million.
1830 North Carolina v. Mann empowered masters. Slavery
1830 Baltimore jail began separating the sexes. Slavery
1830 United States had 319,000 free blacks. Slavery
1830 MD, VA, NY, PA, NC, NJ had most free blacks. Slavery
1830 US colony Liberia had 1,420 blacks. Slavery
1830 Pennington helped start a Temperance Society. Abolitionists
1830 Garrison was fined for refusing to be in militia.
1830 First National Negro Convention met. Garrison
1830 Wright with 34 slaves went to Haiti.
1830.7.15 Sauk Chief Keokuk agreed to a treaty. Black Hawk
1830.7.24 Cherokee Phoenix published Evarts' protest.
1830.8 Jackson fired McKenney over Indian rights. Choctaws
1830.8 Taliafero banned selling alcohol to Indians. Sioux
1830.9.27 Choctaws signed a removal treaty.
1830.12.7 Blair began publishing the Globe. 1830-31
1830.12 Washington Irving published Companions of Columbus.
1830.12.17 Bolívar died of tuberculosis.
1830-32 Whittier edited New England Weekly Review.
1830-34 President Flores governed Ecuador.
1830-34 President Morazán governed Central America.
1830-40 600,000 immigrants entered the US. 1840
1831.1.1 Garrison began publishing The Liberator.
1831.1.2 Guerrero’s army was defeated.
1831.1 Texas state congress began.
1831.1 Joseph Smith led 70 Mormons to Kirtland, Ohio.
1831.1-12 Manuel Victoria governed Alta California.
1831.2.2 Sen. Benton opposed renewing the US Bank. 1830-31
1831.2.14 Mexican firing squad executed Guerrero.
1831.2 US Congress made Duff Green their printer. 1830-31
1831.2 US Marines killed 450 Malayans. 1830-31
1831.2.17 Calhoun published his 52-page “Address.” 1830-31
1831.3 Georgia prohibited whites from Cherokee land.
1831.3.31 Mexico banned external periodicals.
1831.4.7 Emperor Pedro abdicated to his child Pedro II. Brazil
1831.4 Eaton and Van Buren resigned. 1830-31
1831.5.10 Jeremiah Evarts died of tuberculosis.
1831.5.27 Comanche hunters killed Jedidiah Smith. New Mexico
1831.6 Lydia Child wrote The Mother’s Book.
1831.6.30 Black Hawk agreed not to return to Saukenuk.
1831 Demerara-Essequibo became British Guiana.
1831 Mary Prince wrote a slave narrative in England. West Indies
1831 Slaves in Antigua revolted. West Indies
1831 Panama became part of New Granada.
1831 Stephen Smith wrote Working Man’s Manuel. 1830-31
1831 William Apess published A Son of the Forest. Jackson
1831 Newfoundlanders took 700,000 seals.
1831 Whites attacked blacks’ homes in Providence. Slavery
1831 Maria Stewart wrote Religion & Pure Principles. Garrison
1831 Catherine Beecher wrote Mental & Moral Philosophy.
1831.7.26 Calhoun argued states could nullify federal law. 1830-31
1831.8 Brazil adopted liberal laws.
1831.8 William Miller prophesied Christ would return. 1830-31
1831.8 Nat Turner led slave revolt in Southampton.
1831.9 Militia suppressed a riot in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1831.9.26 Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. 1830-31
1831.10 Cooper published The Bravo.
1831.11 Margaret Fuller had a mystical experience.
1831.12 National Republican Party nominated Clay. 1830-31
1831.12.25 60,000 slaves in Jamaica went on strike. West Indies
1831-32 Thomas Dew argued for slavery. Slave Revolts
1831-32 Virginia legislature debated abolishing slavery. Abolitionists
1831-33 12,500 Choctaws migrated west; 2,500 died.
1831-34 Canada Assembly expelled Mackenzie 5 times.
1831-41 General Prieto was President of Chile.
1831-65 Garrison published The Liberator.
1832.1.4 11-day slave revolt ended in Jamaica. West Indies
1832.1.7 Salvador seceded from Central American union.
1832.1.11 Four Mexican ministers resigned.
1832.1 Alabama made Indians subject to their laws. Creeks
1832.1.16 Randolph proposed freeing slaves in Virginia. 1832
1832.2.23 US House began investigating the US Bank.
1832.3.3 Mexican troops beat Santa Anna at Tolome.
1832.3.23 Worcester v. Georgia canceled a Georgia law. Cherokees
1832.3.24 Creek chiefs ceded Alabama land.
1832.3.24 12 men beat, tarred & feathered Joseph Smith.
1832.3.28 Morazán deposed Salvador’s government. Central America
1832.4.15 Mormons baptized Brigham Young.
1832.4-8 Black Hawk Warr was fought in Illinois.
1832.5.2 Central America recognized free conscience.
1832.5.9 Seminoles sold land in Florida.
1832.5.13 Moctezuma beat Federalists at Tampico. Mexico
1832.5 Washington Irving published The Alhambra.
1832.5.23 Black Baptist preacher Sharpe was hanged. West Indies
1832.5.23 Democrats nominated Jackson & Van Buren.
1832.6.13 Santa Anna made an armistice with Mexico.
1832.6.13 Texans declared themselves federalists.
1832.6 Cholera killed 4,000 people in New York. 1832
1832.6-9 Cholera epidemic in Canada killed 3,292.
1832 Britain took over Malvinas Islands (Falklands). Argentine
1832 Thomas Dew defended the slave economy. 1832
1832 Frances Trollope wrote on American manners. 1832
1832 66,000 immigrated to British America.
1832 Montreal gained a mayor & city council. Canada
1832 Slave-trading brought cholera to Natchez.
1832 Thomas Dew exported 6,000 slaves.
1832 Liberator printed Rankin’s Letters on Slavery. Abolitionists
1832 Garrison wrote a book on African colonization.
1832 Dorothea Dix published American Moral Tales.
1832 Lydia Child published biographies of women.
1832 T. Grimké spoke to Connecticut Peace Society.
1832.7.10 Jackson vetoed US Bank charter renewal.
1832.7.14 US Congress passed a protectionist tariff.
1832.7 Cooper published The Heidenmauer.
1832.8 General Muzquiz replaced VP Bustamante. Mexico
1832.9.12 Spaniards surrendered Omoa garrison. Central Americ
1832.9.18 Centralist army beat Federalists at El Gallinero. Mexico
1832.9.23 Jackson made Taney Treasury Secretary.
1832.10 Ross rejected $3.25 million for Cherokee land.
1832.11 Jackson was re-elected with 54% of the votes.
1832.11.24 South Carolina convention nullified tariffs.
1832.12.10 Jackson accused South Carolina of treason.
1832.12 South Carolina Gov. Hayne called volunteers. 1832
1832.12.23 Mexico ended civil war under Pres. Pedraza.
1832.12.25 Joseph Smith revealed a wholesome diet.
1832-34 Mormons published Evening & Morning Star.
1832-34 Albert Brisbane studied with Fourier at Paris. Harmony
1832-35 Brazil’s War of Cubanos was worst in Pará.
1832-37 President Santander governed New Granada.
1832-44 William Quinn founded 47 AME churches. Garrison
1833.1 Newfoundland began representative government.
1833.2.14 Creeks signed a treaty with US at Fort Gibson.
1833.2 Mexicans elected Santa Anna President.
1833.2 Gouge wrote a history of money and banking. US Bank
1833.2 Barron v. Baltimore did not favor US gov’t. 1833-34
1833.3.2 Jackson approved Force and Tariff bills.
1833.3 Lewis Tappan began The Emancipator. Anti-Slavery
1833.3.18 South Carolina nullified US Force bill.
1833.4 Crandall began to teach colored girls. Anti-Slavery Abolitionists
1833.4 Lydia Child published Good Wives.
1833.4 Mormons sent out first missionaries.
1833.5 Oberlin College included women. 1833-34
1833.5 Garrison & Nathaniel Paul visited England. Anti-Slavery
1833.5 Whittier published Justice and Expediency. Anti-Slavery
1833.6.23 Mexican Congress exiled 50 opponents.
1833 Epidemic killed 35,000 California Indians.
1833 Livingston wrote on prison reform. 1833-34
1833 Carey published Appeal to the Wealthy. 1833-34
1833 John Galt published his Autobiography. Canada
1833 May wrote a book on educating Negroes. Anti-Slavery
1833 David Child published Despotism of Freedom. Anti-Slavery
1833 Elizur Wright wrote “Sin of Slavery.”Anti-Slavery
1833 Oberlin College began & accepted blacks. Abolitionists Women
1833 Mormons printed the Book of Commandments.
1833.7 Jackson let Black Hawkk tour in the East.
1833.7 Cooper published The Headsman.
1833.8 General Trades’ Union of New York formed. 1833-34
1833.8 Lydia Child wrote Appeal for Africans. Abolitionists
1833.8.16 Emerson met Carlyle at Edinburgh.
1833.8.28 Britain’s Slavery Abolition Act paid slaveholders. West Indies
1833.10.8 Arista’s insurgents surrendered at Guanajuato. Mexico
1833.10 Boston Female Anti-Slaveryy Society began.
1833.11 Emerson lectured on “Uses of Natural History.”
1833.11 Mormons moved to Clay County, Missouri.
1833.12.3 American Anti-Slavery Society began.
1833.12.6 Garrison wrote “Declaration of Sentiments.”Anti-Slavery
1833.12 Mott began a Female Anti-Slavery Society.
1833.12.24 Jackson submitted 7 Indian treaties.
1833,1838 Boyer expelled legislator Hérard-Dumesle. Haiti
1833-35 José Figueroa governed Alta California.
1833-35 US troops moved 19,600 Creeks west.
1833-37 150,000 slaves were moved west in the US.
1833-47 Schoelcher published 3 books on slavery. West Indies
1834.1 Mexico arrested Stephen Austin.
1834.1 Lydia Child joined Boston Anti-Slavery Society.
1834.1.17 Emerson lectured at the Mechanic’s Institution.
1834.1.29 Jackson sent troops to a strike in Maryland.
1834.1-4 Liberal VP Farías governed Mexico.
1834.2 Joseph Smithbegan Quorum of 12 Apostles.
1834.3.6 City of York became Toronto. Canada
1834.3.28 US Senate censured President Jackson. 1833-34
1834.4.4 House passed Polk’s 4 resolutions on banking. 1833-34
1834.4.10 Thousands rioted in New York City. 1833-34
1834.4.14 Clay began organizing the new Whig party. 1833-34
1834.4.21 Jackson & Taney imposed currency reform.
1834.4-12 Mexico secularized California missions.
1834.5 Joseph Smith organized Mormon militia.
1834.5.24 Chickasaw treaty was signed at Washington.
1834.6.2 Santa Anna dissolved Mexican Congress.
1834.6.3 Santa Anna made a deal with the Church.
1834.6.20 US established Indian Country in the West. 1833-34
1834.6.28 US Coinage Act changed gold-silver ratio. US Bank
1834 Puerto Rico had 138,000 people, 41,818 slaves.
1834 Flinter’s book justified slavery in Puerto Rico.
1834 Astor sold American Fur Co. for $250,000. 1833-34
1834 Morse published Foreign Conspiracy. Jackson
1834 Canadian reformers won elections.
1834 Slave Henry Blair patented corn harvesters. Slavery
1834 Tennessee disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1834 NY & Philadelphia mobs attacked abolitionists. Slavery
1834 James Birney freed his remaining slaves. Politics
1834 New York Moral Reform Society began. Harmony
1834 Bancroft wrote History of the United States.
1834.7.4 Massachusetts ended debtor imprisonment. 1833-34
1834.7 Mobs attacked free blacks in New York. 1833-34 Anti-Slavery
1834.8.1 British freed infant slaves in British colonies. West Indies
1834.9.9 Vandals damaged Crandall’s school. Anti-Slavery Abolitionists
1834.11 Democrats won elections for US Senate. 1833-34
1834.12.1 Jackson announced that US debt was paid.
1834-35 Mayor Mackenzie governed Toronto.
1834-36 US money supply stimulated economic growth. US Bank
1834-36 United States experienced many riots. 1835
1834-36 Theodore Weld lectured on slavery abolition. Anti-Slavery
1834-38 Tacón banned weapons in Havana. Cuba
1834-43 William Carson led Newfoundland reforms.
1835.1 Brazil suppressed big slave revolt in Bahia.
1835.1.25 Channing gave second “Discourse on War.”
1835.1.27 Mexican Congress made General Barragan VP.
1835.1-2 Emerson lectured on 5 great men. 474
1835.2.7 Central America annexed San Salvador.
1835.2 Earthquake ruined Concepcion, Chile.
1835.2 Cherokees ceded land to US for $4.5 million.
1835.2 Joseph Smith made Young one of 12 apostles.
1835.4.11 Thaddeus Stevens defended public schools. 1835
1835.5.1 Kendall became Postmaster General. 1835
1835.5.6 Bennett began the New York Herald. 1835
1835.5.10 France paid its debt to the United States. Jackson
1835.5 Evans blamed speculation for unemployment. 1835
1835.5 Democrat convention nominated Van Buren. 1835
1835.5 Lydia Child wrote History of Condition of Women.
1835.5 Irving published Abbotsford and Newstead. 520
1835.5.20 Fisk spoke on “Capital against Labor.”1835
1835.5.23 Los Angeles claimed to be California’s capital.
1835.6 Whipper & Purvis advised peaceful methods. Militant
1835.6.29 Charleston Lynch men burned abolitionist mail. Militant
1835.6-9 US had 109 riots, 35 against abolitionists. Militant
1835 Puerto Rico’s trade reached 7.8 million pesos.
1835 3,500 Creeks died of disease after moving.
1835 United States had about 3,000 lyceums. Jackson
1835 Graham lectured on a vegetarian diet. 1835
1835 US had 35 Negro Benevolent Societies. Slavery
1835 North Carolina disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1835 Jay’s book criticized African colonization. Garrison
1835 Mob destroyed Noyes Academy for women. Anti-Slavery
1835 Boston Female Moral Reform Society began. Women
1835 Advocate for Moral Reform began publishing. Women
1835 400 men tore down Noyes Academy. Abolition
1835 Channing published his book Slavery. Militant Abolition
1835 Joseph Smith wrote the Book of Abraham.
1835 Washington Irving published A Tour on the Prairies.
1835.7.6 United States Chief Justice Marshall died. 1835
1835.7 New York Supreme Court favored employers. 1835
1835.7.17 Texans resolved on war, opposed Santa Anna.
1835.7.29 Charleston mob burned anti-slavery mail. 1835
1835.8 Austin was allowed to leave Mexico City.
1835.8 Bancroft spoke at Williamstown College.
1835.8 Mormons published Doctrine and Covenants.
1835.9 A mob attacked Whittier and Thompson. 1835
1835.10.8 Stephen Austin summoned volunteers for war. Texas
1835.10.10 Austin began Telegraph and Texas Register. Texas
1835.10 Birney began publishing The Philanthropist. Politics
1835.10 Washington Irving wrote Legends of Conquest of Spain.
1835.10.16 New Mexico banned weapons sales to Indians.
1835.10.21 A mob attacked the NY Anti-Slavery Society. Militant
1835.10.21 5,000 disrupted Female Anti-Slavery meeting. Militant
1835.11.7 Georgia arrested Ross and others. Cherokees
1835.11.14 Texans made Sam Houston commander.
1835.12.7 Democrats made Polk Speaker of the House. 1835
1835.12.10 Texans took over San Antonio.
1835.12 President Jackson criticized abolitionists.
1835.12.16 Anti-Mason Party nominated General Harrison. 1835
1835.12.29 Mexican Congress enacted 1836 Constitution.
1835.12.29 Cherokee chiefs sold and traded land.
1835,1840 Democracy in America by De Tocqueville.
1835-37 Liberal Diogo Feijó was Brazil’s regent.
1835-37 Braulio Carrilo governed Costa Rica. Central America
1835-39 President Rocafuerte governed Ecuador.
1835-39 President Morazán governed Central America.
1835-40 Cabanagem revolts broke out at Para in Brazil.
1835-43 Seminole War cost US $35m & 1,535 men.
1835-52 Manuel de Rosas governed Buenos Aires. Argentine
1836.1 Lydia Child published The Evils of Slavery.
1836.1.20 Venezuela made a treaty with United States. 1836-37
1836.3.2 Texas declared independence.
1836.3.4 Garrison & May testified in Massachusetts. Militant
1836.3.6 Santa Anna’s army killed Texans at the Alamo.
1836.3.14 US Senate rejected abolitionist petitions. 1836-37
1836.3.15 US Senate confirmed Taney as Chief Justice. Jacksonian
1836.3.17 Texans elected David Burnett President.
1836.3.27 Santa Anna had 332 Texans executed.
1836.4.20 US Congress established Wisconsin Territory. 1836-37
1836.4.21 Houston’s army defeated Santa Anna. Texas
1836.5 Wright spoke on American government.
1836.5.23 US Senate ratified the Cherokee treaty.
1836.5.25 John Q. Adams spoke against slavery. 1836-37
1836.5.28 Lt. Gov. Head challenged democracy. Canada
1836.5-7 US won Second Creek War in Alabama.
1836.6.15 US admitted Arkansas as a slave state. 1836-37
1836.6 Emerson published his first book Nature.
1836.6.20 Upper Canada government won elections.
1836 British chartered 1st West Indies Colonial Bank.
1836 Cherokees began a Temperance Society.
1836 US Land Office sold 20 million acres. 1836-37 Slavery
1836 American Temperance Union formed. 1836-37
1836 US imports reached $180.1 million. Panic of 1837
1836 Spaldings went to Idaho to help the Nez Perce. Panic of 1837
1836 Lydia Child published 2 anti-slavery books.
1836 A. Grimké wrote Appeal to Christian Women. Militant
1836 Robert Lewis published Light and Truth. Militant
1836 Rose asked for Woman’s Property Law in NY.
1836 Grimké sisters began lecturing on slavery.
1836 Thomas Upham published Manual of Peace.
1836.7.4 Mackenzie began the Constitution newspaper.
1836.7.4 Rantoul argued for codes over common law. 1836-37
1836.7 New Mexico mandated schooling.
1836.7 US Congress protected the mail. Anti-Slavery
1836.7-8 Margaret Fuller visited Emerson.
1836.9.5 Texas elected Sam Houston as President.
1836.9 Lydia Child published her novel Philothea.
1836.10.5 Gov-General Gosford prorogued Parliament. Canada
1836.10 Women textile workers went on strike. 1836-37
1836.10 Washington Irving published Astoria.
1836.11 Van Buren was elected president with 51%. 1836-37
1836.12 2,321 Upper Creeks settled by Canadian River.
1836.12.19 Texas claimed territory by the Rio Grande.
1836.12.24 Chile Congress declared war on Peru & Bolivia.
1836.12.27 Stephen Austin died of pneumonia. Texas
1836.12.29 Mexico made New Mexico a department.
1836-37 Financial panic began in the US. 1836-37
1836-37 Emerson lectured on “Philosophy of History.”
1836-38 President Santa Cruz ruled Peru.
1836-38 Francis Bond Head governed Upper Canada. Canada
1836-45 Rio Grande do Sul suffered Ragamuffin War. Brazil
1837.1.25 New Orleans Picayune began publishing. 1836-37
1837.1-2 Mormon bank failed.
1837.2.12 1,000 New Yorkers stole barrels of flour. Panic of 1837
1837.2 900 died of cholera in Guatemala City. Central America
1837.3.3 US Supreme Court was increased to 9 justices. 1836-37
1837.3.4 President Van Buren was inaugurated.
1837.3.15 Daniel Webster spoke against annexing Texas. 1837
1837.3 United States recognized Texas Republic. 1836-37
1837.3 British debated 10 resolutions on Canada.
1837.3 Colored American demanded emancipation. Abolitionists
1837.3.17 Financial panic began in New York City.
1837.3.19 Rosas declared war on Peru and Bolivia. Argentine
1837.4.23 Emerson wrote to Van Buren on Cherokees.
1837.5.7 1,200 Canadians passed resolutions.
1837.5.10 New York banks suspended payments. Panic of 1837
1837.5 782 American banks suspended payments. Panic of 1837
1837.5 Washington Irving wrote Adventures of Captain Bonneville.
1837.6.6 Chile’s War Minister Portales was murdered.
1837.6 Chile’s Civic Guard ended a mutiny.
1837.6 Mormon missionaries went to Britain.
1837.6.30 Mackenzie & farmers decided to defend rights. Canada
1837.6-7 US spent $11.5 million on Indian removal. 1837
1837 Sturge & Harvey printed West Indies in 1837.
1837 Puerto Rico paid Spain 500,000-pesos war tax.
1837 Chickasaw and Cherokee migrations began.
1837 14,609 Creeks were moved west; 3,500 died.
1837 US Government revenues fell by 50%. Panic of 1837
1837 Ed Beecher wrote History of the Alton Riots. 1837
1837 Grund published a book on American morals. 1837
1837 Harriet Martineau printed Society in America. 1837
1837 Mackenzie issued a Call to Revolution. Canada
1837 Financial panic reduced the slave trade.
1837 Free blacks in NY had $2 million in assets. Slavery
1837 18,768 blacks in Philadelphia had 16 churches. Slavery
1837 180,000 petitions opposed Texas slavery. Militant
1837 Whipple spoke on nonviolent resistance. Peace
1837 Black abolitionists Weekly Advocate began.
1837 Weld published The Bible Against Slavery. Abolitionists
1837 Oberlin College admitted 4 women. Women
1837 Martineau published Society in America. Women
1837 Catherine Beecher wrote on slavery & abolition.
1837 Lydia Child published The Family Nurse.
1837 Sarah Grimké wrote Letters on Equality of Sexes.
1837 Angelina Grimké wrote An Appeal to the Women.
1837 American Peace Society renounced all wars.
1837.7.1 Pennsylvania blocked Negro voting. 1837
1837.7 Pueblos defeated and killed Gov. Pérez. New Mexico
1837.7 Pennsylvania disenfranchised blacks. Slavery
1837.7.28 Toronto 300 supported Lower Canada patriots.
1837.7.29 Ojibwe nation sold land to the US. 1837
1837.7.31 Thousands of rebels met in Quebec. 1837
1837.8.1 Channing opposed Texas annexation. 1837
1837.8.9 Taos natives elected Governor González. New Mexico
1837.8 Smallpox wiped out Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara. 1837
1837.8 John Q. Adams filibustered Texas annexation. 1837
1837.8.25 President Van Buren opposed annexing Texas.
1837.8.25 US Senate rejected Texas statehood. 1837
1837.8.26 Lower Canada legislature was dissolved.
1837.9.4 Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph. 1837
1837.9.12 Mexican troops suppressed New Mexico revolt. 1837
1837.9.29 Sioux delegates made a treaty in Washington.
1837.10.1 40 signed a manifesto for a Canadian republic.
1837.10.21 US captured Osceola under a flag of truce. Seminole War 1837
1837.10.23 5,000 Canadians opposed using arms.
1837.10.23 7,000 in Montreal backed British Empire. Canada
1837.11.4 1,000 supported Lower Canada independence.
1837.11.6 Montreal mob destroyed Vindicator printshop. Canada
1837.11.7 A mob killed abolitionist printer Lovejoy. 1837
1837.11.8 Lyon began Mt Holyoke Female Seminary. 1837 Women
1837.11.8 800 Patriotes fought loyalists at Baker’s Farm. Canada
1837.11.10 British defeated 500 Patriotes at Beauharnois. Canada
1837.11.15 Mackenzie published a draft constitution. Canada
1837.11 Whigs won New York elections. 1837
1837.11 Channing eulogized Noah Worcester.
1837.12.7 Canadian militia captured Americans. Van Buren
1837.12.7 Canadian rebels fled from Toronto to US.
1837.12.8 Phillips called for ending slavery in the US. 1837
1837.12.14 1,500 British troops beat French Canadians.
1837.12.15 Garrison wrote “No Union with Slaveholders.” Abolitionists
1837.12.25 US Army forced Seminoles to retreat. 1837
1837.12.29 Canadians destroyed US ship Caroline. Van Buren
1837-38 President Orbegoso governed North Peru.
1837-38 500 Chickasaws died migrating west.
1837-38 Gunn & Burleigh spent six months in Haiti. Abolitionists
1837-38 Emerson lectured on “Human Culture.”
1837-39 President Soublette governed Venezuela.
1837-39.3 President Bustamante governed Mexico.
1837-40 Brazil’s conservative party led to 2nd Empire.
1837-42 Alvarado governed Alta California.
1837-44 General Armijo governed New Mexico.
1837-44 US Congress Gag Rule blocked debate. Militant
1837-49 Mann led Massachusetts Board of Education. 1840
1838.1.5 Van Buren declared neutrality toward British.
1838.1.14 General Scott arrested Mackenzie. 1838-39
1838.1 French reduced Haiti’s debt to 60 million francs.
1838.1 Canadians fought Americans at Niagara River. 1838-39
1838.1.26 Federal garrison mutinied at Guatemala City. Central America
1838.1.26 British suspended Lower Canada’s constitution.
1838.1.27 Ex-Gov. Armijo defeated Taos rebels. New Mexico
1838.1.27 Lincoln spoke on “Danger to our Liberty.” 1838-39
1838.2.1 Carrera led 10,000 natives into Guatemala City. Central America
1838.2.21 Angelina Grimké testified to a Massachusetts committee.
1838.3.12 Emerson spoke to American Peace Society.
1838.3 Brazil’s army beat Sabinada rebels in Salvador.
1838.3 Mormons moved to Far West, Missouri.
1838.4 First steamer crossed the Atlantic Ocean. 1838-39
1838.4 Massachusetts jailed Kneeland for blasphemy. 1838-39
1838.4.22 Emerson opposed Cherokee removal.
1838. Channing petitioned for Kneeland.
1838.5.7 A mob burned a Philadelphia meetinghouse. 1838-39
1838.5 Theodore Weld married Angelina Grimké. Women
1838.5.17 Abolitionist Pennsylvania Hall burned down.
1838.5.26 General Wool began rounding up Cherokees.
1838.5.29 Disguised Americans burned a Canadian ship. 1838-39
1838.6.6 Gen. Scott reported Cherokees lacked supplies.
1838.6 Half of 16,000 Creeks had no provisions.
1838 Only 5 European nations recognized Haiti.
1838 Smallpox killed Assiniboine, Blackfoot & Cree. Canada
1838 Iroquois Confederation had 187,000 acres. Canada
1838 Upper Canada counted 397,489 people.
1838 British tried 1,900 rebels in Upper Canada.
1838 British freed 700,000 slaves in West Indies.
1838 An average slave in the US cost $1,300.
1838 Pennsylvania limited voting to white men. Slavery
1838 New England Nonresistance Society began. Peace
1838 Abolitionists paid black Remond to lecture.
1838 Catherine Beecher wrote The Moral Instructor.
1838 Channing gave his third “Discourse on War.”
1838 New England Female Moral Reform Society. Harmony
1838 Cooper published The American Democrat.
1838 Whittier published his abolitionist poetry.
1838.7.4 US created the Iowa Territory. 1838-39
1838.8.1 British Guiana freed apprentices.
1838.8 Carrera’s Guatemalans defeated federals. Central America
1838.8.31 Emerson gave “The American Scholar” speech.
1838.9 Frederick Douglass escaped to New York.
1838.9 Peace Convention adopted Garrison’s credo.
1838.10 Mormons burned 50 buildings in Daviess.
1838.10.30 Missouri militia killed 17 Mormons.
1838.11 Cooper published Homeward Bound.
1838.11.17 A mob burned abolitionists’ Pennsylvania Hall.
1838.12 Canada punished American filibusters. 1838-39
1838.12.20 Black abolitionists opposed colonization. Slavery
1838-39 President Agüero governed North Peru.
1838-39 Emerson lectured on “Human Life.”
1838,1840 British ended black apprenticeships. West Indies
1838-40 Whittier edited the Pennsylvania Freeman.
1838-41 President Lamar governed Texas.
1838-42 Braulio Carrilo governed Costa Rica. Central America
1838-43 US removed 3,824 Seminoles from Florida.
1839.1.20 Chile’s army beat Peru-Bolivians at Yungay.
1839.1.31 Durham gave his long report to Parliament. Canada
1839.2 Clay criticized abolitionists & defended slavery. Elections
1839.3.12 Douglass spoke on anti-colonization.
1839.3 Nicaragua & Honduras invaded Salvador. Central America
1839.3 Cooper published Home as Found.
1839.3.26 General Scott ended the Aroostock War. 1838-39
1839.4.13 Carrera’s army restored the Guatemala government. Central America
1839.5 Ripley published Fuller’s translation of Goethe.
1839.5.28 NE Anti-Slavery Convention named women. Abolition
1839.6.22 Ross followers killed 2 Ridges & Boudinot. Cherokees
1839 Haytian Papers author Prince Saunders died. Haiti
1839 French West Indies had 285,956 slaves.
1839 Congress rejected 1,496 anti-slavery petitions. 1838-39
1839 US trade deficit reached $47.4 million. 1838-39
1839 Russell wrote Principles of Statistical Inquiry. 1838-39
1839 US wheat became a major cash crop. 1838-39
1839 Mississippi let women control property. 1838-39
1839 Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine began publishing. 1838-39
1839 Chevalier’s Letters on North America showed. 1838-39
1839 Governor Head described Family Compact. Canada
1839 Weld wrote American Slavery As It Is. Abolitionists Grimké
1839 Whipple wrote Evils of the Revolutionary War. Politics
1839 Mayor Eliot began Boston Lunatic Asylum. Dorothea Dix
1839 American Female Moral Reform Society began. Harmony
1839.8 11,000 balaios occupied Caxias in Maranhão. Brazil
1839.9.6 East-West Cherokees adopted a constitution.
1839.10 Biddle’s US Bank of Pennsylvania closed. US Bank Depression
1839.11.13 Liberty Party nominated Birney for President. 1838-39
1839.11.29 Joseph Smith met President Van Buren.
1839.12.4 Whigs nominated Harrison for President. 1838-39
1839-41 President Bustamante governed Mexico.
1839-41 Margaret Fuller led Conversations.
1839-42 La Amistad slaves were tried & released.
1839-43 President Flores governed Ecuador.
1840.1 Carrera’s forces crushed liberals in Los Altos. Central America
1840.1.31 Federal troops were driven out of Honduras. Central America
1840.2.14 Yucatán seceded from Mexico.
1840.2 Channing wrote on lifting laboring classes.
1840.3.18 Morazán’s army liberated Guatemala City. Central America
1840.3.19 Texans and Comanches fought at Béxar.
1840.3.20 Carrera’s army forced Morazán to retreat. Central America
1840.3.25 Mexicans defeated Rio Grande Republic. Texas
1840.3.27 Junta declared Monterey California capital.
1840.3.31 Van Buren approved the 10-hour work day. 1840
1840.4 Webster proposed a bankruptcy bill. 1840
1840.4 Ballou began publishing Practical Christian. Hopedale
1840.5.13 Salvadorans agreed to Guatemalan conditions. Central America
1840.5 Democrats named Van Buren for re-election. 1840
1840.5 US Anti-Slavery Society accepted women.
1840.6 World Anti-Slavery Convention met in London. Abolitionists
1840.6.27 Clay described Whigs’ economic program. 1840
1840 Lamar spent $2.5 million fighting Comanches. Texas
1840 Baylor began Texas Baptist Union Association.
1840 120 mountain men attended last rendezvous. Oregon
1840 Brisbane published Social Destiny of Man. 1840 Hopedale
1840 US cost of Indian removal reached $50 million. 1840
1840 Abraham Lincoln campaigned for Harrison. 1840
1840 Sorin published The Domestic Circle. 1840
1840 US census counted 17,069,543 people. 1840 Slavery
1840 US census counted 2,487,355 slaves. 1840
1840 Value of US slaves was $997 million.
1840 Bishop Leonidas Polk owned 111 slaves.
1840 US census counted 386,293 free Negroes. Slavery
1840 Birney began Liberty Party & ran for President. Abolitionists
1840 Female Moral Reform Society had 555 groups. Women
1840 Lucretia Mott preached in black churches.
1840 Ladd wrote Essay on a Congress of Nations. Peace Societies
1840 Mormons built Nauvoo in Illinois.
1840 Cooper published The Pathfinder.
1840.7.1 Transcendentalists began publishingThe Dial.
1840.7.4 Van Buren signed Independent Treasury bill. 1840
1840.7.15 Texans killed Cherokees by Neches River.
1840.7 Brownson published “The Laboring Classes.” 1840
1840.8.8 Comanches burned Linnville, Texas.
1840.8.12 200 Texas Rangers killed 87 Comanches.
1840.8.25 US & Mexico agreed to arbitration commission. 1840
1840.9.1 Picayune reported Iberville slave revolt.
1840.9 Dana published Two Years Before the Mast. 1840
1840.10.24 90 Texans killed 128 Comanches at Red Fork.
1840.11 Whig Party won many elections. 1840
1840.11 80% of those eligible voted in the US election. 1840
1840.12 Nauvoo Mormons got a charter, formed militia.
1840.12 Cooper published a novel about Columbus.
1840-41 Remond lectured in England & Ireland. Politics
1840-41 Young led Mormon missionaries in Britain.
1840-44 Fuller & Emerson publishedThe Dial.
1841.1.25 Emerson lectured on “Man the Reformer.”
1841.1.28 Fraternal Community began at Mendon, MA. Brook Farm
1841.2.10 Union of East and West Canada began.
1841.2 Greeley began the daily New York Tribune. Harrison
1841.2.18 Salvador adopted another constitution. Central America
1841.3 US Supreme Court freed La Amistad slaves. Van Buren
1841.3.20 Emerson published his Essays.
1841.3.28 Dorothea Dix spoke to jail inmates in East Cambridge.
1841.4.4 Tyler became US President.
1841.4 Transcendentalists founded Brook Farm. 1841
1841.4.24 Webster wrote to British about the Caroline. 1841
1841.6.18 Gov. Alvarado granted Sutter 48,827 acres. California
1841 Brazil’s army defeated balaios revolt.
1841 Chile elected General Bulnes president.
1841 Cuba had 425,521 slaves.
1841 Bidwell led a wagon train on the Oregon Trail. 1841
1841 Catlin published on North American Indians. 1841
1841 US produced 62% of the world’s cotton. Slavery
1841 Whites & blacks protested railway segregation. Politics
1841 Henry Wright wrote Duty of Abolitionists.
1841 Black professor Reason published Freedom. Politics
1841 Ann Plato published her Essays. Politics
1841 Friend of Virtue had 3,000 subscribers. Women
1841 Catherine Beecher wrote On Domestic Economy.
1841 United States had only 11 private asylums. Dorothea Dix
1841 Illinois refused to extradite Joseph Smith.
1841 Cooper published The Deerslayer. 540-1
1841.8.8 General Paredes began revolt in Guadalajara. Mexico
1841.8.9 Douglass met William Lloyd Garrison.
1841 US Whigs lost many state elections. 1841
1841.8 Tyler signed Webster’s Bankruptcy Act.
1841.8.16 President Tyler vetoed the bank bill.
1841.8-9 300 blacks were arrested in Cincinnati riots. Slavery
1841.9.4 US Congress passed the Preemption Act. 1841
1841.9.4 Congress approved $2,226,401 for defense. 1841
1841.9 4 US cabinet officers resigned. 1841
1841.9.13 Whigs declared Tyler had separated himself.
1841.9.22 Bustamante left Mexico for Europe.
1841.9.30 Washington Madisonian supported Tyler.
1841.10.9 Biddle’s Bank of Pennsylvania failed. Depression
1841.10.11 Ripley bought land for Brook Farm commune.
1841.10 Dana published The Seaman’s Friend. Harrison
1841.11.7 Madison Washington led revolt on the Creole. 1841
1841.12.3 Brazil imposed a regressive criminal code.
1841-44 Alonso and López governed Paraguay.
1841-42 Texans’ Santa Fé venture failed. New Mexico
1841-42 Emerson lectured on “The Times.”
1841-43 Childs edited National Anti-Slavery Standard.
1841-43 Joseph Smith secretly married 30 women.
1841-44 President Sam Houston governed Texas.
1841-47 President Ballivián governed Bolivia. Bolivia
1842.1.5 Shakers issued The Youth’s Guide to Zion.Peace
1842.1 Douglass spoke in Faneuil Hall.
1842.1 Prigg v. Pennsylvania gave states power. Politics
1842.3.13 Judd criticized the Revolutionary War. Peace
1842.3 Channing explained British freeing slaves.
1842.3 Mormon women began a Relief Society.
1842.3.30 Dr. Long used ether as an anesthetic. 1842
1842.4 Tyler signed Clay’s higher tariff bill.
1842.5.7 Earthquake killed 5,000 people at Cap-Haitien.
1842.5 Brazil’s liberals began armed rebellion.
1842.6.27 Texas Congress declared war on Mexico.
1842 Boyer had soldiers shut out 28 deputies. Haiti
1842 NY City made public schools nonsectarian. Harrison
1842 A treaty let Senecas stay in New York. Tyler
1842 Rhode Island allowed blacks to vote. Slavery
1842 US Supreme Court upheld Fugitive Slave Act.
1842 Charles Dickens toured the United States. Slavery
1842 William Brown helped slaves by steamboat. Politics
1842 Jarvis published Insanity and Insane Asylums. Dorothea Dix
1842 Dorothea Dix visited the insane in Massachusetts.
1842 Alcott & Charles Lane began Fruitlands. Hopedale
1842 Cooper published The Two Admirals.
1842 Cooper published The Wing-and-Wing.
1842 Longfellow published his Poems of Slavery. Whittier
1842.7.10 Costa Rica’s assembly made Morazán chief. Central America
1842.7.27 Salvador, Honduras & Nicaragua confederated. Central America
1842.8 Riviere-Hérard organized Rights of Man Society. Haiti
1842.8 US ended the costly 2nd Seminole War. 1842
1842.8 Bennett called for war against Mormons.
1842.8.30 Tyler signed the “Black Tariff” bill.
1842.9.8 Howe reported Dorothea Dix’s research on the insane.
1842.9.15 Morazán was executed at San José. Central America
1842.9 Mexican army occupied San Antonio. Texas
1842.10 Sauk & Fox chiefs sold land to Iowa governor. Black Hawk
1842.10 Community of True Inspiration began. New Harmon
1842.10 Nauvoo Masonic lodge had 253 members. Mormons
1842.11 Picayune reported on escaped slaves.
1842-43 Mexican Federalists produced a constitution.
1842-43 Charles Bagot governed Canada.
1842-43 Douglass spoke to anti-slavery meetings.
1842-43 Greeley published a column on Brook Farm.
1842-44 Torrey & Smallwood helped runaway slaves. Politics
1843.1 Dix presented a Memorial to Massachusetts. 1843-44
1843.1 Lucretia Mott preached to 40 Congressmen.
1843.1.27 Hérard-Dumesle led a revolt in Praslin. Haiti
1843.1.27 Whittier published “Massachusetts to Virginia.”
1843.2.13 Haiti’s President Boyer fled to Paris.
1843.2.25 Massachusetts passed a bill for the insane. Dorothea Dix
1843.3 Fremont’s presented his report to Congress. Tyler
1843.5.8 Secretary of State Webster resigned. 1843-44
1843.5 Guatemala and Costa Rica made a treaty. Central America
1843.6.1 Costa Rica’s Assembly enacted human rights. Central America
1843.6.13 Mexico decreed elected assemblies. New Mexico
1843.6 Sojourner Truth began a speaking tour. 1843-44
1843.6 Lewis Tappan attended World Peace Congress.
1843 Whitman led a wagon train to Oregon.
1843 Foster wrote Brotherhood of Thieves. Politics
1843 Sojourner Truth began preaching. Politics
1843 Dorothea Dix visited 60 counties in New York.
1843 Cooper serialized French Governess.
1843 Cooper published Wyandotté.
1843 Prescott wrote Conquest of Mexico.
1843.7.5 Oregon settlers approved the Organic Act.
1843.7 La Trinitaria planned a Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo
1843.8 Garnet urged slave rebellion. Politics
1843.8.23 Santa Anna warned US not to annex Texas.
1843.8.30 Liberty Party nominated Birney for President. Elections
1843.9.29 Texans made peace with ten tribes.
1843.9-12 Haiti convention produced a constitution.
1843.10.5 President Santa Ann let Canalizo govern.
1843.10.5 Brisbane began publishing The Phalanx. Harmony
1843.11 Cherokees legalized marriage with white men. Slavery
1843.11.28 Padre Martinez wrote about New Mexico.
1843.12.5 Tyler claimed Pacific territory to 54° 40'.
1843-44 Slave revolted in Cuba.
1843-44 Fremont expedition mapped western land. 1843-44
1843-45 General Micheltorena governed California.
1843-45 Charles Metcalf governed Canada.
1843-45 Fuller wrote Woman in the 19th Century.
1843-47 President Soublette governed Venezuela.
1843-51 Argentina besieged Montevideo.
1844.1.2 Mexicans elected Santa Anna President again.
1844.1.4 Haiti inaugurated President Riviere-Hérard.
1844.1 Brazil’s liberals took power & granted amnesty.
1844.1 Dorothea Dix urged New York to create 4 asylums.
1844.2.5 Salvador’s Assembly made Malespín President. Central America
1844.2.27 Duarte & Trinitarians declared Santo Domingo.
1844.3.19 President Hérard led attack on Santo Domingo.
1844.4.11 Costa Rica promulgated a constitution. Central America
1844.4 Dorothea Dix published “Astonishing Tenacity of Life.”
1844.4.17 Clay warned annexing Texas would cause war. Elections
1844.4.25 Riché declared the Artibonite republic. Santo Domingo
1844.5 US Anti-Slavery Society voted for secession. Politics
1844.5.21 Rep. Giddings spoke against annexing Texas. Politics
1844.5.24 Morse sent telegraph message between cities. 1843-44
1844.5.29 Democrats nominated Polk for US President. Elections
1844.6.8 US Congress rejected Texas annexation.
1844.6.12 Polk pledged to serve only one term.
1844.6 4,000 were arrested in La Escalera slave revolt. Cuba
1844.6.18 Joseph Smith declared martial law at Nauvoo.
1844.6.27 Men killed Joseph & Hyrum Smith in a jail. 1843-44
1844 Paraguay Congress gave López a 10-year term.
1844 Governor Lejanza provoked war with Utes. New Mexico
1844 Gregg wrote Commerce of the Prairies. New Mexico
1844 Gilliam led a wagon train on the Oregon Trail.
1844 Brady began a daguerreotype business. 1843-44
1844 An average slave in the US cost $700.
1844 New Jersey limited voting to white men. Slavery
1844 Paine got 6 years for helping slaves escape. Slavery
1844 Liberty Party ran Birney for President again. Politics
1844 Gilmore started a high school for blacks. Politics
1844 American Journal of Insanity began. Dorothea Dix
1844 Lydia Child published Flowers for Children.
1844 Fuller wrote Summer on the Lakes, in 1843.
1844.8.1 Emerson lectured on British emancipation.
1844.8.5 Salvador and Guatemala made peace. Central America
1844.8.8 Brigham Young became leader of Mormons.
1844.8.20 Tyler endorsed Polk for President. Elections
1844.8.22 Santana exiled Trinitarian leaders from Haiti.
1844.9.2 Texans elected Anson Jones as President.
1844.9 Cherokee Advocate began publishing.
1844.9.16 Mexico paroled Texas prisoners.
1844.10.19 Emerson published his 2nd series of Essays.
1844.11.5 US elected President Polk.
1844.11.6 Dominican Republic got a constitution.
1844.11 Santana was elected President of Haiti.
1844.11 Polk won a close election for US President.
1844.12.11 Guatemala Assembly elected Carrera President. Central America
1844.12 Mexico banished Santa Anna to Cuba.
1844.12 Herrera governed Mexico for next 12 months.
1844.12 James R. Lowell wrote “The Present Crisis.”
1844-45      President Philippe Guerrier governed Haiti.
1844-45      President Malespín governed El Salvador.
1844-48      Pres. Santana governed Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo
1844-48      President Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1844-62      Carlos Antonio López was President of Paraguay.
1845.1.4     California Gov. Micheltorena had martial law. Mexico
1845.1.4     Creeks & Seminoles made a treaty. Native
1845.1        Civil war sacked Leon, Nicaragua.
1845.1        Congress set date for US Presidential elections. Polk
1845.1.21   Giddings warned US would assume Texas debt. Polk
1845.1.31   Senator Douglas proposed Nebraska Territory. Polk
1845.1.28   Pio Pico convoked a Junta in Los Angeles. Mexico
1845.2        Revolutions broke out in Ecuador.
1845.2        Joaquín Guzmán deposed Malespín in El Salvador.
1845.2        Canada’s Parliament granted general amnesty.
1845.2.15   Micheltorena made Pio Pico Governor. Mexico
1845.2.22   Micheltorena surrendered and left California. Mexico
1845.2.27   Dominican Republic executed 27 conspirators.
1845.3.1     Tyler approved Texas annexation with slavery.
1845.3.4     Polk began 4-year US Presidency.
1845.3.6     Polk made Buchanan Secretary of State.
1845.3        Frémont reported on western exploration. Polk
1845.3.28   Mexico broke off relations with US over Texas.
1845.3.31   Robert Owen wrote open letter “To Capitalists.” Polk
1845.5-6     Fires burned two-thirds of Quebec City. Canada
1845.6.1     Frémont began his 3rd expedition in St. Louis. Polk
1845.6.4     President Herrera opposed US annexing Texas.
1845.6.8     Ex-President Andrew Jackson died. Polk
1845.6.15   Polk sent Gen. Taylor across Sabine into Texas.
1845.6        Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass published.
1845.6.23   Texas Congress approved US annexation.
1845.6.24   Navy Secretary urged seizing California ports. Polk
1845           Frederick Douglass autobiography is published.
1845           Sarmiento published Civilization and BarbarismArgentina
1845           Uruguay recognized Paraguay’s independence.
1845           British abolished the African slave trade. West Indies
1845           Cuba outlawed the slave trade. West Indies
1845           5,000 Americans took the Oregon Trail west. Polk
1845           Louisiana, Texas allowed voting w/out property.
1845           Porter began weekly Scientific AmericanPolk
1845           Elias Howe got patents for a sewing machine. Polk
1845           Deere made a plow with a steel moldboard. Polk
1845           Burritt edited Advocate of Peace.
1845           Margaret Fuller published Woman in the 19th Century.
1845           Dorothea Dix wrote Remarks on Prisons.
1845.7.4     Sumner spoke on “True Grandeur of Nations.”  Peacemakers
1845.7.5     Governor Pico divided Alta California in two. Mexico
1845.7        Worcester printed Cherokee & Choctaw books. Native Tribes
1845.7        Franklin’s Arctic expedition disappeared. Canada
1845.7.28   Pico announced auction of California missions. Mexico
1845.8.10   US founded the Smithsonian Institution in DC. Polk
1845.8        Brazil passed the Aberdeen Slave Trade Act.
1845.9.8     Col. Hitchcock criticized US aggression. Polk
1845.9        Knickerbocker Base Ball Club made rules. Polk
1845.10.10 US Naval Academy was founded at Annapolis. Polk
1845.10      Ecuador adopted a liberal constitution.
1845.10.17 Buchanan urged US annexation of California. Polk
1845.10.17 Douglass criticized Irish Methodists.
1845.11.6   Washington Union demanded all of Oregon. Polk
1845.11.10 Polk sent Slidell to buy territory from Mexico.
1845.11.27 Peace treaty ended Honduras-El Salvador war. 
1845.12.2   Polk claimed Oregon and California.
1845.12.29 United States admitted Texas as a state. Mexico
1845-47      Henry David Thoreau lived by Walden Pond.
1845-47      José León Sandoval directed Nicaragua.
1845.47      Earl Charles Cathcart governed Canada.
1845-49      Mosquera was New Granada’s President.
1845-49      Vicente Ramón Roca was President of Ecuador.
1845-50      English & French blockaded Rio de la Plata basin. Argentina
1845-51      Ramón Castilla was President of Peru.
1846.1.2     Pres. Paredes vowed to defend Mexico. Polk
1846.1.13   Polk ordered Taylor’s army to Rio Grande. Mexico
1846.1-2     Brigham Young married 20 women.
1846.1-5     Douglass spoke to Presbyterians in Scotland.
1846.1-7     President Paredes governed Mexico.
1846.2        Haiti’s army invaded the Dominican Republic.
1846.2        Oregon Spectator began publishing. 
1846.2.17   Young organized Mormons at Israel Camp.
1846.2.19   Henderson became Governor of TexasMexico Polk
1846.2.21   Texas elected Houston & Rusk US Senators. Polk
1846.3.5     Castro ejected Norteamericanos from California.
1846.3.12   Mexico rejected US proposals made by Slidell. Polk
1846.3        Melville published Typee.
1846.3.28   US Army began building Fort Texas. Polk
1846.4.2     Mexico offered 320 acres to US deserters. Polk
1846.4        US Navy blockaded Veracruz & Mazatlán. Polk Mexico
1846.4.18   Pío Pico became Governor of the Californias.
1846.4.23   Paredes announced defensive war with US. Polk Mexico
1846.4.25   Mexican Army crossed Rio Grande, attacked US.
1846.4.30   Mormons dedicated their Nauvoo Temple.
1846.5.8     US Army defeated Mexico’s army at Palo Alto.
1846.5.9     US Army defeated Mexico’s army at Resaca. Polk
1846.5.10   Frémont’s party killed Indians by Klamath Lake. California
1846.5.11   President Polk delivered his war message.
1846.5.12   US Congress passed the war bill. Polk
1846.5.18   US Army took over Matamoros. Polk
1846.6.14   Bear Flag revolt began in California.
1846.6.15   US & Britain signed Oregon border treaty. Polk
1846.6.23   Henry Clay criticized the Mexican War. Polk
1846           Echeverría published Manual of Moral InstructionArgentina
1846           Chile re-elected President Bulnes.
1846           Bolivia had 2.1 million people.
1846           Peru cut its tax on natives in half.
1846           1,500 Americans took the California trail. Polk
1846           106,000 Irish immigrated into the US.
1846           Chickasaws adopted a constitution. Native Tribes
1846           Wilmot proposed banning slavery in territories. Black Progress
1846           Canadian Parliament got control of revenues. Canada
1846           Canada West established Board of Education.
1846           Canada exported 3,312,000 bushels of wheat.
1846           Maine was first state to prohibit alcohol. Peace
1846           Ballou published Christian Non-Resistance.
1846           Whittier published Voices of Freedom.  Longfellow
1846.7.4     Texas convention agreed to US annexation.
1846.7.7     Sloat & Larkin proclaimed California part of US.
1846.7.9     Pres. Paredes asked the Church for a loan. Mexico
1846.7        O’Sullivan suggested US “manifest destiny.” Polk
1846.7.23   Stockton put Frémont in command of California.
1846.7.23   Thoreau was arrested for not paying a tax.
1846.7.24   Pico convoked the Assembly in Los Angeles. California
1846.8.3     Jacksonian Grier joined US Supreme Court. Polk
1846.8.6     United States & Cherokees signed a treaty. Native Tribes
1846.8.9     Castro and Pico left Alta California.
1846.8.15   US Army arrived at Santa Fé. Mexico US Conquest New Mexico
1846.8.17   Stockton declared himself California governor.
1846.8.17   Douglass & Garrison talked to Chartist Lovett.
1846.8.29   Polk approved US attack on Matamoros.
1846.8-12   General Salas ruled Mexico.
1846.9        800 anti-Mormons attacked Nauvoo.
1846.9.22  Californios rebelled in Los Angeles.
1846.9.22   Kearney imposed laws in New Mexico Territory.
1846.9.24   Monterrey surrendered to US Gen. Taylor. Mexico Polk
1846.10.15 Gen. Doniphan made a treaty with the Utes. New Mexico
1846.10      Texans approved a state constitution.
1846.10      Morton used ether gas in painless surgery. Polk
1846.11.8   Samuel May gave a sermon on women’s rights. Polk
1846.11.16 Taylor’s army occupied Saltillo. Polk
1846.12.6   Kearney’s force fought Mexicans by San Diego. California
1846.12.12 New Granada & US made a treaty. Panama Polk
1846.12.24 Mexico made Santa Anna interim President.
1846.12.25 Doniphan’s force beat Mexicans at El Brazito. New Mexico
1846.12.28 Iowa became a US state. Polk
1846-47      President Jean-Baptiste Riché governed Haiti.
1846-47      400 Mormons died at the Winter Quarters.
1846-49      Brazil imported 55,000 slaves per year.
1846-52      John Harvey governed Nova Scotia. British Provinces
1847.1.2     Polk’s cabinet opposed attacking Mexico City.
1847.1.8     US Marines beat Californios near Los Angeles.
1847.1.11   US Senator Corwin condemned Mexican War. Polk
1847.1.13   Cahuenga treaty ended fighting in California.
1847.1.14   Stockton made Frémont Governor of California.
1847.1        Samuel Colt began selling his revolvers. Polk
1847.1.24   US Army beat more Mexicans at La Cañada. New Mexico
1847.1-3     Santa Anna’s army lost 10,000 men. Mexico
1847.2.19   Sen. Calhoun defended slaveholder “rights.” Polk
1847.2-3     87 Donner Party survivors were rescued. California
1847.2.23   US Army defeated Mexicans at Buena Vista. Polk
1847.3.1     Haiti Senate elected Faustin Soulouque President.
1847.3.1     Gen. Kearney claimed authority in California.
1847.3.5     Jones v. Van Zandt upheld US slavery. Polk        
1847.3.9     Gen. Scott & 8,600 men landed at Veracruz. Mexico Polk
1847.3        Melville published Omoo.
1847.3.21   Guatemala declared its independence.
1847.3.21   Santa Anna resumed Presidency in MexicoPolk
1847.3.29   US Army took over Veracruz & 3,000 soldiers. Polk
1847.3.30   Douglass spoke at London Tavern.
1847.4.10   Polk sent Trist to negotiate with Mexico.
1847.4.18   Scott’s US Army beat Santa Anna’s arm . Mexico Polk
1847.4.23   Soulouque’s army attacked many mulâtresHaiti
1847.5.1     American Medical Association was founded. Polk
1847.5.15   US Army occupied city of Puebla. Polk
1847           Sweden freed last 600 slaves on St. Barthelémy. West Indies
1847           Parkman began publishing his Oregon TrailPolk
1847           Missouri banned teaching blacks to read. South
1847           Canada’s grain market collapsed.
1847           Canada changed duties on US & Britain.
1847           90,000 poor Irish immigrated into Canada.
1847           Lucy Stone graduated from Oberlin College.
1847           Longfellow published Evangeline.
1847.7.24   Young led Mormons to Great Salt Lake. Polk
1847.7-8     Douglass, Garrison toured Pennsylvania, Ohio.
1847.8.20   US Army defeated Mexicans in 2 battles. Polk
1847.8.22   Kearney had Frémont arrested at Leavenworth. Polk
1847.8.23   US General Scott agreed to an armistice. Polk
1847.9.14   Chapultepec fortress surrendered to US Army. Polk
1847.9.16   Scott’s US army occupied Mexico City. Polk
1847.9.16   President Santa Anna resigned and left Mexico.
1847.11.13 Henry Clay spoke at Lexington against the war. Polk
1847.11.29 Suffering Cayuse murdered settlers. Oregon
1847.12.3   Douglass began publishing The North Star
1847.12.15 Polk vetoed Wisconsin Territory improvements.
1847.12.22 Lincoln asked where Mexican War began. Polk
1847.12.24 Cass favored popular sovereignty in territories. Polk
1847-48      Captain-General Prim governed Puerto Rico.
1847-48      José Alfaro Zamora governed Costa Rica.
1847-49      Pres. Jimenez governed Dominican Republic.
1847-51      José Tadeo Monagas was Venezuela President.
1847-52      President Juan Lindo governed Honduras.
1847-54      Earl of Elgin governed Canada.
1847-57      Coffin helped runaway slaves in Cincinnati. Black Progress
1848.1        British warships occupied San Juan, Nicaragua.
1848.1.12   Lincoln spoke for people revolutionizing. Polk
1848.1.13   President Polk dismissed General Scott. Mexican Cession
1848.1.24   Marshall discovered gold at Sutter’s sawmill. Gold Rush
1848.1.31   US Court Martial sentenced Frémont. Polk
1848.1-6     President Peña governed Mexico.
1848.2.2     Mexico sold half its territory to United States. Mexican Cession
1848.2.23   Ex-President John Quincy Adams died. 1848 US Election
1848.3.10   US Senate ratified the Hidalgo treaty 38-14. Mexican Cession
1848.3        Pennsylvania limited daily work to 10 hours. 1848 US Electio
1848.3        Gilliam led attack against Cayuse. Oregon
1848.3.17   Douglass criticized the US-Mexican War. Mexican Cession
1848.4.2     Mexicans held elections. Mexican Cession
1848.4.17   US Navy recaptured 78 fugitive slaves. 1848 US Election
1848.4.24   Chicago Board of Trade began. 1848 US Election
1848.5.12   Brannan announced gold find in San Francisco. Gold Rush
1848.5        Slaves revolted on Martinique & Saint Thomas. West Indies
1848.5        US Congress paid Frémont’s debts. Gold Rush
1848.5.25   Democrats nominated Cass for President. 1848 US Election
1848.5.29   Wisconsin became the 30th state in the US. 1848 US Election
1848.5.30   US and Mexico ratified revised Hidalgo Treaty. Mexican Cession
1848.6        Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor for President. 1848 US Election
1848.6        Dorothea Dix wrote her memorial to the US Congress.
1848.6.28   Free Soil Party nominated Van Buren for Pres.1848 US Election
1848.6-12   Virgin Islands slave revolt led to emancipation. West Indies
1848           French abolished slavery in the West Indies.
1848           Many fled from potato blights to the US. 1848 US Election
1848           Lowell published his satirical Biglow Papers1848 US Election
1848           University of Mississippi began classes. 1848 US Election
1848           Citizens Union urged equality for blacks. 1848 US Election
1848           Blacks organized Free Soil Party at Buffalo. 1848 US Election
1848           Rhode Island rejected US Fugitive Slave Law. 1848 US Election
1848           New Brunswick accepted Harvey’s reforms. British Provinces
1848           Noyes & others began the Oneida community.
1848.7.14   Douglass was at Women’s Rights conference.
1848.7        Papineau began publishing L’Avenir.  Canada
1848.7.18   Mexican Army crushed revolt in Aguascalientes.
1848.7.19   Woman’s rights conference met at Seneca. 1848 US Election Stanton
1848.7.28   The North Star supported women’s rights. Douglass
1848.8.9     Ojibway chief Peau spoke to Canadians.  Canada
1848.8.14   US established Oregon Territory. 1848 US Election
1848.8.30   Pres. Castro declared Costa Rica independent.
1848.9        Natural Sciences Academy began in US. 1848 US Election
1848.9        Burritt went to Brussels Int’l Peace Congress.
1848.9        Whitman began editing Brooklyn Freeman.
1848.11.7   US elected Zachary Taylor President. 1848 US Election
1848.11.7   New York helped Taylor win Presidency. Douglass
1848.12.5   Polk’s annual message fostered a gold rush. 1848 US Election
1848-51      President Herrera governed Mexico.
1848-52      Juan de la Pezuela governed Puerto Rico.
1848-55      Belzu was President of Bolivia.
1848-81      John Noyes led the Oneida community. 1848 US Election
1849.1.11   Associated Press wire service began. 1848 US Election
1849.1        Giddings proposed banning slavery in DC. 1848 US Election
1849.1        Amelia Bloomer began publishing The Lily1848 US Election
1849.1        Parliament in Montreal allowed use of French. Canada
1849.2.16   President Polk reinstated Frémont. California
1849.3.3     US Interior Dept. & Minnesota Territory began. 1848 US Election
1849.3.5     General Zachary Taylor became US President. 1848 US Election
1849.3        Melville published Mardi.
1849.4.25   Elgin accepted the Rebellion Losses Bill. Canada
1849.5.5     A mob attacked Douglass in New York City.
1849.5.10   New York City riot killed 25 people. Taylor
1849.5.28   Sumner spoke on “The War System.”  Peacemakers
1849.6.15   Ex-President James K. Polk died of cholera. 1848 US Election
1849.6.26   Canada stopped excluding foreign ships.
1849           Sarmiento published De la Educación ComúnArgentina
1849           Calhoun wrote Disquisition on Government1848 US Election
1849           Kellogg published Labor and Other CapitalTaylor
1849           US established the Minnesota Territory. Native Tribes
1849           Young excluded Africans as Mormon priests.
1849           Garnet began the African Civilization Society. Black Progress
1849           Avery funded a College for Negroes. Black Progress
1849           Baldwin reformed Canada’s Chancery Court. Canada
1849           Canada guaranteed railway bonds. Canada
1849           US was at the World Peace Congress in Paris. Peacemakers
1849           Thoreau published “Civil Disobedience.”
1849           Emerson published his essay “War.”
1849.7.25   Kingston conference debated US annexation. Canada
1849.8.26   Haiti made Soulouque Emperor Faustin.
1849.8.30   US Army killed Navajo Chief Narbona. Taylor
1849.8-9     Navaho & Zunis fought each other. New Mexico
1849.9        Tubman escaped from slavery in Maryland.
1849.9        Melville published Redburn.
1849.9.27   Santa Fé convention approved a constitution. Taylor
1849.9.28   US & Honduras made a treaty. Taylor
1849.10      Reform Club began Chile’s Progressive Party.
1849.11.13 Californians ratified a constitution. Taylor
1849.11.14 Fox sisters held a public séance in Rochester. Taylor
1849.11.24 Argentina & Britain signed a treaty.
1849.12.4   Sumner challenged segregated schools. Taylor Black Progress
1849.12      Democrats controlled the US Congress. Taylor
1849.12.17 Lucretia Mott gave her “Discourse on Women.”
1849-51      Norberto Ramírez directed Nicaragua.
1849-51      John Geary governed San Francisco. California
1849-53      López was New Granada’s President.
1849-53      President Báez governed Dominican Republic.
1849-53      President José López governed New Granada. Panama
1849-58      Venezuela exiled José Antonio Páez.
1849-59      President Juan Mora governed Costa Rica.
1850.1        Melville published White Jacket.
1850.1.29   Sen. Clay proposed compromise resolutions. Whigs
1850.2.2     Yucatán made peace with Mayans. Mexico
1850.2.15   Rep. Horace Mann defended abolitionists. Black Progress
1850.2.17   Texans claimed El Paso. Whigs
1850.2.20   Thaddeus Stevens spoke in the US Congress. Whigs
1850.3.4     Sen. Calhoun’s last speech was read. Whigs
1850.3.7     Sen. Webster defended the Union. Whigs
1850.3.11   Sen. Seward spoke on freedom & equality. Whigs
1850.3.13   Sen. Douglas spoke on territories. Whigs
1850.3        Hawthorne published The Scarlet Letter.
1850.3.31   John Calhoun of South Carolina died. Whigs
1850.4.9     US-British treaty claimed Nicaragua, Costa Rica.
1850.4.13   California passed Foreign Miners’ Tax Act
1850.4.17   Sen. Foote pointed a pistol at Sen. Benton. Whigs
1850.4.19   Clayton-Bulwer Treaty was signed. Whigs
1850.4.22   California bound Indians to labor contracts.
1850.5.10   Spain recognized Costa Rica.
1850.5.15   US Dragoons killed 175 Pomos at Clear Lake. Indian
1850.5        New Mexico Territory ratified a constitution. Whigs
1850.5        Narrative of Sojourner Truth was published. 
1850.5.18   López-led filibusters invaded Cuba. Whigs
1850.6.3     Delegates of 9 slave states met at Nashville. Whigs
1850           Rio de Janeiro had 200,000 people. Brazil
1850           Sarmiento: Recuerdos de Provincia & Argirópolis.  Argentina
1850           Errázuriz & Lastarria issued a liberal manifesto. Chile
1850           New Granada ended its tobacco monopoly.
1850           Cannabis sativa came to Caribbean from India. West Indies
1850           Livermore’s War with Mexico Reviewed.  Polk Peacemakers
1850           Sumner led US Peace Congress Committee. Taylor
1850           670 US Negroes emigrated to Liberia. Census of 1850
1850           US had 23,191,876 people & 3,204,313 slaves. Census of 1850
1850           US & Canada had about 500,000 “Indians.” Census of 1850
1850           American League of Colored Laborers began. Black Progress
1850           Canada ended primogeniture.
1850           Emerson published Representative Men.
1850           Women began wearing “bloomers.” Mrs. Stanton
1850.7.10   Millard Fillmore became US President.
1850.7        Margaret Fuller died in a shipwreck. Emerson
1850.7.17   Daniel Webster gave his last speech in Senate. Fillmore
1850.7.22   Senator Clay warned against civil war. Fillmore
1850.7.25   Spain recognized Nicaragua.
1850.8.6     Pres. Fillmore declared New Mexico Territory.
1850.8.21   2,000 met at Fugitive Slave Convention. Douglass
1850.8.23   US Senate passed the Fugitive Slave Act. Fillmore
1850.8.31   Argentina & France made an agreement.
1850.9.4     Brazil enacted anti-slave trade Queirós law.
1850.9.9     California became a US state. Fillmore
1850.9.10   Dominican Republic made a treaty with Britain.
1850.9        Fillmore signed the Great Compromise bills. 
1850.9.28   US banned the flogging of sailors. Fillmore
1850.9-12   3,000 blacks fled from US to Canada. Fillmore
1850.10.23 Women organized for rights at Worcester. Fillmore
1850.11.12 Nashville convention accepted compromise. Census of 1850
1850.12.1   Parker spoke on “The State of the Nation.” Census of 1850
1850.12.2   Fillmore declared friendly relations. Census of 1850
1850.12.20 California elected Senators Gwin & Fremont.
1850-51      Barnum paid Jenny Linn $1,000 per concert. Census of 1850
1850-59      1,865,786 Irish & Germans came to the US. 1854
1851.1.7     California Gov. Burnett predicted genocide.
1851.1.9     Central American Union began.
1851.2        H. B. Stowe had a vision in church.
1851.2.15   Abolitionists freed Shadrach Minkins. Census of 1850 Black Progress
1851.2.26   US & Portugal settled a financial dispute. Fillmore
1851.3        Asahel Bush began Oregon Statesman.
1851.4.10   Ecuador adopted a new constitution.
1851.4        Massachusetts elected Sumner to US Senate. Fillmore
1851.5.3     Fire burned most of San Francisco. California
1851.5.3     Emerson criticized the Fugitive Slave Act.
1851.5.8     Sojourner Truth was at Woman’s Rights Convention. Stanton
1851.5.19   Railroad connected east US to Great Lakes. Fillmore
1851.6.2     Maine was the first state to ban alcohol. Fillmore
1851.6        Danish planters compensated slaveowners. West Indies
1851.6        Frederick Douglass’ Paper began publishing.
1851.6       Uncle Tom’s Cabin began serialization.
1851           Ecuador abolished slavery.
1851           Mexico bought 20,000 muskets from France.
1851           Indiana & Iowa banned Negro immigration. Fillmore
1851           Greeley serialized Marx’s RevolutionFillmore
1851           Chickasaw Academy opened with 60 students. Native Tribes
1851           Canadian leaders Baldwin & Lafontaine quit. Canada
1851           Susan B. Anthony & Stanton began temperance society.
1851           Hawthorne wrote The House of Seven Gables.
1851.7.23   Sioux ceded land to Iowa & the US. Fillmore Native Tribes
1851.8.3     López led filibuster invasion of Cuba. Fillmore
1851.8.16   Cuba executed 50 US filibusters. Fillmore
1851.9.7     Liberals in La Serena revolted, captured officers. Chile
1851.9        Urquiza raised the siege of Montevideo. Argentina
1851.9.17   8 tribal nations & US made Ft. Laramie Treaty. Native Tribes
1851.8.12   Cuba executed abolitionist Joaquín de Agüero.
1851.8        Cuba executed Narciso López & US filibusters.
1851.9-11   Douglass aided fugitive slaves.
1851.10.1   Abolitionists freed Jerry Henry in Syracuse. Black Progress
1851.10.12 Uruguay agreed to return slaves to Brazil.
1851.10      Virginia approved a liberal constitution. Fillmore
1851.10      Melville published Moby Dick.
1851.12.2   Pres. Fillmore reaffirmed friendly relations.
1851.12      Tubman led slaves to Ontario, Canada.
1851,1855  Mármol published his novel AmaliaArgentina
1851-52      President Arista tried to govern Mexico.
1851-52      US made 18 treaties with Indians in California.
1851-53      José Luareano Pineda directed Nicaragua.
1851-55      José Gregorio Monagas was Venezuela President.
1851-55      Echenique was President of Peru.
1851-57      Schoolcraft published books on Indian tribes. Kansas
1851-57      Brigham Young governed Utah Territory.
1851-61      Manuel Montt was President of Chile.
1851-65      94,000 Portuguese emigrated to Brazil.
1851-65      Pres. Rafael Carrera governed Guatemala.
1852.1.1     New Granada abolished slavery.
1852.1.7     Liberated Kossuth visited the White House. Fillmore
1852.1.8     Chile’s civil war ended at Copiapó.
1852.1.28   Giddings of Ohio spoke for equality & peace. Fillmore
1852.3.20   H. B. Stowe’sUncle Tom’s CabinFillmore Black Progress
1852.5.1     Alberdi published Bases y puntos de partidaArgentina
1852.5.3     California spent $600,000 to fight Indians.
1852.5        Douglass opposed dissolving the Union.
1852.5        US Senator Rhett resigned over secession. United States
1852.6        Partido Liberal formed at Buenos Aires. Argentina
1852.6        Telegraph connected Santiago to Valparaiso. Chile
1852.6        Gerrit Smith opposed US Fugitive Slave Law. Black Progress
1852.6.29   “Great Compromiser” Henry Clay died. Fillmore
1852           Urquiza’s army massacred Rosas’ followers.Argentina
1852           Vicuña wrote El porvenir de hombre. New Granada
1852           About 20,000 Chinese came to California.
1852           Utah approved indentured Indian children.
1852           Delaney published book on US colored people. Black Progress
1852           Free Soil Party nominated Sen. Hale for Pres. Black Progress
1852           Kentucky excluded black immigrants. South
1852           Autographs of Freedom was published. Douglass
1852           Caltharine Parr Traill wrote Canadian CrusoeCanada
1852           Lucy Stone advocated tax resistance.
1852           Hawthorne wrote The Blithedale Romance.
1852.7.5     Douglass spoke to Anti-Slavery Ladies. Fillmore
1852.7.6     Lincoln gave eulogy on Henry Clay.
1852.8        Melville published Pierre.
1852.8.26   Sumner spoke on “Freedom National.” Fillmore
1852.9.11   The Columbian weekly began at Olympia.  Washington Territory
1852.9        Argentine Liberals revolted against López.
1852.10.7   Costa Rica & Pope Pius IX made a concordat.
1852.10      Chickasaws began Wapanucka Female Inst. Native Tribes
1852.10.24 Daniel Webster died of cirrhosis. Fillmore
1852.11.2   Democrat Pierce defeated Whig Scott for Pres. Fillmore
1852.8.11   Douglass spoke to Free Democratic Party.
1852-55      Fernando de Norzagaray governed Puerto Rico.
1852-55      President Trinidad Cabañas governed Honduras.
1852-56      José María Urbina was President of Ecuador.
1853.1.6     Pierce’s son died in a railway accident.
1853.1        B&O railway was finished to Wheeling, Ohio. Pierce
1853.1-2     Pres. Ceballos governed Mexico for 33 days.
1853.2        Douglass visited Harriet Beecher Stowe.
1853.3.2     US Congress passed Washington Territory.
1853.3.3     US created the Washington Territory. Pierce
1853.3.15   Uncle Tom’s Cabin play opened. 1853
1853.4        Abolitionists appealed for women’s rights.Pierce
1853.4.19   US Vice President William King died. Pierce
1853.5.11   Douglass spoke to reformers in New York City.
1853.5-6     Slave Anthony Burns was arrested & returned. North
1853.6.1     Elizabeth Stanton spoke on women’s rights.
1853           Alberdi & Gutiérrez influenced a constitution. Argentina
1853           British recognized Urquiza in Argentina.
1853           Paraguay made a commercial treaty with Britain.
1853           New Granada’s constitution increased voting.
1853           Panama got a liberal constitution.
1853           Brace began Children’s Aid Society in NY. Pierce
1853           25,000 Chinese people lived in San Francisco. Pierce
1853           783 blacks emigrated from US to Liberia. North
1853           Society of Progressive Friends began. North
1853           Hildreth published his Theory of PoliticsNorth
1853           Dew & others wrote Pro-Slavery ArgumentSouth
1853           Northup’s 12 Years a Slave was published.
1853           Susan B. Anthony spoke at NY teachers convention.
1853           Stowe published A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
1853.7.6-8  National Council of Colored People began. Pierce North
1853.7.27   8 chiefs & US signed a treaty at Ft. Atkinson. Native Tribes
1853.9        US bought tribal land in Oregon for settlers. Pierce
1853.11.11 M. C. Douglass was fined for teaching blacks. North
1853.12.13 Senator Dodge proposed Nebraska Territory. Pierce
1853.12      Democrats had majorities in the US Congress. Pierce
1853.12.21 Cincinnati rioted against a Catholic Archbishop.Pierce
1853.12.30 Mexico sold Gadsden Purchase to US. Pierce New Mexico
1853-55      Fruto Chamorro governed Nicaragua.
1853-55      President Santa Anna ruled Mexico as dictator.
1853-55      Quitman’s plan to buy Cuba failed. 1854
1853-56      President Santana ruled Dominican Republic.
1853-57      Stevens governed Washington Territory.
1854.1.4     Senator Douglas introduced the Nebraska bill. 1854
1854.1        William Walker claimed Sonora in Mexico. Pierce
1854.1        Oregon banned selling weapons & ammunition.
1854.1.26   Diplomats pressured Panama’s governor.
1854.1-5     US Congress debated Kansas-Nebraska bill.  1854
1854.2.12   Parker preached for abolition of slavery. North
1854.2        Nicaragua got a constitution.
1854.2        Álvarez led a revolt in southern Mexico.
1854.2        Massachusetts granted $1 million to NEEAC. 1854
1854.3.4     Emerson opposed US Fugitive Slave Law. North
1854.3.18   People freed arrested slave Glover in Racine. North
1854.3.23   Venezuela abolished slavery & death penalty.
1854.3.31   US Commodore Perry opened ports in Japan. 1854
1854.4        New England Emigration Aid Society began. North
1854.5.3     Pierce vetoed Dix Bill for the Indigent Insane. 1854
1854.5        Sauk and Fox ceded land to the United States. Native Tribes
1854.5.30   Pierce signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. 1854 North
1854.5-12   8,000 people moved to the Kansas Territory. 1854
1854.6.2     Abolitionists freed fugitive slave Burns. 1854
1854.6.5     Canada & US agreed on a Reciprocity Treaty.
1854.6.17   Nativists gathered in New York City. 1854
1854.6-8     US-Canada Treaty agreed on fishing.  1854
1854           Ridge published Life of Joaquín MurietaCalifornia
1854           Methodists began Pacific Christian AdvocateOregon
1854           Burritt wrote essays on “Passive Resistance.”
1854           Thoreau published Walden.
1854.7.4     Abolitionist Garrison burned US Constitution. 1854
1854.7.4     Pro-slavery Knights of the Golden Circle began. 1854
1854.7.13   US Marines burned San Juan, Nicaragua.
1854.7.13   Mexico executed filibuster Raousset.
1854.7        Lawrence, Kansas was founded with $200,000. 1854
1854.7        First Republican convention met in Michigan. 1854
1854.7        Melville began publishing Israel Potter.
1854.8.5     US paid California $924,260 for its war debt.
1854.9.5     New Canadian Parliament opened in Quebec. Canada
1854.9        Liberal-Conservative Party reformed Canada.
1854.9.17   Panama became a nation.
1854.10.7   Reeder began governing Kansas Territory. 1854
1854.10.16 Lincoln spoke on Kansas-Nebraska Act. 1854 North
1854-55      Abolitionists sent settlers & rifles to Kansas. 1854
1854-55      Know Nothing party won 51 seats in US House. 1854
1854-55      Colt sold 9,000 revolvers to British military. Kansas
1854-57      Liberal William Young governed Nova Scotia. British Provinces
1854-61      Edmund Walker Head governed Canada.
1855.1.22   Chief Seattle spoke at a treaty ceremony. Washington Territory
1855.1.28   Panamanian railway began operating. Kansas
1855.2.6     Emerson urged abolitionists to free US slaves. Kansas
1855.2        Spain & Dominican Republic made a treaty.
1855.3.30   Pro-slavery Kansas gov’t is elected illegally.
1855.4.28   Massachusetts banned school segregation. Kansas North
1855           Mormon priesthood excluded blacks. Kansas
1855           David Christy published Cotton Is KingKansas
1855           San Francisco executed 538 people. California
1855           Legal Rights blacks hired Chester Arthur. North
1855           Lydia Child wrote Progress of Religious Ideas.
1855           Longfellow published Song of Hiawatha.
1855           Whitman published Leaves of Grass.
1855.6        Walker led 60 men invading Nicaragua. Kansas
1855.7.4     New York was 13th state to ban alcohol. Kansas
1855.8.6     Nativists v. Catholics riot killed 20 in Louisville. Kansas
1855.8        Santa Anna left Mexico.
1855.8        Proslavery Kansas gov’t moved to Lecompton.
1855.8        Abbott Lawrence left $50,000 to Harvard U. Kansas
1855.8        Douglass wrote My Bondage & FreedomNorth
1855.8-9     President Carrera governed Mexico.
1855.9.3     US Army killed 86 Lakota at Ash Hollow. Native Tribes
1855.10      Canadian government returned to Toronto. Canada
1855.10-12 President Álvarez governed Mexico.
1855.11.14 Law & Order party began at Leavenworth. Kansas
1855.11      1,200 armed Missourians invaded Kansas.
1855.11.20 Negroes held a convention at Sacramento. California
1855.12.8   Pierce criticized dictator Walker in Nicaragua. Kansas
1855.12.15 Kansas voters approved Free Soil constitution.
1855.12      Emperor Faustin attacked Santo Domingo again.
1855-56      Rogue River War was fought in Oregon.
1855-57      Walker led filibuster invasion of Nicaragua.
1855-57      General Jorge Córdova was President of Bolivia.
1855-57      President Comonfort governed Mexico.
1855-58      Sarmiento edited El nacionalArgentina
1855-58      José Tadeo Monagas was Venezuela President.
1855-58      Yakima Wars were in Washington Territory.
1855-59      Stevens made US treaties with native tribes. Washington Territory
1855-62      Ramón Castilla was President of Peru again.
1856.1        Azuero’s Governor Goytia revolted in Panama.
1856.1.24   Haitians defeated Dominicans at Savana Larga.
1856.1.24   Pres. Pierce criticized abolitionists in Kansas. 1856
1856.2        Mexico drafted a democratic constitution.
1856.2.15   Gov. Wodehouse banned meetings in Guiana. West Indies
1856.2.25   American party named Fillmore for US Pres. Elections of 1856
1856.3.9     Mexican Army besieged Puebla.
1856.3.12   Sen. Douglas’s report opposed abolitionists. 1856
1856.3        Rev. Beecher sent rifles with Bibles to Kansas.1856
1856.4.15   A mob killed 15 Americans in Panama.
1856.4        Buford raised 300 men in Alabama for Kansas.1856
1856.5.14   James Casey killed SF Supervisor James King. California
1856.5.19   Sumner spoke on “Crime Against Kansas.” Elections of 1856
1856.5.20   Pres. Pierce recognized Walker in Nicaragua.
1856.5.20   Pierce recognized Walker’s Nicaragua regime. 1856
1856.5.21   Atchison army sacked Lawrence, Kansas. 1856 South
1856.5.22   Brooks beat Sen. Sumner with a cane. Elections of 1856 South
1856.5.24   John Brown & sons killed 5 settlers. 1856 South
1856.5.28   Illinois & Lincoln formed a Republican Party.
1856.5-10   President Mota governed Dominican Republic.
1856.6.4     John Brown’s 28 men captured 28 men.1856
1856.6.6     Mexican Congress revived the Jesuits.
1856.6        Democrats nominated Buchanan for US Pres. Elections of 1856
1856.6        Republicans nominated Frémont for US Pres. Elections of 1856
1856.6-12   Lerdo Law transferred Church property to gov’t. Mexico
1856           Lastarria’s book urged protecting civil libertie. Chile
1856           Peru’s constitution empowered Congress.
1856           1,300 Mormons went to Utah with handcarts.
1856           US bank credit was $1,042 million. Panic
1856           Canada made its Legislative Council elective.
1856           Canada exported 9,391,531 bushels of wheat.
1856           Emerson published English Traits.
1856.7.4     US troops broke up the Topeka legislature. 1856
1856.7.7     Lydia Child wrote to Senator Sumner.
1856.7.31   Pres. Pierce made Geary governor of Kansas. 1856
1856.7-11   Senator Douglas campaigned for Buchanan. Elections of 1856
1856.8.5     George Curtis spoke on liberty and slavery. Peacemakers
1856.8.7     US ceded land to the Seminoles. Native Tribes
1856.8        Chickasaws became an independent nation. Native Tribes
1856.8.30   Reid led 400 Missourians against Osawatomie. 1856
1856.9.10   Kansas Gov. Geary dissolved Woodson militia. 1856
1856.9.22   Walker legalized slavery in Nicaragua. Kansas Conflict
1856.10      Lydia Child published The Kansas Emigrants1856
1856.10      Railway connected Montreal to Toronto. Canada
1856.11.4   Buchanan was elected US President with 45%. Elections of 1856
1856.11.4   Frémont got 33% & Fillmore 21.5%. Elections of 1856
1856.11.11 Topeka constitution banned slavery in Kansas.
1856.12.8   600 met at Southern Commercial Convention. Elections of 1856
1856.12.10 Lincoln spoke to Republicans in Chicago. Elections of 1856
1856.12      John Brown visited Douglass at Rochester.
1856-57      Central American allies defeated Walker. Nicaragua
1856-58      President Báez governed Dominican Republic.
1856-58      President Campo governed El Salvador.
1856-58      Bartolomé Calvo governed Panama.
1856-59      Francisco Robles was President of Ecuador.
1856-62      President Guardiola governed Honduras.
1857.1.15   Garrison spoke at Disunion Convention. 1857
1857.2.5     Mexico adopted a liberal Constitution.
1857.2.14   Kansas Lecompton legislature limited voting.
1857.2        John Brown met Emerson & Thoreau.
1857.2.27   Mexico ended San Luis Potosí troop revolt.
1857.3.4     40,000 attended Buchanan’s inauguration.
1857.3.4     Kansas Governor Geary resigned.
1857.3.6     US Supreme Court ruled Dred Scott case. South Buchanan
1857.3.9     New York reported on crowded tenant houses. Buchanan
1857.3.13   United States Senate adjourned. Kansas
1857.4.1     Melville published The Confidence-Man.
1857.4.17   Ohio Assembly protested Dred Scott case. Buchanan
1857.5.1     Walker surrendered to allied armies. Nicaragua Kansas
1857.5.4     3,000 natives attacked the Chilapa garrison. Mexico
1857.5.11   Douglass criticized the Dred Scott decision.
1857.5.27   Robert J. Walker began governing Kansas.
1857.6.15   Kansas election excluded anti-slavery men.
1857.6        Illinois Central Railroad paid Lincoln $5,000.
1857.6.26   Lincoln criticized Kansas & Dred Scott decision.
1857.6.27   Scientific American warned whales are dying. Buchanan
1857.6.28   Kansas had more Anti-slavery men.
1857           José de Alencar published his novel O GuaraniBrazil
1857           Argentina had 1.1 million people.
1857           Vizcarrondo began El Mercurio newspaper. Puerto Rico
1857           Hinton Helper published Impending CrisisSouth
1857           Fitzhugh published Cannibals All! South
1857           4,932 US companies failed. Panic
1857           Bank of Upper Canada failed.
1857.8.9     Proslavery convention met at Knoxville. Kansas
1857.8.11   14 NY banks suspended specie payments.Panic
1857.9        Utah Militia killed about 130 settlers. Buchanan
1857.9.12   SS Central America sank with 425 people. Buchanan
1857.9        Price of US cotton fell from 16 cents to 9. Panic
1857.11      Atlantic Monthly began with Lowell as editor. Buchanan
1857.11.25 William Walker led invasion of Nicaragua. Kansas
1857.12.8   Pres. Buchanan defended his Kansas policy.
1857.12.9   Sen. Douglas exposed Kansas election fraud.
1857.12.15 Kansas Governor Robert J. Walker resigned.
1857.12      Juárez was elected Supreme Court president. Mexico
1857.12      Tacubaya rebels began a civil war in Mexico.
1857.12.29 James Douglas claimed BC gold for Britain. British Provinces
1857-58      US Army intervened in Utah.
1857-58      Northern states passed personal liberty laws. John Brown
1857-60      Fernando Cotoner governed Puerto Rico.
1857-61      Linares was President of Bolivia.
1857-67      President Tomás Martínez governed Nicaragua.
1858.1.4     Kansas voters rejected the Lecompton gov’t.
1858.1.19   Juárez set up government at Guanajuato. Mexico
1858.1.23   Rebel Council made Zuloaga Mexico President.
1858.2-3     John Brown wrote a constitution. Douglass
1858.1-4     Nicaragua and Costa Rica made peace.
1858.2.7     Mexico’s President Comonfort fled to the US.
1858.3.4     Sen. Hammond spoke on “Cotton Is King.” Buchanan
1858.3.10   Conservatives defeated Liberals at Salamanca. Mexico
1858.3        Pueblo published “Visiones proféticas.”  Chile
1858.3        Julián Castro led revolution in Venezuela.
1858.3        Dr. Rock said black people are beautiful. North
1858.4.6     President Buchanan pardoned Mormon rebels.
1858.4        Republicans won 8 elections in the North. Buchanan
1858.4        15,000 Mormons retreated from US Army. Buchanan
1858.4.25   Gov. Cumming & Young reconciled in Utah.Buchanan
1858.5.4     Juárez moved his government to Veracruz. Mexico
1858.5.8     John Brown proclaimed a government.  Douglass
1858.5.10   Southern Convention discussed disunion. Buchanan
1858.5.11   Minnesota became a US state. 1858
1858.5        British Navy blockaded Venezuela.
1858.5        New Orleans jury acquitted William Walker. Kansas
1858.5.17   Nez Perce & Spokane defeated US Army. Buchanan
1858.6.16   Republicans nominated Lincoln for US Senate.
1858           Albano wrote Comentarios sobre la ConstituciónChile
1858           US Congress passed pensions for war widows. Mexican Cession
1858           United States & China negotiated treaties. Buchanan
1858           John L. Mason invented sealed jars. 1858
1858           Henry Clarke Wright wrote on birth control. 1858
1858           Brown’s Grits joined Rouges in Canada East.
1858           Canada adopted $US decimal system.
1858.7        Pike’s Peak gold rush lured 100,000. Colorado 1858
1858.7.24   Lincoln challenged Douglas to 7 debates.
1858.8.2     Kansas voters denied Lecompton constitution.
1858.8.2     J. Douglas became British Columbia governor. British Provinces
1858.8.23   USS Dolphin captured Echo slave-ship. 1859
1858.8-10   Lincoln debated Douglas 7 times.
1858.9        Brownlow & Pryne debated slavery. Kansas
1858.10      Republicans made gains in US elections. Buchanan
1858.10.19 Chile’s Fusion allies held a protest banquet.
1858.10.25 NY Sen. Seward spoke on labor & slavery. Buchanan
1858.10.30 President Buchanan affirmed neutrality laws. Kansas
1858.11.28 Wanderer brought 487 slaves to Georgia. 1859
1858.12.6   Pres. Buchanan spoke about Latin America. Buchanan
1858.12      Ohio tried 37 for freeing enslaved Price. North Kansas
1858.12.20 John Brown’s raid freed 11 Missouri slaves.North 
1858.12.22 Haiti was proclaimed a republic.
1858.12.31 Venezuela adopted a popular constitution.
1858-60      Mexican Civil War was fought.
1858-61      Ospina was New Granada’s President.
1858-61      President Santana ruled Dominican Republic.
1858-63      Granadine Confederation had a civil war. New Granada
1858-72      President Juárez governed Mexico.
1859.2.12   Chilean radicals took over San Felipe.
1859.2.14   Oregon became a US state. 1859
1859.2.20   Venezuela’s Federal War began.
1859.2.23   Texas Gov. Runnels advised peace w/ Indians. 1859
1859.2.24   Buchanan vetoed the Morill land-grant bill. 1859
1859.4.1     Former San Juan Governor Benavidez was killed. Argentina
1859.4.5     Ohio jury convicted 2 who rescued Price. North Kansas
1959.4.6     US recognized Juárez government. Mexico
1859.4.18   Carl Schurz spoke on “True Americanism.” 1859
1859.4.29   Chilean soldiers dispersed rebels at Serena.
1859.5        South convention tried to revive slave trade. 1859
1859.5        John Brown met secret committee & raised $4,000.
1859.6        Comstock discovered silver near Virginia City. 1859
1859           Ambrosio Montt wrote on European government. Chile
1859           Mexicans defeated revolts by Yaquis & Mayos.
1859           Vicksburg convention urged slave trade. South
1859           Tubman raised money for John Brown.
1859           Martin Delany published the novel BlakeDouglass
1859           4 major banks in Canada failed.
1859           Canada’s debt reached $54,142,044.
1859.7.4     Rhett urged a Southern Confederacy. 1859
1859.7.12   Juárez gov’t nationalized Church property. Mexico
1859.7        Kansas convention created a constitution. 1859
1859.8.16   United States & China ratified their treaty. 1859
1859.8.28   Edwin Drake discovered oil at Titusville. 1859
1859.10      US Attorney General Black defended slavery. 1859
1859.9        Lincoln made 3 speeches in Ohio. 1859
1859.9        David Terry killed Sen. Brockerick in a duel. 1859
1859.9.29   Tovar became President of Venezuela.
1859.9.30   Lincoln spoke on agriculture in Milwaukee. 1859
1859.11.2   John Brown was sentenced to death.
1859.11      Canada West demanded more Assembly seats.
1859.12.4   Juárez government enacted religious liberty. Mexico
1859.12.14 Treaty gave US access across Mexico.
1859.12      Victoria Bridge over St. Lawrence was done. Canada
1859.10      Texas elected Sam Houston Governor. 1859
1859.10.16 John Brown led a raid at Harper’s Ferry. North
1859.10.17 New York Herald blamed abolitionists. Douglass
1859.10.30 Thoreau eulogized John Brown. Douglass  John Brown
1859.12.3   Lincoln spoke at Leavenworth, Kansas. 1859
1859.12.19 Buchanan warned of North war to end slavery. 1859
1859.12.19 Buchanan called for military posts in Mexico. 1859
1859.12.23 Urquiza’s army beat Buenos Aires at Cepeda. Argentina
1959.12.27 Costa Rica got a new constitution.
1859-62      Captain-General Serrano governed Cuba
1859-63      President Gerardo Barrios ruled El Salvador.
1859-63      President Montealagre governed Costa Rica.
1859-67      President Fabre Geffrard governed Haiti.
1860.1.10   Pemberton Mill collapsed killing 77 people. 1860
1860.1        Douglass lectured on John Brown at Edinburgh.
1860.1        Sen. Douglas had delegates from 6 NW states. Elections in 1860
1860.1.18   Sen. Brown introduced proslavery resolutions. 1860
1860.2.16   Chicago Tribune endorsed Lincoln for Pres. 1860
1860.2.27   Lincoln spoke at Cooper Union in New York. 1860
1860.2.29   US Senator Seward criticized John Brown. 1860
1860.3.5     Lincoln supported a shoe strike at Hartford. 1860
1860.3.5     Covode led a Congressional investigation. 1860
1860.3.28   The Liberator printed Loguen’s reply to Logue. North
1860.4.2     Pony Express began in St. Joseph, Missouri. 1860
1860.4.5     Lovejoy denounced slavery in US House. 1860
1860.4.23   Democrats convention began in Charleston. Elections in 1860
1860.4.30   USS Mohawk captured slave-ship Wildfire1860
1860.5.3     Mitre became governor of Buenos Aires. Argentina
1860.5.9     Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell. Elections in 1860
1860.5.18   Republican Party nominated Abe Lincoln. Elections in 1860
1860.6.4     Sen. Sumner spoke on “Barbarism of Slavery.” 1860
1860.6        Douglass helped 10 slaves escape to Canada.
1860.6.20   President Buchanan vetoed Homestead Bill.  1860
1860.6.23   Democrats in Baltimore nominated Douglas. Elections in 1860
1860.6.23   Southern Democrats nominated Breckinridge. Elections in 1860
1860           Bolivian army massacred rebelling natives.
1860           Peru’s constitution strengthened the President.
1860           Ellis published the first dime novel Seth JonesWashington Territory
1860           Lydia Child wrote books on emancipation. North
1860           US Census counted 3,953,762 slaves. 1860
1860           US had 30,600 miles of railroads. 1860
1860           Ann Stephens wrote dime-novel Maleska1860
1860           Bartlett published Life of Abraham LincolnElections in 1860
1860           Emerson wrote The Conduct of Life.
1860           New York passed Women’s Property Act. Lucy Stone
1860           Elizabeth Stanton proposed divorce reforms.
1860.9.12   British Honduras executed Walker. Nicaragua Kansas Elections in 1860
1860.9.30   Costa Rica executed ex-President Mora.
1860.10.25 18-year-old Anna Dickinson spoke on slavery.1860
1860.11.6   Juárez called for general elections in Mexico.
1860.11.6   17 states elected Lincoln US President. Elections in 1860
1860.11.9   Greeley urged peaceful response to secession. Late 1860
1860.12.3   Boston mob broke up Douglass rally on Brown. 1860
1860.12.3   Pres. Buchanan wrote about secession.  Late 1860
1860.12.14 Douglass spoke on free speech at Boston.
1860.12.15 John P. Kennedy published The Border StatesLincoln
1860.12.18 US Senate formed the Committee of 13. Late 1860
1860.12.20 Lincoln spokesman said disunion is treason. Late 1860
1860.12.20 South Carolina by a convention seceded. Late 1860 Lincoln
1860.12.25 Mexican Army defeated rebels at Mexico City.
1860.12.26 Major Anderson moved men to Fort Sumter. Late 1860
1860.12.26 South Carolina commissioners came to DC. Lincoln
1860.12.27 SC Commissioners demanded US forces leave. Late 1860
1861.1.2     Maryland’s Hicks urged a central confederacy. Lincoln
1861.1.3     Missouri Gov. Jackson rallied slave states. Late 1860 Lincoln
1861.1.3     Senator Douglas made an appeal for peace. Secession
1861.1.4     Rev. Allen preached Secession is a right.
1861.1.8     Buchanan appealed to Congress for peace. Secession
1861.1.9     Star of the West retreated from Charleston. Late 1860
1861.1.9     US Marines garrisoned Fort McHenry. Secession
1861.1.9-11 Mississippi, Alabama & Florida seceded. Secession
1861.1.15   Cabinet urged Buchanan to defend forts. Secession
1861.1        Bolivia’s President Linares went into exile.
1861.1        Liberal government returned to Mexico City.
1861.1        Harriet Jacobs published her autobiography.
1861.1.17   Kentucky legislature voted against Secession.
1861.1.19   Georgia convention voted to secede. Secession
1861.1.19   Virginia proposed a peace convention. Secession
1861.1.21   Jefferson Davis & 4 others left the US Senate.Secession
1861.1.21   Dakota, Colorado & Nevada are US territories. Secession
1861.1.22   Seward spoke about a compromise plan. Secession
1861.1.25   Juárez ended martial law & military powers.
1861.1.29   Free Kansas became a US state. Secession
1861.1.29   Louisiana force seized US Mint in New Orleans. Secession
1861.1.31   Washington Constitution stopped publishing. Late 1860
1861.2.7     Choctaw nation joined the Confederacy. Secession
1861.2.8     Confederate States of America (CSA) began. Secession
1861.2.9     CSA elected Jefferson Davis President.Secession
1861.2.9     Tennessee voters rejected Secession.
1861.2.11   Lincoln spoke to 20,000 at Indianapolis. Secession
1861.2        Cheyenne & Arapaho ceded land to the US. Native Tribes
1861.2        Dorothea Dix warned of conspiracy to kill Lincoln.
1861.2.17   Browning advised Lincoln not to begin war. Secession
1861.2.18   Davis said, “All we ask is to be left alone.” Secession
1861.2.18   Missouri rejected Secession.
1861.2.19   250,000 met Lincoln’s train in New York City. Secession
1861.2.22   CSA Congress voted to take Fort Sumter. Secession
1861.2.22   Lincoln in Philadelphia said war is not needed. Secession
1861.2.23   Texans voted to secede. Secession
1861.2.23   Lincoln secretly entered Washington.Secession
1861.2.28   North Carolina voters rejected secession. Secession
1861.2.28   Confederate Congress borrowed $25 million. Secession
1861.2.28   Pres. Davis appointed 3 commissioners. Secession Lincoln
1861.3.1     Creeks made free Negroes choose a master. Native Tribes
1861.3.1     US Congress rejected Crittenden peace plan. Secession
1861.3.2     US Morill Tariff Act passed. Secession 530
1861.3.2     US established the Nevada Territory. California
1861.3.3     US Congress passed Constitution amendment. Secession
1861.3.3     Tsar Alexander freed 23 million Russian serfs.Secession
1861.3.4     25,000 attended Lincoln’s inauguration. March 1861
1861.3.6     CSA Congress authorized 100,000 volunteers. March 1861
1861.3        Confederacy set up Bureau of Indian Affairs. Native Tribes
1861.3.11   CSA Congress adopted a constitution. March 1861
1861.3.13   Lincoln told Seward not to meet CSA envoys. March 1861
1861.3.15   Louisiana sent $536,000 from US Mint to CSA. March 1861
1861.3.18   Santana returned Santo Domingo to Spain.
1861.3.18   Arkansas convention opposed secession. March 1861
1861.3.18   Texas Governor Houston rejected the CSA. March 1861
1861.3.21   Missouri convention opposed secession 98-1. March 1861
1861.3.21   Bennett’s New York Herald criticized Lincoln. March 1861
1861.3.28   United States Senate adjourned. March 1861
1861.3.30   Lincoln feared war & collapsed with headache. March 1861
1861.4.1     Seward urged Lincoln to start a European war. War Begins
1861.4.4     Virginia convention voted not to secede. War Begins
1861.4.9     CSA Pres. Davis ordered attack on Ft. Sumter. War Begins
1861.4.12   Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter. War Begins
1861.4.12   US Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter. War Begins
1861.4.13   Illinois approved $3.5 million for the military.War Begins
1861.4.15   Lincoln called up 75,000 militia. War Begins Civil War Atrocities
1861.4        Unitarian Bellows advised peaceful separation. War Begins
1861.4.17   Virginia convention voted to secede. War Begins
1861.4.19   Union force killed 12 civilians in Baltimore. War Begins
1861.4.21   Gen. Robert E. Lee led CSA Army of Virginia.War Begins
1861.4.22   Douglass urged enlisting Negro troops.
1861.4.22   YMCA delegates asked Lincoln to avoid war. Civil War Atrocities
1861.4.23   Dorothea Dix became US Army Nurses Superintendent.
1861.4.29   President Davis spoke to the Confederate Congress.
1861.4.29   Confederate Congress approved $50 million.
1861.4.29   Maryland House voted against secession. Confederate Congress
1861.5.3     Lincoln called 42,034 volunteers for 3 years. Mobilization
1861.5.3     CSA President Davis declared war. Mobilization
1861.5.4     Nichols in The Age warned against war. Mobilization
1861.5.6     Arkansas convention voted to secede. Mobilization
1861.5.9     US Naval Academy moved to Newport, RI. Mobilization
1861.5.10   Union Army took over the St. Louis arsenal. Mobilization
1861.5.11   Union force captured 700 militia in Missouri. Mobilization
1861.5.11   Missouri legislature armed Confederates. Mobilization
1861.5.13   Queen Victoria proclaimed British neutral. Mobilization
1861.5.13   CSA Congress approved drafting 400,000 men. Mobilization
1861.5        Douglass wrote “How to End the War.” Mobilization November-December 1861
1861.5        Lincoln obstructed newspapers opposing war. Civil War Atrocities
1861.5.16   Northern Presbyterians swore loyalty to USA. Mobilization
1861.5.18   Arkansas joined the Confederate States. Mobilization
1861.5.27   California decided to support the Union. Mobilization
1861.6.8     Tennessee voted to join the CSA. Mobilization
1861.5.20   Venezuela President Tovar resigned.
1861.5.20   US Marshals confiscated telegrams. Mobilization
1861.5.20   North Carolina convention joined the CSA. Mobilization
1861.5.20   CSA Congress moved the capital to Richmond.Mobilization
1861.5.22   Southern Presbyterians supported the CSA. Mobilization
1861.5.23   Virginians voted for secession. Mobilization
1861.5.24   Union Gen. Butler called slaves “contraband.” Mobilization
1861.5.26   US SCJ Taney rejected habeas suspension. Mobilization
1861.5.31   US mail service to the South ended. Mobilization
1861.6.10   US put Dix in charge of military hospitals. June-July 1861
1861.6.11   Mexico Congress confirmed Juárez Presidency.
1861.6.15   Union troops occupied Jefferson City, Missouri. June-July 1861
1861.6.19   Western Virginia elected Pierpont governor. June-July 1861
1861.6.26   NY Tribune urged US attack on Richmond. June-July 1861 Civil War Atrocities
1861           New York raised 120,000 Union soldiers. June-July 1861
1861           5,000 fugitive slaves entered Kansas. January-February 1862
1861           Canada West had 11,223 Negroes.
1861           Wendell Phillips pleaded for woman suffrage. Mrs. Stanton
1861.7        Mexico suspended foreign debt payments.
1861.7        US Congress approved 500,000 men. June-July 1861
1861.7.21   US Army fled from the Bull Run Battle.June-July 1861 Civil War Atrocities
1861.7.25   US Congress passed the Crittenden Resolution. June-July 1861
1861.7.27   Gen. McClellan led US Army in Washington. June-July 18617
1861.7.31   Missouri convention elected Gamble governor. June-July 1861
1861.8.1     Confederate Baylor claimed Arizona Territory.
1861.8.4     McClellan said he needed 273,000 men. June-July 1861
1861.8.5     US Congress passed a personal income tax. August-October 1861
1861.8.6     US Congress passed the Confiscation Act. August-October 1861
1861.8.12   CSA made a treaty with several Indian tribes. August-October 1861
1861.8.14   CSA President Davis expelled foreigners. August-October 1861
1861.8.16   Lincoln banned trade with CSA “rebellion.” August-October 1861
1861.8.17   US Army began paying nurses a little. August-October 1861
1861.8.23   Secret Service arrested CSA spy Greenhow. August-October 1861
1861.8.30   Frémont declared martial law in Missouri. August-October 1861
1861.9.5     Emancipation League began in Boston. Douglass
1861.9.11   Lincoln cancelled Frémont’s emancipation. August-October 1861
1861.9.17   Mitre’s militia defeated Argentine Confederates.
1861.9.18   Chilean General Leal was mortally wounded.
1861.9.18   Lincoln arrested part of Maryland’s Assembly.August-October 1861
1861.9.20   3,000 US infantry surrendered in Missouri. August-October 1861
1861.9.25   US Navy began enlisting “persons of color.” August-October 1861
1861.10.14 Lincoln extended habeas corpus suspension. August-October 1861
1861.10.21 Telegraph connected Denver to Sacramento. August-October 1861
1861.10.21 CSA defeated a Union force at Ball’s Bluff.August-October 1861
1861.10.24 US transcontinental telegraph began. 1860
1861.10.24 West Virginia voted for US statehood.August-October 1861
1861.10.31 Britain, France & Spain allied against Mexico.
1861.11.1   General Henry Halleck replaced Frémont. August-October 1861
1861.11.1   US General Winfield Scott resigned. November-December 1861
1861.11.6   Confederate States held elections. November-December 1861
1861.11.8   US Navy arrested envoys Mason & Slidell. November-December 1861
1861.11.9   Union Army captured Beaufort, South Carolina. November-December 1861
1861.11      Julia Howe wrote “Battle Hymn” lyrics. John Brown November-December 1861
1861.11.22 CSA claimed authority over Indian Territory. November-December
1861.12.2   Lincoln suspended habeas Corpus in Missouri. November-December 1861
1861.12.10 CSA admitted the state of Kentucky. November-December 1861
1861.12      US provided naval protection for Mexico.
1861.12      British sent 11,000 troops to CanadaNovember-December 1861
1861.12.17 Spanish forces occupied Veracruz. Mexico
1861.12.26 Lincoln freed CSA envoys Mason & Slidell. Lincoln’s War
1861-62      Santana governed Santo Domingo.
1861-63      Páez was Venezuela’s President.
1861-64      Achá was President of Bolivia.
1861-65      3,000 Italians emigrated to Brazil.
1861-65      García Moreno was President of Ecuador.
1861-65      About 755,000 died in the US Civil War. Lincoln’s War
1861-71      José Joaquín Pérez was President of Chile.
1861-71      Sen. Sumner was Foreign Relations chairman. Elections of 1856
1861.1.1     US released CSA envoys Mason & Slidell. January-February 1862
1862.1.6-7  British & French fleets reached Mexico.
1862.1.13   Stanton replaced US War Secretary Cameron.January-February 1862
1862.1        Douglass criticized Lincoln’s slave policy.
1862.2.5     British ended ban on shipping weapons. January-February 1862
1862.2.13   West Virginia excluded blacks. January-February 1862
1862.2        Douglass in Boston & NY urged emancipation.
1862.2.16   CSA surrendered Ft. Donelson to U.S. Grant. January-February 1862
1862.2.20   Lincoln’s son Willie died of typhoid fever. January-February 1862
1861.2.23   Andrew Johnson became Tennessee governor.January-February 1862
1862.2.27   CSA began suspending habeas corpus. January-February 1862
1862.3.3     Gen. Halleck dismissed Grant for drunkenness. March-May 1862
1862.3.5     Lincoln urged gradual abolition of slavery. March-May 1862
1862.3.25   Douglass called for abolition of slavery in US.
1862.3.28   US defeated Confederates at Glorieta Pass. Arizona
1862.4.6-7  Shiloh battle killed 3,482 & wounded 16,420. March-May 1862
1862.4.7     US & British agreed to stop the slave trade. March-May 1862
1862.4.9     British & Spanish forces planned to exit Mexico.
1862.4        US had 637,126 soldiers, CSA 410,395. March-May 1862
1862.4.16   US abolished slavery in Washington, DC. March-May 1862
1862.4.16   CSA conscripted white men aged 18 to 35. March-May 1862
1862.5.1     Butler & US Army took over New Orleans. March-May 1862
1862.5.5     Mexicans defeated 6,000 French at Puebla.
1862.5.9     Gen. Hunter freed slaves in South Carolina. Tubman
1862.5.20   US Homestead Act gave settlers 160 acres. March-May 1862
1862.5.31   1,770 were killed & 8,343 wounded at 7 Pines. March-May 1862
1862.6.5     United States recognized Haiti and Liberia. June-July 1862
1862.6.9     CSA defeated Frémont’s army at Chattanooga.June-July 1862
1862.6        Napoleon III sent 30,000 troops to Mexico.
1862.6        Samuel Cox of Ohio pleaded for civilized war. June-July 1862
1862.6        Stuart’s CSA cavalry reconnoitered US Army.June-July 1862
1862.6.16   Foley organized a French gov’t in Mexico City.
1862.6.17   Generals Frémont & Beauregard retired. June-July 1862
1862.6.19   Slavery was banned in US Territories. June-July 1862
1862.6.25   7 Days’ Battle began near Richmond.June-July 1862
1862.6-7     CSA Army had 3,494 killed & 15,758 wounded.June-July 1862
1862           Peñaloza led La Rioja clans attacking San Luis. Argentina
1862           Cuba ended its slave trade.
1862           Mexico’s debt was 81,632,561 pesos.
1862           Buchanan wrote a book on his presidency. Secession
1862           US spent $500,000 to colonize slaves. March-May 1862
1862.7.1     Thad Stevens reported $800 million US debt. June-July 1862
1862.7.1     US Congress increased taxes. June-July 1862
1861.7.1     US funded railway Omaha to San Francisco. June-July 1862
1862.7.2     McClellan retreated to Harrison’s Landing. June-July 1862
1862.7.2     US Congress passed Morill Homestead Act. June-July 1862
1862.7.2     Lincoln called for 300,000 more volunteers. June-July 1862
1862.7.8     US passed the Anti-Bigamy Act. June-July 1862
1862.7.14   US Congress ended daily rum for sailors. June-July 1862
1862.7.15   Cochise warriors defeated California Column. Arizona
1862.7.16   France’s Napoleon III rejected CSA alliance. June-July 1862
1862.7.17   US Confiscation Act freed captured slaves.June-July 1862
1862.7.23   Grant was put in command of Western Army. June-July 1862
1862.7.23   US General Polk required a loyalty oath. Civil War Atrocities
1862.8.4     Indiana grand jury indicted 60 for treason. August-October 1862
1862.8.14   Lincoln talked with black leaders. August-October 1862
1862.8        CSA beat US Army at Bull Run (Manassas).August-October 1862
1862.8        Irish burned a tobacco factory in Brooklyn. August-October 1862
1862.8-12   Starving Sioux revolt was punished. Native Tribes August-October 1862  536
1862.8.25   US Army recruited blacks in South Carolina.August-October 1862
1862.8.30   CSA captured 4,300 US soldiers in Kentucky. August-October 1862
1862.9.4     General Lee’s army invaded Maryland. August-October 1862
1862.9        Nicaragua & Guatemala allied against Salvador.
1862.9.17   4,000 Union troops surrendered in Kentucky. August-October 1862
1862.9.17   Antietam battle killed 3,675, wounded 17,292. August-October 1862
1862.9.22   Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. August-October 1862
1862.9.24   Lincoln suspended habeas corpus in US. August-October 1862 Civil War Atrocities
1862.9.26   Moreno made a concordat with Pope Pius IX. Ecuador
1862.9.27   Free blacks in Louisiana formed a regiment. August-October 1862
1862.10.8   US Army defeated CSA at Perryville, KY. August-October 1862
1862.10-11 Democrats made gains in US elections. November-December 1862
1862.11.3   US Army sentenced 303 Santees to death. Native Tribes
1862.11.5   Lincoln replaced McClellan with Burnside. November-December 1862
1862.12.1   Lincoln proposed 3 unpopular amendments. November-December 1862
1862.12.4   Joseph E. Johnston led CSA forces in West. November-December 1862
1862.12.10 US Congress admitted West Virginia as a state. November-December 1862
1862.12      Lincoln approved the execution of 38 Santees. Native Tribes
1862.12      Burnside’s Fredericksburg campaign failed. November-December 1862
1862.12.23 Davis ordered black captives given to states. November-December 1862
1862-66      Captain-General Domingo Dulce governed Cuba.
1862-68      Mitre was President of Argentina.
1862-68      Cuban reformist newspaper El Siglo published.
1863.1.1     Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation began. January-February 1863
1863.1.3     Union forces drove CSA out of Murfreesboro. January-February 1863
1863.1.4     Lincoln canceled Grant’s expulsion of Jews. November-December 1862
1863.1.11   Union Army captured Ft. Hindman, Arkansas. January-February 1863
1863.1.13   Pennsylvania elected Buckalew over Cameron. January-February 1863
1863.1.14   Vallandigham: “Constitution-Peace-Reunion.” January-February 1863
1863.1        109th Illinois Regiment was arrested. January-February 1863
1863.1.25   Lincoln replaced Gen. Burnside with Hooker. January-February 1863
1863.1.31   Higginson commanded Negro volunteers. January-February 1863
1863.2.3     Constitution formed United States of Colombia.
1863.2        Union League Clubs began in New York. March-April 1863
1863.2.24   US established the Arizona Territory. January-February 1863
1863.2.24   Douglass began recruiting blacks for US Army.
1863.2.25   US passed the National Bank Act. January-February 1863
1863.3.3     US established the Idaho Territory. March-April 1863
1863.3.3     US enacted a military draft. March-April 1863
1863.3.3     US founded the National Academy of Sciences. March-April 1863
1863.3.3     US added a 10th Supreme Court justice. September-October 1864
1863.3.6     An angry mob attacked blacks in Detroit. March-April 1863
1863.3        Lee’s army was put on half rations. March-April 1863
1863.3.21   Douglass published “Men of Color, to Arms!”
1863.3.27   Lincoln talked with 14 Indian chiefs. March-April 1863
1863.3-5     26,600 French & Mexicans besieged Puebla.
1863.4.2     Thousands demanded food in Richmond. March-April 1863
1863.4.10   Pres. Davis urged people to grow vegetables. March-April 1863
1863.4        H. B. Stowe wrote about Sojourner Truth.
1863.4        Thurlow Weed raised $15,000 for elections. March-April 1863
1863.4        Union forces occupied Fort Gibson. March-April 1863
1863.4.24   Lincoln issued the Lieber Code. March-April 1863 Civil War Atrocities
1863.5.1     Grant’s army captured Port Gibson, MS. March-April 1863
1863.5.5     Burnside had Vallandigham arrested. May-July 1863
1863.5.8     Panama joined the United States of Colombia.
1863.5.10   Wounded General Stonewall Jackson died. May-July 1863
1863.5.14   Women’s Loyal National League began. May-July 1863
1863.5        Lieber: No Party Now but All for Our CountryMarch-April 1863
1863.5        US & CSA armies fought at Chancellorsville. May-July 1863
1863.5        Grant’s army closed in on Vicksburg. May-July 1863
1863.5        Stanton led Loyal Women of the Nation. Susan B. Anthony
1863.5.19   Lincoln banished Vallandigham to the CSA. May-July 1863
1863.5.26   Gold was discovered in Montana Territory. May-July 1863
1863.2.5     Sherman had reporter Knox tried for spying. January-February 1863
1863.6.1     French Army occupied Mexico City.
1863.6.1     Burnside had the Chicago Times shut down. May-July 1863
1863.6.2     Tubman led Union rescue of 756 slaves. January-February 1863
1863.6.7     US Army burned the Davis plantation. May-July 1863
1863.6.14   Peñaloza took over Córdoba. Argentina
1863.6.15   Federalist Falcón became Venezuela President.
1863.6        5,000 blacks were in schools in South Carolina. March-April 1863
1863.6        Lincoln summoned 100,000 militia. May-July 1863
1863.6.20   West Virginia became a US state.May-July 1863
1863           Brazil gave military support to rebels in Uruguay.
1863           Sarsfield’s Commercial Code was approved. Argentina
1863           Dutch abolished slavery in Surinam. West Indies
1863           US immigration increased to 176,282. November-December 1863
1863           US Gov’t spending increased to $715 million. November-December 1863
1863           US produced 2,611,000 barrels of petroleum. November-December 1863
1863.7.1-3  US armies defeated CSA armies at Gettysburg. May-July 1863
1863.7.13   Military draft in New York City provoked riots. May-July 1863
1863.7.17   US Army beat CSA Army at Honey Springs. Native Tribes
1863.7.18   54th Massachusetts assaulted Fort Wagner. May-July 1863
1863.8.12   British ship brought supplies to CSA. August-October 1863
1863.8.21   Quantrill’s raiders burned Lawrence, Kansas. August-October 1863
1863.9.1     Juárez chose a new cabinet.
1863.9.3     Iowa cavalry killed about 300 native warriors. Native Tribes
1863.9        Trains connected Santiago & Valparaiso. Chile
1863.9        US troops attacked Sioux at White Stone Hill. August-October 1863
1863.9        CSA captured Union troops at Chickamauga. August-October 1863
1863.10.1   Lincoln letter explained military policy. August-October 1863
1863.10.3   US began compensating owners for blacks. August-October 1863
1863.10.3   Lincoln proclaimed Thanksgiving Day. August-October 1863
1863.10      Union Army had 37,482 blacks. August-October 1863
1863.10.17 Lincoln called for 300,000 more troops. August-October 1863
1863.11.12 An army invaded La Rioja & executed Peñaloza. Argentina
1863.11.19 Lincoln gave his Gettysburg Address. November-December 1863
1863.11.22 Juárez moved government to Saltillo, Coahuila.
1863.11.25 Grant’s army beat Bragg’s at Missionary Ridge. November-December 1863
1863.12.8   2,000+ people died in a fire at Santiago. Chile
1863.12.8   Lincoln explained his amnesty policy. November-December 1863
1863.12.12 CSA stopped US rations for Union prisoners. November-December 1863
1863.12      Statue was placed on US Capitol dome. November-December 1863 January-February 1864
1863.12      Emerson spoke on “Fortune of the Republic.”
1863-66      President Jesús Jimenez governed Costa Rica.
1864.1.13   Douglass spoke to Women’s Loyal League.
1864.1.13   Sumner led Slavery & Freedmen Committee. January-February 1864
1864.1.14   Songwriter Stephen Foster died. January-February 1864
1864.1        British Columbia formed a Legislative Council.
1864.1.22   French Navy helped take Veracruz. Mexico
1864.2.1     Lincoln called for conscription of 500,000 men. January-February 1864
1864.2.9     Women’s Loyal League turned in petitions. January-February 1864  497
1864.2.9     59 Union officers escaped from Libby Prison. January-February 1864
1864.2        Sherman’s army wage war in Mississippi. January-February 1864
1864.2.17   CSA Congress forced veterans to re-enlist. March-April 1864
1864.2.22   Arkansas got a Unionist government. January-February 1864
1864.2.22   Louisiana elected a Union governor. January-February 1864
1864.2.24   US Congress accepted conscientious objectors. January-February 1864
1864.2.26   Lincoln commuted sentences of deserters. January-February 1864
1864.3.4     Johnson became Tennessee’s Military Gov. March-April 1864
1864.3        Arkansas voters chose Union government. March-April 1864
1864.3.10   Lincoln put Grant in command of Union armies. March-April 1864
1864.3.16   CSA VP Stephens spoke on civil rights. March-April 1864
1864.4.9     Maximilian renounced the Austrian succession.
1864.4.12   CSA killed surrendering soldiers at Fort Pillow. March-April 1864
1864.4.17   General Grant stopped prisoner exchanges. March-April 1864
1864.4.30   Lincoln pardoned 25 Sioux in Iowa. March-April 1864
1864.4-5     US Red River campaign failed in Louisiana. March-April 1864
1864.5.6     US & CSA had 28,699 casualties in Wilderness. May-June 1864
1864.5        Union Army captured 7,000 rebels. May-June 1864
1864.6.1-6  Cold Harbor battles had 18,000 casualties. May-June 1864
1864.6.8     National Union convention nominated Lincoln.  May-June 1864
1864.6.12   Maximilian arrived at Mexico City.
1864.6.15   Union Army besieged Petersburg. May-June 1864
1864.6.15   US Congress passed equal pay for blacks. May-June 1864
1864.6        Canada’s Conservative government resigned.
1864.6.28   US Congress repealed Fugitive Slave Acts. May-June 1864
1864.6.30   US Congress passed Internal Revenue Act. May-June 1864
1864.6-12   Canadians considered confederation. Canada
1864           Vizcarrondo began Spanish Abolitionist Society. Puerto Rico
1864           George P. Marsh published Man and NatureNovember-December 1864
1864           Nichols wrote Forty Years of American LifeNovember-December 1864
1864.7.4     US Congress encouraged immigration. July-August 1864
1864.7.20   Sherman’s army defeated Hood’s near Atlanta.July-August 1864
1864.7.30   Union troops assaulted Petersburg. July-August 1864
1864.8.5     US Navy defeated CS Navy in Mobile Bay. July-August 1864
1864.8        220 US prisoners died daily at Andersonville. May-June 1864
1864.8.30   Democrat Party nominated McClellan for Pres. July-August 1864
1864.8-10   Juárez retreated to Chihuahua. Mexico
1864.9.3     Sherman’s army occupied Atlanta.September-October 1864
1864.9.5     Louisiana’s constitution banned slavery. September-October 1864
1864.9.15   Lincoln suspended habeas corpus in the US. September-October 1864
1864.9.21   International Industrial Assembly began. September-October 1864
1864.9.23   After Frémont withdrew, Blair resigned. September-October 1864
1864.9-10   Sheridan’s cavalry burned crops & barns. September-October 1864
1864.10.7   USS Wachusett captured CSS Florida by Brazil. September-October 1864
1864.10.12 Brazilians invaded Uruguay. Argentina
1864.10.12 US Chief Justice Taney died. September-October 1864
1864.10.13 Maryland voters abolished slavery. September-October 1864
1864.10.29 Sojourner Truth talked to President Lincoln.
1864.10.31 Nevada became a US state. September-October 1864
1864.11.7   Davis asked CSA for 40,000 slaves to fight. November-December 1864
1864.11.8   Lincoln won electoral college 212-21. November-December 1864
1864.11.29 Chivington led Sandy Creek massacre. Colorado November-December 1864
1864.12.6   Lincoln nominated Chase for US Chief Justice. September-October 1864
1864.12.6   Hay read Lincoln’s message to Congress. November-December 1864
1864.12.14 Paraguay invaded Mato Grosso in Brazil.
1864.12      Gen. Melgarejo replaced Achá as Bolivia President.
1864.12.16 US Army led by Thomas occupied Nashville. November-December 1864
1864.12.17 US imposed passport controls on Canada.
1864.12.19 Lincoln called for 300,000 more volunteers. November-December 1864
1864.12.21 Savannah surrendered to Sherman’s army. November-December 1864
1864-65      9,000 Navahos moved to Bosque Redondo. New Mexico
1864-66      Liberal Toro was President of Colombia.
1865.1.11   Missouri convention abolished slavery.  January-February 1865
1865.1.15   Confederates surrendered Fort Fisher.  January-February 1865
1865.1.16   Sherman designated land for former slaves.  January-February 1865
1865.1.23   CSA General Taylor replaced General Hood. January-February 1865
1865.1.27   Peru & Spain signed Vivanco-Pareja treaty.
1865.1.27   US Army killed 224 Shoshonis in Idaho. Native Tribes
1865.1.31   US House approved 13th amendment. January-February 1865
1865.2.3     Lincoln & Seward met CSA leaders on peace.  January-February 1865
1865.2.9     French beat Mexicans led by Díaz in Oaxaca.
1865.2.9     Lee persuaded Davis to pardon deserters. January-February 1865
1865.2.12   Sherman’s army burned Orangeburg, SC. January-February 1865
1865.2        US Supreme Court admitted black John Rock. November-December 1864
1865.2.17   Columbia, South Carolina surrendered. January-February 1865
1865.2.18   Charleston, South Carolina surrendered. January-February 1865
1865.2.20   Brazil made a peace treaty with Uruguay.
1865.2.23   Lincoln reminded a Chicago editor of war cry. Civil War Atrocities
1865.3.3     US began Relief of Freedmen & Refugees. March 1865
1865.3.4     Lincoln gave his 2nd inaugural address. March 1865
1865.3.11   Lincoln pardoned deserters who returned. March 1865
1865.3.13   CSA Congress approved use of Negro troops. March 1865
1865.3        Paraguay declared war against Argentina.
1865.3        Sherman’s army defeated Johnston’s. March 1865
1865.3        US denounced Reciprocity Treaty with Canada
1865.3.25   US Army & Navy besieged Mobile, Alabama.March 1865
1865.3.28   Lincoln met with Grant, Sherman & Porter. March 1865
1865.4.1     Sheridan’s army defeated Picketts’ at 5 Forks.April-May 1865
1865.4.3     Davis & his cabinet left Richmond. April-May 1865
1865.4.9     Generals Grant & Lee agreed to end the war. April-May 1865
1865.4.12   Mobile’s mayor surrendered the city. April-May 1865
1865.4.12   CSA troops surrendered at Appomattox .April-May 1865
1865.4.14   John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln. April-May 1865
1865.4.15   Andrew Johnson became US President. April-May 1865
1865.4        Douglass spoke for voting rights of all.
1865.4.18   Sherman & Johnston made an armistice. April-May 1865
1865.4.26   Johnston surrendered all CSA forces. April-May 1865
1865.5.1     Brazil, Argentina & Uruguay allied.
1865.5.1     President Johnson named a military tribunal. April-May 1865
1865.5.10   Michigan cavalry captured Jefferson Davis. April-May 1865
1865.5.22   Pres. Johnson ended the southern blockade. April-May 1865
1865.5.29   Johnson decreed general amnesty & pardon. April-May 1865
1865.6.11   Brazilians defeated Paraguayans at Riachuelo.
1865           Argentina exported 55,000 tons of wool.
1865           Chile had 1.8 million people.
1865           Lydia Child helped publish The Freedman’s Book.
1865.7.7     Herold, Payne & Mrs. Surratt were hanged. April-May 1865
1865.7.15   Spanish troops left the Dominican Republic.

Copyright © 2006, 2017-18, 2020 by Sanderson Beck

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1714
World Chronology 1715-1815
World Chronology 1816-1830

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950

Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830

Chronology of America to 1865


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