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World Chronology


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World Chronology 1816-1830

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During this era most nations used the New Style (NS) Gregorian calendar; but the British, Sweden, and the Eastern Orthodox nations still used the Old Style (OS) Julian calendar, and their dates are ten days behind the Gregorian calendar through 1699. Protestant states in Germany and Denmark also used the Old Style until February 1700 when they adopted the New Style by cancelling February 19-29. On March 1, 1700 (NS) the difference between the two systems became eleven days. British dates in this book also use the year beginning on January 1 rather than in March. Britain adopted the New Style (NS) Gregorian calendar on September 14, 1752, and Sweden did so on March 1, 1753. Russia had its own calendar but started using the Julian calendar (OS) on January 1, 1700. Some dates may seem out of order because of differences between OS and NS.

1715.1 341 Whigs & 217 Tories were elected. George I
1715.2.6 Spain & Portugal made peace.
1715.2.7 Felipe V dismissed reformer Macanaz and Orry.
1715.2 Spain made peace with PortugalFelipe V
1715.3 Louis XIV promised Karl XII an annual subsidy.
1715.3 British Parliament impeached 4 Tories. George I
1715.3-12 Netherlands’ Treasury was closed.
1715.4.15 Denmark allied with England, Prussia & Poland.
1715.4 Brandenburg-Prussia declared war on Sweden. Karl XII
1715.4 Prussia allied with Poland, Denmark & Russia. Germans
1715.4-5 Addison’s tragedy Cato played for 30 nights.
1715.5.9 Catholic cantons secretly allied with France. Swiss
1715.5 Swiss Confederation allied with Louis XIV.
1715.6 French & Spaniards took back Majorca. France Felipe V
1715 Turks declared war on Venice. Ottoman Empire
1715 Arai Hakuseki wrote A Report on the Occident. Japanese Confucianism
1715 Turks declared war on Venice. Ottoman
1715 Rowe’s Tragedy of Lady Jane Grey played.
1715 Gazeta de Lisbon was Portugal’s first newspaper.
1715 Elisabetta Farnese of Parma married Felipe V. Sicily
1715 France’s deficit was 78 million livres. France
1715 Spanish Royal Academy was founded. Spain
1715 Hanover from war gained Bremen and Verden. Germans
1715 Russia made a silk trade treaty with Persia.
1715 Tuscaroras went north, joined Iroquois league. North Carolina
1715 South Carolina fought the Yamasees.
1715.7 British Riot Act gave magistrates more power. George I
1715.9.1 Louis XIV died. France
1715.10 Russia made a treaty with Hanover.
1715.11.15 Austrian Empire allowed the Dutch garrisons. Netherlands
1715.11.15 Barrier treaties allowed Dutch garrisons. Austrian EmpireNetherlands
1715.11.26 Saxons agreed to a confederation at Tarnogród. Poland-Lithuania
1715.12.13 Karl XII returned to Sweden.
1715.12 Britain and Spain made a commercial treaty. George I
1715.12 Britain, Hanover and France allied. Germans
1715.12.24 Prussians and allies captured Stralsund. Germans Denmark
1715-16 Jacobites revolted in Scotland. George I
1715-17 Venice and allies fought the Turks. Clement XI
1715-23 Philippe II of Orléans was France’s Regent.
1715-63 Cao Xueqin wrote Dream of the Red Chamber.
1716 Joao II reclaimed the Kongo throne.
1716 Words of Hagakure Master appeared. Japanese Confucianism
1716.1 Felipe V made Catalans citizens.
1716.1 Swedenborg began Daedalus Hyperboreus.
1716.1 Cherokees signed a treaty with the English. South Carolina
1716.2 British and Dutch allied. George I
1716.2 Tax on Old Ritualists was doubled in Russia. Petr
1716.3.9 Sweden’s army invaded Norway.
1716.4.13 Austrian Empire joined war against Turks. Venice
1716.5 British allied with Emperor Karl VI. George I
1716.5.26 Philippe authorized John Law to start a bank.
1716.6.5 Austrian Empire allied with Britain.
1716.6.29 Swedish army withdrew from Norway. Denmark
1716 Disarming Act compensated for weapons. George I
1716 Berlin Merchants Guild barred Jews & criminals. Germans
1716 Russian army of 30,000 occupied Warsaw. Poland-Lithuania
1716 Russia, France & Prussia made friendship treaty.
1716.7.8 Turks invaded the island of Corfu. Venice
1716.8.5 Austrian Imperial army beat Turks in Serbia. Clement XI Venice
1716.10.13 Austrian Imperial army took Temesvár in Hungary. Clement XI
1716-17 Pope Clement XI financed war against Turks.
1716-37 Austrians built the Karlskirche church.
1716-42 Narbhupal Shah ruled the Gurkhas. Nepal
1716-45 Yoshimune governed Japan with reforms.
1716-98 Yuan Mei wrote poetry, criticized Confucians.
1717.1 British, France and Dutch allied. George I
1717.2 Mute Sejm met at Warsaw. Poland-Lithuania
1717.6.4 Freemasons began a lodge in Covent Garden. George I
1717.6 Pope Clement XI suspended taxes in Spain.
1717.6 Spanish forces attacked Sicily. Clement XI
1717 Sunni Abdalis and Sunnis plundered Khurasan. Persia
1717 Asante fought Ayem Kotoku; Osei Tutu died.
1717 Dzungar Mongols invaded Tibet.
1717 Olods and Dzungars invaded Tibet. Kangxi
1717 Sunni Abdalis revolted and plundered Khurasan. Persia
1717 Cervera University replaced Catalan universities. Spain
1717 London coffee house admitted women. George I
1717 John Law founded the Mississippi Company. France
1717 Prussia made elementary school compulsory. Germans
1717 Britain banned trade with Sweden.
1717 John Wise wrote Vindication of the Government.
1717 Alabamas helped French build Fort Toulouse. Louisiana
1717.7.8 Danish navy defeated Sweden at Dynekilen. Norway
1717.7 Spain declared war on Austrian Empire.
1717.7.19 Portuguese defeated Turks at Cape Matapan. Portugal
1717.8.4 France and Russia signed a friendship treaty.
1717.8.17 Christians took Belgrade from Turks. Clement XI Venice Austrian
1717.8-11 Spain reconquered Sardinia. Sicily Clement XI
1717-18 Voltaire was in prison.
1717-27 French fought war in Wolof. West Africa
1717-33 Poland-Lithuania had a dark period.
1718.3 Chief Brims united the Creeks at Coweta. South Carolina
1718.6.26 Prince Alexei died after being whipped. Petr
1718 Jesuits helped Chinese produce an atlas. Kangxi
1718 Turks lost territory in the Passarowitz treaty. Ottoman Empire
1718 Britain sent convicts to Maryland & Virginia. George I
1718 English bank notes were issued. George I
1718 Matthew Prior published Alma and poetry. George I
1718 Lady Montagu promoted smallpox inoculation. George I
1718 Saint-Pierre published Traite de la PolysynodieFrance
1718 France began transporting tramps to Louisiana.
1718 Russia’s government was reorganize. Petr
1718 Russia confiscated coins from merchants. Petr
1718 Joao V approved selling Indians in Sao Luis. Brazil
1718 Bienville founded New Orleans as a capital. Louisiana
1718 New York allowed Jews to be naturalized.
1718.7.13 Spanish forces captured Palermo. Spain Sicily
1718.7.21 Treaty ended Turks’ war against VeniceAustrian Empire
1718.8.2 France allied with Austria and Savoy. Clement XI
1718.8.11 British beat Spaniards off Cape Passaro. Spain Sicily
1718.8 Austrians, British, French & Dutch allied. Spain Netherlands
1718.9-12 Swedes invaded Norway again. Denmark
1718.10.15 Spaniards defeated Austrian army at Milazzo.
1718.11 Governor Bienville founded New Orleans. France
1718.11 Virginia navy killed Blackbeard.
1718.11.30 Karl XII was shot dead at Frederiksen. Denmark Norway
1718.12.4 French government took over bank issues. France
1718.12 Maine conspirators were arrested. France
1718.12 Quadruple Alliance declared war on SpainGeorge I
1718-20 Ulrika Eleonara governed Sweden as regent.
1718-30 Damad Ibrahim was vizier during tulip era. Ottoman
1718-32 Woodes Rogers governed the Bahamas. West Indies
1718-46 Cakraningrat IV ruled Madura, allied with VOC. Java
1719.1.9 France declared war against Spain.
1719.1 British & allies opposed Russia & Prussia.
1719.1 Whigs repealed Conformity Act. British
1719.3 Prussia abolished serfdom on crown land. Germans
1719.4 Defoe published Robinson Crusoe.
1719.4 Marquis de Pontcallec led Breton rebellion. France
1719.4.21 French army invaded northern Spain.
1719.6.18 Fuenterrabia surrendered to the French. Spain
1719.6.20 Spaniards defeated Austrians at Francavilla. Spain Sicily
1719 Law took over African & East Indies companies. France
1719 France devalued banknotes.
1719 France suppressed a tax rebellion in Brittany.
1719 Emperor Karl VI recognized Liechtenstein. Germans
1719 Louisiana began importing African slaves.
1719 South Carolina Assembly replaced proprietors.
1719.7 Denmark’s Navy captured Marstrand. Norway
1719.10.10 British captured Vigo in Galicia. Spain
1719.12.19 Felipe V expelled Cardinal Alberoni.
1719-20 South Sea stock rose and fell. British
1719-20 Louisiana suffered a famine and an epidemic. France
1719-48 Muhammad Shah was Mughal emperor.

1720.1.5 John Law became Finances Controller-General. France
1720.1.21 Sweden ceded most of Pomerania to Prussia. Germans
1720.1.26 Spain joined the Quadruple Alliance. Felipe V
1720.2.17 Four Allies made peace with Spain. British Austria Netherlands
1720.3 Prince of Conti & Duke of Bourbon obtained gold. France
1720.3.24 French banks closed. France
1720.5 French prices doubled. France
1720.6 Defoe published “Wise Sayings.”
1720.6 France had 300 merchant ships.
1720 Cohong guild was organized at Canton. Qianlong
1720 Qing army took over Lhasa. Kangxi
1720 British Parliament authorized workhouses for offenders.
1720 Swift wrote Universal Use of Irish ManufactureIreland
1720 Defoe published Memoirs of a Cavalier.
1720 Defoe published Captain Singleton.
1720 Bubonic plague killed 100,000 in Marseilles. France
1720 Portugal founded its Royal Academy of History.
1720 Wolff published German Ethics.
1720 Greenland Company began. Denmark
1720 Maryland had 80,000 people and 25,000 slaves.
1720.7.3 Denmark & Sweden made peace. Norway
1720.7 Russian Navy defeated a Swedish fleet off Åland. Petr
1720.7.16 A bank riot in Paris killed about 20 people. France
1720.11.1 John Law fled to Italy. France
1720-21 John Law created a French financial bubble. Canada
1720-25 Spanish Inquisition executed Jewish conversosSpain
1720-35 Austrian Empire ruled Sicily.
1720-40 Peshwa Baji Rao led Marathas.
1720-51 Fredrik I reigned but did not rule Sweden.
1721.3 Spain and the Pope were reconciled. Clement XI
1721.3.27 Spain allied with France.
1721.5 South Carolina became a royal colony.
1721.6 Britain allied with Spain and France.
1721 Qing soldiers repressed rebellion on Taiwan. Yongzheng
1721 Bailey published Universal Etymological DictionaryBritain
1721 Montesquieu published Persian LettersFrance
1721 J. S. Bach performed his Brandenburg Concertos. German
1721 Petr decreed Ecclesiastical Regulation.
1721 Cotton Mather advocated smallpox inoculation. Massachusetts
1721 Cotton Mather published Christian Philosopher.
1721.8.30 Sweden & Russia made peace at Nystad. Petr
1721.10 Petr was proclaimed Emperor of Russia.
1721, 1726 Justices of the peace kept wages low. Britain
1721-35 Hans Egede led missionaries in Greenland. Denmark
1721-48 'Ali Muhammad Rohilla ruled Rohilkhand. Mughal Decline
1721-62 Sudan’s Badi IV fought wars against Ethiopia.
1722.1 Defoe published Moll Flanders.
1722.2 Tsar Petr devised the Table of Ranks.
1722.6.30 Hungarian Diet accepted the Pragmatic Sanction. Austrian Empire
1722 Mahmud's Afghans defeated the Persian army.
1722 Defoe published Col. Jack.
1722 Zinzendorf gave refuge to Moravian Brethren. Germans
1722 Friedrich Wilhelm warned about unjust wars. Germans
1722 Russian soldiers suffered ergotism at Astrakhan. Petr
1722 Weekly Jamaica Courant began publishing. West Indies
1722 Gaceta de Mexico began its monopoly on news. Mexico
1722 Franklin wrote Silence Dogood secretly.
1722.10 Petr led an army to the mouth of the Volga. Petr
1722.11.7 Steele’s The Conscious Lovers opened.
1722.12 Karl VI chartered Ostend East India Co. Austrian Empire Netherlands
1722-24 Dummer's War fought Abenakis in Maine. Massachusetts
1722-39 Sa'adat Khan ruled Awadh. Mughal Decline
1722-42 Robert Walpole was Britain’s first minister.
1723.2.16 Parlement declared Louis XV of age to rule at 13. France
1723.4.6 Marivaux’s comedy Double Infidelities opened.
1723 Ottomans invaded Persia through Georgia.
1723 Yongzheng abolished exam discrimination.
1723 Defoe published the novel Rob RoyBritain
1723 Molesworth wrote about the poor in Ireland.
1723 Giannone published his History of NaplesNaples
1723 Sweden’s Riksdag increased lawmaking & taxing.
1723 Potatoes were planted in Sweden.
1723 A Belgian set up a printing press in Cuba.West Indies
1723 Pennsylvania issued £45,000 in paper money.
1723.7 Defoe wrote “Insufficient Causes of Great Wars.”
1723.8.10 Cardinal Dubois died of syphilis. France
1723.10.10 Prussia and Britain made a treaty. Germans
1723.10 Britain banned trade with the Ostend Company.
1723.12.2 Regent Philippe died of a stroke.
1723, 1729 Suzhou textile workers went on strike. Yongzheng
1723-35 Yongzheng reformed the Qing empire.
1723-37 Last Medici Grand Duke Gastone ruled Tuscany
1723-38 Caps party governed Sweden.
1724.1 Voltaire published La Henriade.
1724.1 Russian Academy of Science was founded. Petr
1724.2 Defoe published The Fortunate Mistress
1724.3.4 France imposed death for theft & preaching.
1724 Qing troops put down Khoshote rebellion. Yongzheng
1724 Russians and Turks partitioned Transcaucasia. Ottoman Empire
1724 Fontenelle published The Origin of FablesFrance
1724 Possochkov published Book on Poverty & WealthPetr
1724 Meneses founded the Brazilian Academy. Brazil
1724 Louisiana excluded Jews and Protestants.
1724.7 Lutherans destroyed a Jesuit chapel at Torun. Poland-Lithuania
1724.12.7 Nine Lutherans were executed at Torun. Poland-Lithuania
1724-30 Pope Benedict XIII consecrated 360 churches.
1724-76 Yongjo ruled Korea.
1725.1.28 Emperor Petr died.
1725.4 Three men were hanged in London for sodomy. Britain
1725.4 Voltaire’s Hérode et Mariamne played.
1725.5 Spain allied with the Austrian Empire.
1725 Chancellor Macclesfield was fined for taking bribes. Britain
1725 Hutcheson published Ideas of Beauty and VirtueIreland
1725 Hutcheson wrote Inquiry on Moral Good and Evil.
1725 Famine caused food riots in Paris. France
1725 Vivaldi published his concertos at Amsterdam. Venice
1725 University of Caracas was founded. New Granada
1725.9.5 Louis XV married Marie Leszczynska. France Poland-Lithuania
1725-27 Ekaterina I ruled the Russian Empire.
1725-29 Ashraf ruled Afghans, fought Persians and Turks.
1725-41 Maria Elizabeth governed Austrian Netherlands.
1725-45 Karl Albrecht ruled Bavaria. Germans
1726 Defoe wrote Political History of the Devil.
1726 Jonathan Swift published Gulliver’s Travels.
1726 French militia were revived. France
1726 Sweden enforced Lutheran dogma.
1726.8.6 Russia allied with the Austrian Empire.
1726.8.9 Dutch allied with Hanover. Netherlands
1726.10.8 Fleury repealed the tax on clergy.
1726.12 Bolingbroke & Pulteney began The CraftsmanBritain
1726-28 Voltaire was in England.
1726-36 Patiño was Spain’s chief minister.
1726-43 Cardinal Fleury was prime minister of France.
1726-46 Beauharnois governed Canada.
1727.2-6 Spanish siege of Gibraltar failed. Spain
1727.4 Denmark allied with Britain and France.
1727.5 British got Karl VI to suspend Ostend Company. Austrian Empire
1727.5.31 Ostend Company was suspended. Netherlands
1727 Korean army put down a rebellion.
1727 Muteferrika printed books in Turkish. Ottoman Empire
1727 Ogyu Sorai wrote Political Essays. Japanese Culture
1727 Qing made Kyakhta treaty with Russia. Yongzheng
1727 Two of Yongzheng's brothers died in prison.
1727 Stephen Hales published Vegetable StaticksBritain
1727 430 Whigs & 128 Tories were elected. George II
1727 Jansenist weekly Nouvelles ecclésiastiques began. France
1727 Orthodox bishops lost power in Austrian Empire.
1727 Colden wrote History of the Five Indian Nations. Iroquois
1727 Franklin started the Junto discussion group.
1727 Maryland Gazette began publishing. Maryland
1727-30 Petr II ruled the Russian Empire.
1727-33 Queen Isabel ruled Spain for her ill husband.
1727-34 Apostol was Hetman of the left-bank Ukraine.
1727-49 William Gooch governed Virginia.
1727-60 George II ruled Britain.
1727-76 Inta-Som ruled Luang Prabang. Laos
1728.1.29 John Gay’s The Beggar’s Opera opened.
1728 Chinese published Complete Collection. Yongzheng
1728 Chambers published CyclopaediaGeorge II
1728 Swift wrote Short View of the State of Ireland.
1728 Law wrote Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life.
1728 Hutcheson wrote Essay on the Moral Sense.
1728 Fire devastated Copenhagen. Denmark
1728 First Masonic lodge opened in Warsaw. Poland-Lithuania
1728 Dominicans began a university at Havana. West Indies
1728 Caracas Company was given a trade monopoly. New Granada
1728.8 Bering discovered strait between Asia & America.Russia
1728-29 Portuguese reoccupied Mombasa. East Africa
1728-47 Pholhanas governed Tibet.
1728-47 Denmark’s theaters were closed.
1728-66 Queen Mentuab ruled Ethiopia as regent.
1729 China banned selling and using opium. Yongzheng
1729 Swift wrote the satire, A Modest ProposalIreland
1729 France allied with Britain and Spain.
1729 Le Sage revised Asmodeus: Devil on 2 Sticks.
1729 Franz Stefan became Duke of Lorraine. Austrian Empire
1729 Copenhagen investors bought Norway’s trade.
1729 Franklin wrote "Busy-Body." Journalism
1729 Franklin wrote on paper money.
1729 Franklin bought the Pennsylvania Gazette.
1729 North Carolina became a royal colony.
1729.11 Britain & Spain made peace at Seville.
1729.11 Dutch joined the Quadruple Alliance. Netherlands
1729-31 French and Choctaws fought Natchez. Louisiana
1729-51 Willem IV tried to govern the Netherlands.
1729-74 Polish Courier newspaper was published.
1729-1811 Al-Mukhtar al-Kunti united Qadiri factions. Futa Jallon and Tukulor

1730.1.23 Marivaux’s Game of Love and Chance opened.
1730 Agaja agreed to pay Oyo annual tribute. Dahomey
1730 Akwapim rebelled against Akwamu. Gold Coast
1730 Walpole reduced the army and taxes.Britain
1730 Lesage’s comedy Turcaret played.
1730 Anna exiled the Dolgorukys and the Golitsyns. Russia
1730 Almeida began regulating diamond mining. Brazil
1730 Mompo led a revolt in Asuncion. Rio de la Plata
1730 Virginia passed Tobacco Inspection Act.
1730.10.30 Louis XV banned Mariamberg’s MemoirFrance
1730.12 Voltaire’s Brutus opened.
1730-32 Corsicans revolted against Genoese rule. Lombardy
1730-40 Pope Clement XII restored papal finances.
1730-40 Anna Ivanovna ruled the Russian Empire.
1730-41 Jonathan Belcher governed Massachusetts. Massachusetts
1730-46 Kristian VI ruled Denmark and Norway.
1730-50 Ayina Yella ruled Sulimana. West Africa
1730-54 Mahmud I ruled the Ottoman empire.
1730-73 Charles Emmanuel III of Savoy ruled Sardinia. Lombardy
1731.3.16 British allied with Austrian Empire at Vienna.
1731.3 Vienna treaty ended France’s alliance with Britain.
1731.6 George Lillo’s The London Merchant opened.
1731 Ibrahim Muteferrika urged military reform. Ottoman Empire
1731 Jethro Tull published Horse-Hoeing HusbandryBritain
1731 Protestants founded the Dublin Society. Ireland
1731 France’s Royal Academy of Surgery began
1731 Fleury imprisoned a hundred dissenters.
1731 Voltaire published his History of Charles XII.
1731 Prévost published his novelManon Lescaut.
1731 A Spanish army occupied Tuscany.
1731 Swedish East India Company began. Sweden
1731 Barbados Gazette began publishing. West Indies
1731 Viceroy Armendariz executed Antequera. Rio de la Plata
1731 Louisiana became a royal colony,
1731 Franklin's Junto began first circulating library.
1731.7 Austria let Spain garrison Parma and Tuscany.
1731, 1734 Karl VI restricted Protestants in Hungary. Austrian Empire
1731-38 Griffith Jones founded 37 schools in South Wales. Britain
1732.2 Dutch signed Vienna treaty of Austria & Britain. Netherlands
1732.3.12 Marivaux’s The Triumph of Love opened.
1732.3.9 Carlos entered Florence to govern Tuscany. Naples
1732.3 Britain’s tobacco & wine taxes lasted one week. George II
1732.4.23 Salzburg expelled 20,000 Protestants. Austrian Empire Germans
1732 Asante invaded Gonja.
1732 Qing crushed revolt by Taiwan aborigines. Yongzheng
1732 Turks ceded Tabriz to Kerman, retained Georgia. Ottoman Empire
1732 Oglethorpe founded the colony of Georgia. George II
1732 Prussia began compulsory military service. Germans
1732 Dutch Willem IV made agreement with Prussia.
1732 Konarski published Polish legislation. Poland-Lithuania
1732 Canal from the Neva to the Volkhov was finished. Petr
1732 Brazil restricted women from emigrating.
1732 George II granted Georgia a non-profit charter.
1732.7 Louis XV banished 139 members of Parlement. France
1732.8.13 Voltaire’s Zaire was produced.
1732.11 Spaniards reconquered Oran. Spain
1732-34 Dalin published satires in The Swedish ArgusSweden
1732-37 Jai Singh governed Malwa. Maratha Rise
1732-74 Tegbesu ruled Dahomey.
1733.2 French army escorted Stanislas to Poland. France
1733.2 Oglethorpe led settlers south of Savannah River.
1733 Food riots broke out in Edo. Japan
1733 Britain taxed molasses, sugar & rum.
1733 John Kay patented a wheeled shuttle for a loom. Britain
1733 Richardson printed House of Commons journals.
1733 Voltaire published his Letters on the English.
1733 Voltaire married Émilie du Châtelet.
1733 Denmark purchased St. Croix.
1733 Kristian VI visited Norway.
1733 Russian army invaded Poland.
1733 British passed the Molasses Act. Massachusetts, New York, Virginia
1733 Virginia had 88,000 Europeans, 42,000 Africans.
1733.8.14 Karl VI recognized August III of Saxony. Austrian Empire
1733.9.12 13,000 Poles voted for Stanisław. Poland-Lithuania
1733.10.5 Russians urged 1,000 nobles to elect August III.Poland-Lithuania
1733.10.10 France declared war against Austrian Empire. Poland-Lithuania
1733.10.26 Felipe V put his son Carlos in command in Italy.
1733.11 Felipe V & Louis XV formed Family Compact. France
1733-34 Alexander Pope’sEssay on Manwas printed.
1733-36 Poland’s Sejm excluded Protestants. Poland-Lithuania
1733-38 War of the Polish Succession. Austrian EmpirePoland-Lithuania
1733-58 Boromokot ruled Siam.
1733-58 Franklin published Poor Richard’s Almanac.
c. 1733-60 Omukama Isansa ruled Bunyoro empire. Africa’s Lakes Region
1733-63 Saxon August III ruled Poland-Lithuania.
1734.1 August III was crowned at Krakow. Poland-Lithuania
1734.2 Austrian Empire’s Ostend Company stopped trading.
1734.2-6 Russian army besieged Stanisław at Danzig. Poland-Lithuania
1734.3 Willem IV married Anne of Hanover.
1734.4.9 Austrian Empire declared war against France.
1734.5.10 Carlos and Spaniards entered Naples. Spain
1734.5.25 Spanish army defeated Austrians at Bitonto. Naples
1734.5 French occupied Lorraine and Trèves. France
1734.6.30 Russian forces drove French from Danzig. France
1734 Russians invaded the Crimea and captured Azov. Ottoman Empire
1734 Montesquieu published a book on the Romans.
1734 Denmark allied with Sweden and Britain.
1734 Sweden got a new law code.
1734 Swedenborg wrote “Against War with Russia.”
1734 Escandon pacified Sierra Gorda in Mexico.
1734.9.1 Palermo Senate recognized Carlos in Sicily. Spain
1734, 1737 Index banned books by Locke. Naples
1734-52 Johnston governed North Carolina.
1734-59 Carlo ruled Naples and Sicily.
1735.1.26 Stanisław renounced the Polish throne. Poland-Lithuania
1735.4.3 Georgia banned importing slaves and alcohol.
1735.5 Russian army defeated Dzikow Confederation. Poland-Lithuania
1735.6 Britain passed the Engraving Copyright Act.
1735 Nadir and 80,000 Persians defeated Ottomans.
1735 Le Sage completed his novel Gil Blas.
1735 Linnaeus published his Systema NaturaeSweden
1735 Russians fought the French on the Rhine.
1735 Jury acquitted publisher Zenger in New York.
1735.10.5 French began negotiating secretly with Austria. France
1735.10.14 John Wesley began his public journal.
1735.10 Austrian Empire regained Parma and Piacenza. Naples
1735-37 Portugal & Spain fought over Plata Rio colonies.
1735-39 35,000 Ukrainians died in a Russo-Turkish War. Ukraine
1736.1 Voltaire’s Alzire was produced.
1736.2.14 Maria Theresa married Franz of Lorraine. Austrian Empire
1736.5.4 Karl VI made Franz governor of Belgium. Austrian Empire
1736.6 Russians sacked Tatar capital Bakhchisarai.
1736 Britain repealed the Witchcraft Act.
1736 Joseph Butler published The Analogy of Religion.
1736 Voltaire’s La Mort de César flopped.
1736 Voltaire published “The Worldly Man.”
1736 Rousseau wrote Dissertation on Modern Music.
1736 Denmark made confirmation a law.
1736 Poland’s Sejm confirmed King August III. Poland-Lithuania
1736 Russia withdrew troops from Poland.
1736 Russia declared war on the Turks.
1736 Franklin became Assembly clerk.
1736 Parks began publishing weekly Virginia Gazette. Virginia
1736.7 Irish building workers rioted in East London. Britain
1736.12 Franklin founded Union Fire Company.
1736, 1739 Bienville attacked the Chickasaws. Louisiana
1736-47 Nadir Shah Afshar ruled the Persian empire.
1736-48 Historian Giannone was in prison for heresy. Naples
1736-95 Qianlong ruled Qing empire.
1737.1 Carlo of Naples ceded Parma & Piacenza. Spain
1737.1 Austrian Empire took over Tuscany.
1737.2 Militaristic minister Chauvelin was exiled. France
1737 Qianlong tried to ban liquor made from grain.
1737 Licensing Act began censoring plays. Britain
1737 Saint-Pierre wrote books on universal peace. France
1737 Pope Clement XII recognized Spain’s rights.
1737 Felipe V ceded Tuscany to Francis of Lorraine. Naples
1737 Carlo had an opera house built in Naples.
1737 Algarotti published Newton’s PhilosophyVenice
1737 Swedish Playhouse opened. Sweden
1737 Anna made Biron the Duke of Courland. Russia
1737 Russians made Okhotsk a Pacific port.
1737 Russians captured Ochakov.
1737 Franklin became deputy postmaster.
1737.7.9 Last Medici ruler Gastone died. Tuscany
1737.7 Franz became Grand Duke of Tuscany. Austrian Empire
1737.7 Austrian Empire allied with Russia against the Turks.
1737.8.4 Turks defeated Christian allies at Banja Luka. Austrian Empire
1737.9 Walking Purchase took land from Delawares. Pennsylvania
1737-66 Stanisław was Duke of Lorraine. Poland-Lithuania
1738.2.4 Württemberg executed banker Oppenheimer. Germans
1738 France compelled labor to repair roads.
1738 Voltaire published his book on Newton.
1738 Spain began its Royal Academy of History.
1738 Daniel Bernoulli published HydrodynamicsSwiss
1738 Denmark banned comedy and gambling.
1738 Bogota got its first printing press. New Granada
1738 Whitefield came to Georgia.
1738.11.18 Vienna treaty ended Polish War. Austrian Empire
1738-41 One-sixth of the French died of hunger. France
1738-47 Satirist Weyerman was in prison. Netherlands
1738-65 Hats party governed Sweden.
1738-1803 Karl Friedrich ruled Baden. German States
1739.4.1 John Wesley preached to 3,000 at Bristol.
1739 Turks regained territory in Belgrade treaty. Ottoman Empire
1739 Oyo invaded Dahomey. Niger Coast
1739 Persia's Nadir Shah sacked Delhi. Mughal Decline
1739 Turks regained territory in Belgrade treaty. Ottoman Empire
1739 Scotland began growing potatoes. Britain
1739 Feijóo completed his Teatro critico universalSpain
1739 Denmark financed elementary schools.
1739 Norwegian Company began. Norway
1739 Linnaeus began Sweden’s Academy of Science. Sweden
1739 Moldavian nobles joined the Russian Empire.
1739.7-9 Ottoman siege captured Belgrade. Austrian Empire
1739.9 Slaves rebelled near Charles Town.
1739.9.18 Austrian Empire ceded Serbia to Ottoman Empire.
1739.10.3 Russia and the Turks made a treaty at Niš.
1739.10.8  Britain declared war against Spain.
1739.10 England declared war on Spain. West Indies, Rhode Island, South Carolina
1739.11.22 British ships captured Porto Bello in Panama. 
1739-43 British and Spain fought a war.
1739-40 Friedrich II & Voltaire wrote on Machiavelli.
1739-42 Norway suffered famine and disease.
1739-48 British spent £6.6 million on wars.

1740.5 2,000 English and Indians attacked San Agustin. Georgia
1740 Samuel Richardson publishedPamela.
1740 2 Sicilies and Ottoman Empire made a treaty. Naples
1740 Ottoman Empire renewed friendship treaty with France.
1740 French renewed trade capitulations with Syria.
1740 Khoisan were forbidden to herd livestock. Southern Africa
1740 Whitefield preached in New England. Great Revival
1740 South Carolina had 39,000 African slaves.
1740.10-11 Biron was Regent of Russia for 25 days.
1740.12 August III allied with Austria’s Maria Theresa. Poland-Lithuania
1740.12.16 Prussia’s Friedrich II invaded Silesia. Austrian Empire
1740.12.25 Moravians celebrated Christmas in Bethlehem. Germans
1740-41 Ivan’s mother Anna was Regent of Russia.
1740-44 418 mosques were destroyed in Kazan. Russia
1740-48 War of the Austrian Succession.
1740-56 'Ali Bey I ruled Tunisia.
1740-56 Alivardi ruled Bengal. Mughal Decline, French
1740-58 Pope Benedict XIV was a reformer & scholar.
1740-61 Peshwa Balaji Rao led Marathas. Marathas
1740-74 Tegbesu ruled Dahomey. Niger Coast
1740-86 Friedrich II ruled Prussia.
1741.2 Henry Fielding published Joseph Andrews.
1741.3-5 10,000 British died at the Cartagena siege.
1741.3-5 Spaniards defeated the British at Cartagena. Spain
1741.4.10 Prussians fought Austrians at Mollwitz. Austrian Empire Friedrich II
1741.4.25 Voltaire’s Mahomet opened at Lille.
1741.5 France entered the Austrian War.
1741.5.28 Spain & France allied with Bavaria. Austrian Empire
1741.6.5 France allied with Prussia. Austrian Empire Germany
1741.6.25 Maria Theresa was crowned Queen of Hungary. Austrian Empire
1741 Spain imposed a 10% tax on income.
1741 Danes fought Russians in Finland. Norway
1741 Uppsala Astronomical Observatory was built. Sweden
1741 English attacked Cartagena. Massachusetts, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina
1741 Zinzendorf's Moravians founded Bethlehem. Pennsylvania
1741.7 Britain gave Austrian Empire a subsidy of £300,000.
1741.8.15 A French army crossed the Rhine. France
1741.9.14 French and Bavarians captured Linz. France Austrian Empire
1741.9 Franz became co-regent of Hungary. Austrian Empire
1741.9.19 Saxony allied with France against Britain.
1741.10.9 Austrian Empire ceded Lower Silesia to Prussia. Germany
1741.11.25 French and Bavarians captured Prague. France Austrian Empire
1741.12.19 Karl Albrecht was crowned King of Bohemia. Austrian Empire Germany
1741-42 Hume wrote Essays, Moral and Political.
1741-43 Sweden and Russia fought a war.
1741-57 William Shirley governed Massachusetts. New England
1741-61 Elizaveta ruled the Russian Empire.
1741-69 Babari ruled Gobir and fought wars. Bornu and Hausaland
1742.2.12 Emperor Karl VII was crowned in Frankfurt. France Austrian Empire
1742.2.12 Austrian imperial army captured Munich. Friedrich II
1742.4.13 Handel’s Messiah premiered in Dublin. Ireland
1742.5.17 Austrian army fought Prussians at Chotusitz. Friedrich II
1742.6.11 British mediated a truce in Silesia. Austrian Empire Friedrich II
1742 New Japanese law allowed peasants to sell land.
1742 Handel composed “Joy to the World.” George II
1742 Denmark allied with France and got a subsidy.
1742 Horkraemmer Company got Iceland trade.
1742 Celsius invented the centigrade thermometer. Sweden
1742 Elizaveta expelled Jews from Russia.
1742 Edwards wrote about the revival of religion.
1742 Franklin invented a more efficient stove.
1742 Cherokees, Catawbas, and Iroquois made treaty. South Carolina
1742.6.22 Spanish fleet attacked St. Simons Island. Georgia
1742.6-12 Austrian siege drove French allies from Prague.
1742.7 Georgia repealed prohibition of alcohol.
1742.7.28 Austrian Empire signed a treaty at Berlin. Friedrich II
1742.9.17 Saxony withdrew from the Austrian War.
1742.11 Britain allied with Prussia against France.
1742.12.12 French forces retreated from Prague. France
1742-44 Opoku Ware's Asante armies invaded neighbors.
1742-45 Karl VII was Holy Roman Emperor. Austrian Empire
1742.46 Lengnich wrote Public Law of the Polish RealmPoland-Lithuania
1742-53 Dupleix governed Pondicherry. French
1742-74 Prithvi Narayan Shah ruled the Gurkhas. Nepal
1743.2.18 Last Medici Anna Maria died in Florence. Tuscany
1743.2.20 Voltaire’s Mérope opened.
1743.3-6 Dalecarlian peasants rebelled. Sweden
1743.5.12 Maria Theresa was crowned Queen of Bohemia. Austrian Empire
1743.5 France declared war on Austria and Britain. Austrian Empire
1743.6.27 British & allies beat French at Dettingen. Louis XV Austrian Empire
1743 John Wesley published Methodist Rules.
1743 Fielding wrote Journey from this World.
1743 Henry Fielding published Jonathan Wild.
1743 Rousseau wrote the opera Les Muses Galantes.
1743 30,000 people died of typhus in Messina. Sicily
1743 Russia & Prussia made a defensive alliance.
1743 Stephens succeeded Oglethorpe in Georgia.
1743.8 Russia & Sweden made peace at Åbo.
1743.10.25 Felipe V & Louis XV renewed the Compact.
1743.12 Austrian Empire allied with Saxony.
1743-44 Austrian imperial army invaded Naples.
1743-53 Admiral George Clinton governed New York
1743-56 James Glen governed South Carolina.
1744.3.15 France’s Louis XV declared war on Britain.
1744.3 France and England declared war. British
1744.4.26 France declared war on Austrian EmpireLouis XV
1744.5 France invaded southern Netherlands. Louis XV Germany
1744.6 France allied with Prussia & Frankfurt Union. Louis XV Friedrich II
1744.6.28 New England captured Louisbourg.             
1744 Al-Wahhab allied with Muhammad ibn Saud.
1744 Muscat-Oman became independent. Persian Gulf
1744 Ahmad founded al-Busa‘idi dynasty of Oman. East Africa
1744 Vico finished his Principles of a New Science.
1744 Austrian imperial army invaded Naples.
1744 Ukraine’s new laws went into effect.
1744 Orenburg became a Russian province.
1744 Russian population reached 18,250,000.
1744 Franklin founded American Philosophical Society.
1744 Jonas Green revived the Maryland Gazette.
1744.8.15 Prussia’s Friedrich II invaded Bohemia. Austrian Empire
1744.12 Friedrich II retreated to Silesia.
1744-48 King George’s War fought the French. New England
1744-80 Charles Alexander ruled Austrian Netherlands.
1744-1829 Dagohoy Rebellion survived on Bohol Island. Philippines
1745.1.8 Britain, Austrian Empire, Saxony & Dutch allied. Netherlands
1745.1.20 Emperor Karl VII died. Austrian Empire Friedrich II
1745.2.25 The ballet La Princesse de Navarre opened.
1745.3 Spain allied with Genoa against Savoy.
1745.4.1 Voltaire became France’s historiographer.
1745.4.15 Austrian Empire beat Bavarians at Pfaffenhofen. Friedrich II
1745.4.22 Bavaria & Austrian Empire agreed to end the war. Germany
1745.5.11 French beat four allies at Fontenoy. Austrian Empire BritainLouis XV Netherlands
1745.6 Maria Theresa expelled Jews from Bohemia. Austrian Empire
1745.6.24 Louis XV made Jeanne Marquise of Pompadour.
1745.6.28 1,400 French surrendered at Louisbourg. Louis XV
1745 Aoki Konyo produced Dutch-Japanese dictionary.
1745 Pompadour got Voltaire into French Academy. Louis XV
1745 French army conquered Austrian Netherlands. Louis XV
1745 Prussian army defeated Austrian Empire 3 times.
1745 Sweden & Russia made a defensive treaty.
1745 Atlas of the Russian Empire was published.
1745.8 British allied with Prussia against France.
1745.8 Ekaterina married Petr of Holstein-Gottorp. Russia
1745.9.17 Jacobites took over Edinburgh for James VIII. Britain
1745.9.27 Spain defeated Savoy at Bassignano.
1745.9.30 Prussians defeated Austrians at Soor. Friedrich II
1745.11.18 Jacobites occupied Carlisle in England. Britain
1745.12 France’s Controller-General Orry resigned.Louis XV
1745.12.15 Prussians defeated Saxons at Kesselsdorf. Friedrich II
1745.12.19 Spanish troops entered Milan. Spain
1745.12.25 Austrian Empire made peace with Prussia. Friedrich II
1745.12.30 Jacobites surrendered Carlisle to the British.
1745-46 Chmielowski published an encyclopedia. Poland-Lithuania
1745, 1747 70 ships going to Martinique were captured. French West Indies
1745-47 Genoese rebelled against Austrian rule. Lombardy
1745-65 Franz was Holy Roman Emperor. Austrian Empire Friedrich II
1746.1.17 4,000 were killed fighting at Falkirk, Scotland. Britain
1746.2.22 French army captured Brussels. Austrian Empire Louis XV Netherlands
1746.4.3 British defeated Jacobite rebellion at Culloden.
1746.4  Spaniards withdrew from Parma. Spain
1746.6.2 Austrian Empire allied with Russia.
1746.6.16 Austrians beat Spanish and French at Piacenza. Spain
1746 Diderot wrote Philosophic Thoughts.
1746 King Carlo kept the Inquisition out of Naples.
1746 Maria Theresa expelled Jews from Buda.
1746 Swiss Natural Science Society began.
1746 Berliners acclaimed “Friedrich the Great.”
1746 Plauer canal joined the Elbe to the Havel. Friedrich II
1746 Denmark allied with Russia.
1746 College of New Jersey began at Princeton.
1746 North Carolinans refused to pay taxes.
1746.7.9 After long mental decline Felipe V died.
1746.9 French forces took Madras from the English Company. Louis XV
1746.10.11 French defeated Austrians at Rocoux. Louis XV
1746, 1784 Qianlong persecuted Christians.
1746-48 Takeda, Namiki, Miyoshi produced three plays.
1746-51 William Johnson was New York’s Indian agent.
1746-52 La Jonquiere governed the French.
1746-55 'Ali ibn Athman ruled Mombasa. East Africa
1746-55 Viceroy Güemes prospered in Mexico.
1746-59 Fernando VI ruled Spain.
1746-66 Frederik V ruled Denmark and Norway.
1747.4 French army invaded Flanders. Netherlands
1747.4.28 Zeeland declared Willem IV stadholder.
1747.5 Dutch provinces accepted Willem IV.
1747.5 Sweden allied with France and Prussia.
1747.5 British navy defeated La Jonquiere’s 5 ships. French
1747 Futa Jallon confederation formed with Sambegu. West Africa
1747 Tobias Smollett published Roderick Random.
1747 French defeated invading Sardinians in Provence. Louis XV
1747 Voltaire published his novel Zadig.
1747 Goldoni’s Servant of Two Masters opened.
1747 First public library was founded in Warsaw. Poland-Lithuania
1747 Spaniards fought Comanches. Mexico
1747.7.2 French defeated British allies at Lauffeld. Louis XV
1747.9.18 French army sacked Bergen-op-Zoom. Netherlands
1747.11.17 Franklin’s “Plain Truth” advocated defense.
1747, 1753 James Lind noted that citrus cures scurvy. Britain
1747-48 Samuel Richardson published Clarissa.
1747-48 French army invaded Brabant and Flanders. Netherlands
1747-49 Sichuan people defeated Qing forces. Qianlong
1747-49 La Galissoniere governed the French
1747-57 Jonathan Belcher governed New Jersey.
1747-67 Afghan Abdali invaded India 8 times.
1747-73 Ahmad Shah Durrani ruled Afghanistan. Persia
1748.1-11 Dutch rioted and protested. Netherlands
1748.5.7 French army captured Maastricht fortress. Louis XV
1748 Bereaved Qianlong punished officials.
1748 John Wesley wrote Plain Account of Methodists.
1748 Samuel Johnson wrote “The Vanity of Human Wishes.”
1748 La Mettrie published L’homme MachineLouis XV
1748 Montesquieu published The Spirit of Laws.
1748 Diderot published The Indiscreet Jewels.
1748 Russian army marched to Germany and back. Poland-Lithuania
1748 A decree ordered books printed in Russian.
1748 Joao V ended ransom expeditions in Brazil.
1748.8.29 Voltaire’s Sémiramis was produced.
1748.10.18 Europeans made peace at Aachen. Britain Louis XV Spain Austria
1748.10.18 Treaty gave Louisbourg back to the French
1748.12 Willem IV agreed to new rules.
1748-49 Henry Fielding published Tom Jones.
1748-49 Creoles began protesting Caracas Company. New Granada
1748-49 Pennsylvania made treaties with Indian tribes.
1748-54 Ahmad Shah was Mughal emperor. Afghan Invasions
1749.3 George II approved grant to the Ohio Company.
1749 Zhang Guangsi was executed for abusing Miao. Qianlong
1749 Bolingbroke published Spirit of PatriotismBritain
1749 France imposed a 5% income tax. Louis XV
1749 French scientists published Natural HistoryDiderot
1749 Wolff published The Law of Nations.
1749 Codex Fredericianus simplified rules. Friedrich II
1749 Stanisław wrote A Free Voice Ensuring FreedomPoland-Lithuania
1749 Peru had two major Indian revolts.
1749 Franklin wrote on education, began Academy.
1749.7 Bern punished conspirators. Swiss
1749.7-11 Diderot was in prison at Vincennes.
1749.8 Denmark & Sweden agreed on Gottorp.
1748.10.18 Treaty gave Louisbourg back to France.
1748-49 Creoles began protesting Caracas Company. New Granada
1748-49 Pennsylvania made treaties with Indian tribes.
1749.3 George II approved grant to the Ohio Company.
1749 Peru had two major Indian revolts.
1749 Franklin wrote on education, began Academy.
1749.8.2 Iroquois gave Croghan 200,000 acres by Ohio. French
1749-50 Paris police arrested vagrants and veterans. Louis XV
1749-52 Edward Cornwallis governed Halifax. New England
1749-53 Franklin experimented with electricity.
1749-68 Skúli Magnusson worked for reform in Iceland.

1750.1 Spain and Portugal agreed on boundaries.
1750.1 Burgomasters lost control of Haarlem. Netherlands
1750.1 Mayhew preached right to representation. New England
1750.1 Portugal and Spain agreed on borders of Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1750.4.25 Adolf Friedrich gave up Schleswig. Denmark
1749 Zhang Guangsi was executed for abusing Miao. Qianlong
1750Yongjo reduced military cloth tax. Korea
1750 Voltaire estimated population of European states. Britain
1750 Voltaire wrote La Voix du sage et du peuple.
1750 J. S. Bach completed his Art of the FugueLessing
1750 Lessing began translating Voltaire’s work.
1750 Smallpox killed 40,000 in Belem. Brazil
1750 Georgia repealed its anti-slavery law.
1750.7 Rousseau wrote Discourse on Science and Arts.
1750.9.13 Britain joined Austria & Russia against Prussia.
1750.11 Diderot published his Prospectus
1750-52 Johnson wrote 208 articles for The Rambler.
1750-52 Kaunitz was Austria’s ambassador to France.
1750-53 Voltaire lived in Prussia.
1750-64 Kusi Obodum ruled Asante without executions.
1750-64 Rozumovsky was Ukrainian Hetman. Ukraine
1750-70 J. Bernstorff was Denmark’s foreign minister.
1750-77 José I ruled Portugal as enlightened despot.
1750-77 Jose I ruled Portuguese empire with Pombal. Brazil
1751.6 Diderot & d’Alembert began the Encyclopédie.
1751 English led by Clive captured Arcot.
1751 John Wesley married and lost his fellowship.
1751 Hume wrote Enquiry on Principles of Morals.
1751 Tobias Smollett published Peregrine Pickle.
1751 Louis XV financed a military school for nobles.
1751 Voltaire published his Age of Louis XIV.
1751 Portugal restricted the Inquisition.
1751 Naples built a house for the poor and ill.
1751 Hungarian Diet refused to pass a war tax. Austrian Empire
1751.8.15 Franklin appealed for a hospital. 
1751.12 Henry Fielding published Amelia.
1751.12 Louis XV granted clergy immunity from taxes.
1751, 1759 Peasants revolted in Transylvania. Austrian Empire
1751-58 Robert Dinwiddie governed Virginia
1751-59 Anne of Hanover was Dutch regent. Netherlands
1751-71 Adolf Fredrik was King of Sweden.
1751-71 Ryk Tulbagh governed Cape Town. Southern Africa
1751-85 Muhammad al-Amin ruled Bagirmi. Bornu and Hausaland
1751-1844 Alcalde-mayors in Philippines could do business.
1752.3 Austria outlawed Protestant books.
1752.4 Franklin started first fire insurance company.
1752.6 Spain, Austria & Sardinia made Aranjuez treaty.
1752.6 Upper Austria expelled 2,664 Protestants.
1752 Pringle published Diseases of the ArmyBritain
1752 William Law published The Spirit of Love.
1752 Persecuted Protestants emigrated from France. Louis XV
1752 Spain began its Academy of Fine Arts.
1752.9.14 Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar (NS).
1752-55 Duquesne governed the French
1752-72 Gravesande directed Essequibo & Demerara. Guiana
1753.1 Pope Benedict XIV granted Spain a concordat.
1753.3.1 Sweden adopted the Gregorian calendar (NS).
1753.3 Rousseau’s Le Devin du village made money.
1753.5 Paris Parlement was suspended and exiled. Louis XV
1753 Marriage Act required parental consent for minors. Britain
1753 Britain claimed Ireland’s surplus.
1753 Le Paige published a history of Parlement. Louis XV
1753 Portugal set up Company for Trade with Asia.
1753 Goldoni’s Mistress of the Inn played.
1753 Peasants revolted in southern Hungary. Maria Theresa
1753 Maria Theresa set up a Chastity Commission.
1753 Lessing wrote “Christianity of Reason.”
1753 Chile monopolized tobacco.
1753 French built forts in Ohio valley. Canada
1753 Dinwiddie sent Washington to Fort Le Boeuf. Virginia
1753.11 Carlo banned gambling in Naples.
1753-54 Richardson published Sir Charles Grandison.
1753-73 Franklin was deputy postmaster of America.
1753-92 Kaunitz was Chancellor of the Austrian Empire.
1754.5.28 Washington led attack on French
1754.6 English colonists met at Albany. New York Franklin
1754 Lessing wrote the comedy The Jews.
1754 Russia ended internal customs & tripled tariffs.
1754 Spain and Portugal agreed to dominate. Brazil  Guiana
1754 New York City public library began. 
1754.7 Washington surrendered Fort Necessity. English-French War
1754.8 Virginia House authorized £20,000 for defense.
1754.9.17 Quesnay persuaded Louis XV to abolish tolls.
1754.11 Rousseau published On Political Economy.
1754.11 British authorized £1,000,000 for war on French.
1754.12 Parlement banished Archbishop Beaumont. Louis XV
1754, 1756 Spain suppressed the Guarani revolt.
1754, 1762 Woolman wrote against slavery. Pennsylvania
1754-56 Guarani War moved Jesuit missions in BrazilRio de la Plata
1754-59 Alamgir II was Mughal emperor. Afghan Invasions
1754-74 Gaha led the military in Oyo.
1754-93 ‘Ali Qaramanli ruled Tripoli.
1754-1817 Usman dan Fodio led jihad in West Africa. Bornu and Hausaland
1755.1 Georgia’s first elected Assembly met.
1755.4 Samuel Johnson published his English Dictionary.
1755.4 Virginia deported 1,150 Acadians to England.
1755.5 Uri forces punished rebels in Levinental. Swiss
1755.6.16 British defeated French Acadians.
1755 Hutcheson’s System of Moral Philosophy published.
1755 Morelly published his Code of NatureLouis XV
1755 Rousseau wrote his Discourse on Inequality.
1755 Corsica declared a republic. Lombardy
1755 Algarotti published Essay on the OperaVenice
1755 Estates in Mecklenburg-Schwerin gained rights. Germany
1755 Lessing and Mendelssohn collaborated.
1755 Moscow University was founded. Russia
1755 Brazil restored Indian rights. 
1755 Cuba established a general post office.
1755 Connecticut Gazette began publishing. New England
1755 Mitchell published map of Mississippi Valley. Virginia
1755.7.8 Britain broke diplomatic relations with France.
1755.7.9 French & Indians defeated Braddock’s British.
1755.7.10 Lessing’s tragedy Miss Sara Sampson opened.
1755.7 Cherokees sold 360 square miles to England. 
1755.9 Britain began subsidizing Russian troops.
1755.11.1 Lisbon was devastated by an earthquake. Portugal
1755.11.25 Pennsylvania passed Franklin’s Militia Act. 
1755-58 Poniatowski was Ekaterina’s lover. Poland-Lithuania
1755-60  Viceroy Ahumada tried to reform Mexico.
1755-93 Karl Eugen ruled Württemberg. Germans
1756.1 Britain made defensive alliance with Prussia. Friedrich II
1756.2 Dutch Republic declared neutrality. Netherlands
1756.4.14 Pennsylvania declared war on Delawares. 
1756.5.1 France & Austrian Empire allied defensively. Louis XV
1756.5.17 England declared war against France. English-French War
1756.5.20 French squadron captured a Minorca fort. Louis XV
1756.6 Queen Louisa Ulrika’s coup in Sweden failed.
1756 Siraj attacked Calcutta, captured Fort William. English
1756 Elder Mirabeau wrote The Friend of MankindLouis XV
1756 Voltaire published 7-volume Spirit of Nations.
1756 Swedenborg completed his Arcana Coelestia.
1756 Connecticut had 3,587 slaves.  New England
1756 James Davis published North Carolina Gazette.  
1756 Gov. Morris broke into Philadelphia warehouses. Sugar Tax
1756.8 Friedrich II detained August III at Pirna. Poland-Lithuania
1756.8 Montcalm and French captured Fort Oswego.
1756.8.21 Parlement raised income tax to 10%. Louis XV
1756.8.29 Prussia began war by invading Saxony. Friedrich II
1756.9.9 Prussian army occupied Dresden. Friedrich II
1756.10.14 Prussians defeated Saxons at Pirna. Friedrich II
1756.10.16 Pope Benedict XIV issued Ex omnibus encyclical. Louis XV
1756.12.13 French Edict of Discipline caused controversy. Louis XV
1756-60 Lyttelton governed South Carolina
1756-63 War increased British debt to £122,603,336. Sugar Tax
1756-73 Mas‘ud ibn Nasir ruled Mombasa. East Africa
1756-77 Carvalho (Pombal) governed Portugal.
1756-85 Duke Friedrich II ruled Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
1757.1.5 The servant Damiens stabbed Louis XV.
1757.2 Pennsylvania sent Franklin to London. 
1757.3.14 Britain executed Admiral Byng for losing Minorca.
1757.5.1 France & Austrian Empiree allied offensively. Louis XV
1757.5.6 Prussians defeated Austrians near Prague. Friedrich II
1757.6.18 Austrians defeated Prussians in Bohemia. Friedrich II
1757 English and Clive defeated Siraj at Plassey.
1757 Denmark began an agriculture commission.
1757 Sweden’s Enclosure Act helped peasants.
1757 Brazil abolished Indian slavery. 
1757 Pennsylvania spent £127,000 on military.
1757.7.26 French defeated British at Hastenbeck.
1757.8 French captured Fort William Henry. 
1757.10.16 Hungarian cavalry raided Berlin. Austrian Empire
1757.11.5 Prussians defeated French & AustriansLouis XV Friedrich II
1757.11 Voltaire wrote “Geneva” for the Encyclopédie.
1757.12.5 Prussians defeated Austrians at Leuthen. Friedrich II
1757-62 Swedes fought Prussians. Russia
1757-63 Vizier Raghib Mehmed governed Ottoman empire.
1757-63 Russian army occupied Poland-Lithuania.
1757-79 Karim Khan ruled Persia.
1757-90 Mawlay Muhammad ruled Morocco.
1758.2 Loudoun asked northern colonies for 6,992 men. French
1758.3 Nun Marguerite Delamarre sued. Diderot
1758.3 New England voted to raise 13,800 soldiers.  French
1758.4.11 British & Prussians made a deal. Friedrich II
1758.5 Prussian army invaded Moravia. Austrian Empire
1758.5 8 ships from France ended Canadian famine.  French
1758.6 British began seizing Dutch ships. Netherlands
1758.6.23 Britain & Germans defeated French. Louis XV
1758 English took Saint-Louis from the French. West Africa
1758 Portuguese expelled the Jesuits from Africa.
1758 Johnson wrote “Of the Duty of a Journalist.”
1758 France subsidized Russia, Sweden & Austria. Louis XV
1758 Parlement burned De l’esprit by Helvetius. Louis XV
1758 Quesnay published his Economic TableFrance
1758 Voltaire criticized Rousseau in d’Alembert letter.
1758 Rousseau wrote to d’Alembert on theatre.
1758 Carlo Gozzi wrote The Comic Theatre.  Goldoni
1758 Balthasar advocated national Swiss education.
1758 Vattel published his Law of Nations.
1758 Swedenborg published Heaven and Hell.
1758 Russia let only nobles own serfs.
1758 Viceroy Cevallos moved Indians across Uruguay. Brazil
1758 University in Chile began teaching law. 
1758 English deported 5,637 French prisoners. 
1758.7 Helvétius published De ll’espritDiderot
1759.7 Edmund Atkin made a treaty with Choctaws.  Carolinas
1758.7.26 France surrendered Ile Royale and Ile St. Jean. French
1758.7.26 English took over Fort Niagara.  
1758.7.31 French abandoned Fort Carillon. French
1758.8.25 Prussians defeated Russians at Zorndorf. Friedrich II
1758.8.27 Queen Barbara left riches to Portugal’s Pedro III. Spain
1758.9.3 Men shot and wounded King José I. Portugal
1758.9.11 French defeated British near Saint Cast. Louis XV
1758.10 Penn restored Iroquois land in the west. Pennsylvania
1758.10.14 Austrians defeated Prussians at Hochkirch. Friedrich II
1758.11 Diderot published Discourse on Dramatic Poetry.
1758.11.25 English took over destroyed Fort Duquesne. Virginia
1758-60 Clive governed Bengal.
1759.1 Voltaire published Candide or Optimism.
1759.2 Pennsylvania taxed land for £100,000. 
1759.4.13 French defeated British allies at Bergen. Louis XV
1759.4 Samuel Johnson publishedRasselas.
1759.6 Portugal got free grammar-schools.
1759 Qing army slaughtered Dzungars. Qianlong
1759 Adam Smith published Theory of Moral Sentiments.
1759 Voltaire’sSocrateswas produced.
1759 Inquisition banned the EncyclopédieSpain Clement XIII
1759 Tschiffeli began Swiss Economic Association.
1759 Russians invaded Great Poland.
1759 Sumarokov’s Busy Bee literary journal began. Russia
1759 Bahia founded Brazilian Academy. 
1759 Canada’s war expenses reached 30 million livres. French
1759 English colonies raised 17,000 to invade Canada.
1759 Cherokees and Creeks declared war on English.
1759.7.19 Swedenborg perceived the Stockholm fire.
1759.7.21 Paris Parlement condemned theEncyclopédie.
1759.7.23 Russians defeated Prussians in Brandenburg. Friedrich II
1759.8.1 British & allies beat French at Minden. Louis XV Friedrich II
1759.8.12 Russians defeated Prussia at Kundersdorf.  Austria Friedrich II
1759.9.3 Portugal outlawed Jesuits.
1759.9.13 British captured Quebec. Louis XV
1759.9 France raised income tax to 15%. Louis XV
1759.9.17 Jakub Frank was baptized. Poland-Lithuania
1759.9.18 French surrendered Quebec to the English.  
1759.11.20 Austrians defeated Prussians at Maxen.
1759-82 'Ali Bey II ruled Tunisia.
1759-88 Carlos III ruled Spain with reforms.
1759-88 Carlos III ruled Spanish empire.  Rio de la Plata New Granada

1760.2 Goldoni’s comedy The Boors played.
1760.6.23 Austrian allies defeated Prussians at Landeshut.
1760 Marathas defeated Nizam forces, captured Delhi.
1760 Le Paige’s book criticized Jesuits. France
1760 Elder Mirabeau published his Theory of TaxationFrance
1760 D’Alembert wrote on the republic of letters.
1760 Verri published his Elements of TradeTuscany
1760 Scientific Society of Trondheim was formed. Norway
1760  Zamoyski freed serfs on his estate. Poland-Lithuania
1760 Hasidism founder Baal Shem Tov died. Poland-Lithuania
1760 Brazil expelled 600 Jesuits. 
1760 British Navy captured 30 smuggling ships. Sugar Tax
1760.7.31 British allies defeated French at Warburg. Germany
1760.8.15 Prussians defeated Austrians at Liegnitz. Friedrich II
1760.9.3 Voltaire’s verse tragedy Tancrède opened.
1760.9.8 British captured Montreal. Louis XV
1760.9.8 French surrendered Montreal to the English
1760.10 Russians & Austrians attacked Berlin. Friedrich II
1760.10.25 George II died of a heart attack. Britain
1760.11.3 Prussians and Austrians fought at Torgau.Friedrich II
1760.11 Mauduit wrote on the cost of the German War. George III
1760.12 Goldoni’s comedy La Casa Nova played.
1760-61 South Carolina fought Cherokees.  
1760-73 Jakub Frank was imprisoned for heresy. Poland-Lithuania
1760-86 Ieharu let corrupt Tanuma govern Japan.
1760-1820 George III reigned in Britain.
1761.1 Rousseau published his novelJulie.
1761.2 Spain restored the Guarani missions.
1761.3.21 French captured Germans at Grünberg. Louis XV
1761.3.25 George III made Bute the Northern Secretary.
1761 Afghans defeated Marathas at Panipat.
1761 Hume completed his History of England.
1761 Rousseau wrote “Perpetual Peace” in Geneva.
1761 Diderot began writing Rameau’s Nephew.
1761 Portugal banned slaves in its cities.
1761 St. Germain trained Denmark’s army.
1761 Spain and Portugal made Treaty of Pardo. Brazil
1761 Smallpox killed 94,000 in Puebla and Mexico City.
1761 Spaniards killed 400 Comanches at Taos. North Mexico
1761.7.16 German allies defeated 90,000 French. Louis XV Friedrich II
1761.8.15 France & Spain made 3rd Family Compact. Louis XV Spain
1761.9.20 Inquisition executed Malagrida for heresy. Portugal
1761.10 Rousseau published Emile (on Education).
1761.11 King Canek led by Mayan revolt. Mexico
1761.12.17 Cherokees made peace with South Carolina
1761-62 Petr III ruled Russia for six months.
1761-63 Konarski published 4 volumes on debates. Poland-Lithuania
1761-72 Grigory Orlov was Ekaterina II’s lover.
1761-82 Haidar 'Ali ruled Mysore. English
1761-92 Wilno Gazette was published. Poland-Lithuania
1762.1.4 Britain declared war on Spain & Naples.George III
1762.1 Carlos III controlled papal documents in Spain.
1762.2 Petr III secularized church properties. Russia
1762.3.10 Jean Calas was executed. Voltaire
1762.3.24 Voltaire’s Olympia opened at Ferney.
1762.4 Rousseau published The Social Contract.
1762.5 Portugal refused to close ports to Britain. Spain
1762.5.5 Russia and Prussia made a peace treaty. Friedrich II
1762.5.18 Portugal declared war on France & Spain.
1762.6.9 Parlement condemned Rousseau’sEmile.
1762.6 Petr III allied with Prussia’s Friedrich II. Russia
1762.6.28 Ekaterina II overthrew her husband Petr III.
1762 Qing laws discriminated against Muslims. Qianlong
1762 Yongjo put Prince Sado to death. Korea
1762 Voltaire published The Maid of Orléans.
1762 George III bought Canaletto paintings. Venice
1762 Austrian Empire began printing paper money.
1762 Mozart and his sister began touring. Joseph II
1762 Geneva burned books by Rousseau. Swiss
1762 Denmark’s new tax caused riots in Bergen. Norway
1762 Olof von Dalin completed his History of SwedenSweden
1762 Rosén published Diseases of ChildrenSweden
1762 Spaniards invaded Brazil, besieged Colonia. 
1762 James Johnston became Georgia’s printer. 
1762 James Otis Jr. wrote vindicating legislature. New England
1762.7.6 Petr III was killed. Ekaterina II
1762.7 Ekaterina II ended Prussian alliance. Friedrich II
1762.8.8 Ekaterina II decreed serf-owners must buy land.
1762.8.13 British navy captured Havana. Spain
1762.8 Spain invaded Portugal and captured Almeida.
1762.8 Delawares met with Iroquois at Easton.  Pontiac
1762.9.22 British navy captured Manila. Spain
1762.9.22 Ekaterina II was crowned Empress of Russia.
1762.10.29 Prussians defeated Austrians at Freiberg. Friedrich II
1762.11.3 British, French & Spanish agreed on peace. Louis XV
1762.11.3 France secretly ceded Louisiana to Spain. British Canada
1762.11 France ceded Louisiana to Spain.
1762-63 Friedrich II replaced Polish coins. Poland-Lithuania
1762-63 British invaded and occupied Cuba
1762-64 British navy sacked and occupied Manila. Philippines
1762-73 Russian Empire had forty peasant revolts. Ekaterina II
1762-87 French government controlled political news. France
1762-1836 Chong Yag-yong wrote for Confucian reforms. Korea
1763.2.10 Paris Treaty ended Seven Years’ War. George III France Spain
1763.2.10 Spain gave Florida to England in treaty. Mexico Georgia
1763.2.10 France ceded New France to England.   New England Sugar Tax Canada
1763.2.15 Prussia, Austria & Saxony made peace. Friedrich II Poland-Lithuania
1763.2 Portugal regained Sacramento colony in treaty.
1763.3 Delaware’s Neolin prophesied new religion. Pontiac
1763.4 Voltaire published his Treatise on Tolerance.
1763.4 Boston merchants opposed tax on molasses. Sugar Tax
1763.4.23 John Wilkes issued North Briton 45. George III
1763.4.27 Pontiac held a war conference.  
1763.5.7 Pontiac tried to take Fort Detroit. 
1763.5 Indians took over three forts. Pontiac
1763 Hundreds of Irish attacked landlords. Ireland
1763 Physiocrats began La Gazette du CommerceFrance
1763 Elder Mirabeau published his Rural PhilosophyFrance
1763 Famine killed 30,000 people in Sicily.
1763 Russia allied with Prussia.
1763 Mendelssohn won a Prussian essay contest.
1763 Swedenborg published Angelic Wisdom.
1763 Ekaterina II had burned town of Tver rebuilt.
1763 Rio de Janeiro became Brazil’s capital. 
1763 England annexed Dominica, Tobago, Grenada. West Indies
1763 England devalued New England’s money. 
1763 13 colonies debt was £2,097,000. Pontiac
1763 American economy went into a depression. Sugar Tax
1763.7 General Amherst used smallpox against Indians. Pontiac
1763.7 Grenville ordered Customs officials to colonies. Sugar Tax
1763.8.6 Chief Pontiac was defeated at Bushy Run. Canada
1763.8 British took over West Florida from Spaniards. Western Frontier
1763.10.7 George III reserved west for Indians. Virginia Pontiac Western Frontier
1763.10 Pontiac ended war against English. 
1763.10 Rhode Island merchants opposed Sugar Act. 
1763.11.10 Creeks ceded land to Georgia.  
1763.11 South Carolina gave Indians gifts. 
1763.12.15 Ekaterina II reorganized the government.
1763.12 Patrick Henry called George III a tyrant in court. Virginia
1763, 1773 The Dutch economy crashed. Netherlands
1763-64 African slaves revolted in Berbice, Guiana
1763-69 Bougainville sailed around the world. France D’Alembert
1764.1.19 Parliament expelled Wilkes. George III
1764.1.27 New York City merchants urged protests. Sugar Tax
1764.2 Ekaterina II put serfs under Economy College.
1764.2 Franklin persuaded Paxton Boys to go home.
1764.3.27 Joseph was elected King of the Romans. Austrian Empire
1764.4.5 British Sugar Act taxed Americans.
1764.4.5 England passed Revenue Act (Sugar Act). West Indies Sugar Tax
1764.4.15 Madame de Pompadour died. France
1764 English defeated Shuja's Awadh army at Buxar.
1764 Qianlong lifted ban on intermarriage.
1764 Rousseau wrote Letters from the Mountain.
1764 Austrian army massacred 400 Székelys.
1764 Ekaterina II and Betskoi wrote on education.
1764 Ekaterina II confirmed Russia’s Prussian alliance.
1764 Gazette de St. Domingue began publishing. Haiti
1764 Currency act banned paper money in colonies. Sugar Tax
1764 Otis wrote Rights of British Colonies AssertedSugar Tax
1764.7.5 Imprisoned Ivan VI was killed. Ekaterina II
1764.7 Voltaire’s Philosophical Dictionary first appeared.
1764.7 Beccaria wrote On Crimes and Punishments.
1764.8.10 Gov. Murray established two courts for Canada.
1764.9.7 Sejm elected Poniatowski King Stanisław II. Poland-Lithuania Russia
1764.10.31 North Carolina Assembly opposed British tax. Sugar Tax
1764.11.4 Gov. Hopkins read Rights of Colonies Examined. Sugar Tax
1764.11 Louis XV suppressed the Jesuits. France Clement XIV
1764.11 Sejm abolished the veto. Poland-Lithuania
1764-66 Esquilache provoked resistance in Madrid & fled. Spain
1764-72 Coutinho governed Angola for Portuguese.
1764-77 Osei Kwadwo ruled Asante, fighting wars.
1764-90 Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor. Austrian Empire
1765.1 Voltaire criticized Rousseau again.
1765.1 Pope Clement XIII defended Jesuits.
1765.3.11 Denmark allied with Russia.
1765.3 Parliament passed Stamp & Quartering acts. Britain
1765.3 Ekaterina II bought D’Alembert’s library.
1765.3.22 British Stamp Act became law.  
1765.5 Croghan convened Indian congress at Fort Pitt. Western Frontier
1765.5.15 British Quartering Act passed. Stamp Act
1765.5.30 Patrick Henry spoke against the Stamp Act
1765.6.8 Massachusetts urged a congress in New York. Stamp Act
1765.6.24 Newport Mercury published Henry’s resolutions. Stamp Act
1765 Holo made liberal treaty with Portuguese.
1765 Dutch conquered Kandy on Sri Lanka.
1765 Goldsmith published The Vicar of Wakefield.
1765 De Belloy’s play The Siege of Calais opened. France
1765 Emperor Joseph II became co-regent of Austria.
1765 Brunswick started Europe’s first savings bank. German States
1765 Lichtenberg began writing aphorisms.
1765 Denmark made five trade treaties. Russia
1765 Chydenius published The Nation’s ProfitSweden
1765 Stanisław II founded the College of Chivalry. Poland-Lithuania
1765 Ekaterina II founded the Free Economic Society.
1765 Quito revolted against prohibition of alcohol.  Peru New Granada
1765 13 English colonies had 1,750,000 people. Stamp Act
1765.7 George III replaced Grenville with Rockingham.
1765.8.14 Loyal Nine in Boston hanged Oliver in effigy. Stamp Act
1765.8.17 Croghan held Indian conference at Detroit. Western Frontier
1765.8.26 New York Stamp Distributor McEvers resigned. Stamp Act
1765.8.27 Newport mob attacked Distributors’ houses. Stamp Act
1765.9.5 Carlos III wedded Maria Luisa; 10 were killed.
1765.9.19 New Jersey bar refused to use stamps. Stamp Act
1765.10 9 colonies attended congress in New York. Stamp Act
1765.10 Dulany wrote on the propriety of imposing taxes.Stamp Act
1765.10.31 200 New York merchants boycotted English. Stamp Act
1765.11.1 American newspapers stopped publishing. Stamp Act
1765.11.14 400 Philadelphia merchants boycotted English. Stamp Act
1765.11.25 New York Gazette published without stamps. Stamp Act
1765.12.6 200 Boston merchants stopped British imports. Stamp Act
1765.12 Dickinson warned Pitt 13 colonies would unite. Stamp Act
1765-67 Clive governed Bengal.
1765-71 Visitador Galvez reformed Mexico’s finances.
1765-77 Lago governed Mozambique.
1765-68 Caps party governed Sweden.
1765-69 Blackstone published Commentaries on the LawsBritain
1765-85 Poland’s weekly Monitor was published. Poland-Lithuania
1765-90 Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldino ruled Tuscany.
1766.3 Parlement accepted Louis XV’s sovereignty. France
1766.1.14 Pitt called for repeal of the Stamp Act.
1766.1.17 London merchants urged repeal of Stamp Act.  
1766.2.13 British Parliament questioned Franklin. Stamp Act
1766.2.22 Commons voted to repeal the Stamp Act.  
1766.3.4 Pitt persuaded Commons to repeal the Stamp Act. George III
1766.3.27 Commons voted to reduce tax on molasses. Stamp Act
1766.6.28 Grand Vicar Briand arrived in Quebec. Canada
1766 Britain & Russia made a commercial treaty. Ekaterina II
1766 France annexed Lorraine.
1766 Campomanes made reforms, accused Jesuits. Carlos III
1766 Prussia adopted French taxes and tolls.
1766 Zamoyski freed peasants from labor-rents. Poland-Lithuania
1766 Russian Repnin blocked reforms in Poland. Poland-Lithuania
1766 Bland wrote on the rights of British colonies. Stamp Act
1766-67 Rousseau lived in England.
1766-70 Guy Carleton governed Canada
1766-82 Moser wrote New German Constitutional LawEducation
1766-90 Ngolo Diarra ruled the Segu empire.
1766-95 Willem V governed the Dutch Republic. Netherlands
1766-1808 Kristian VII suffered from dementia. Denmark
1767.2 Carlos III expelled Jesuits. Rio de la Plata Mexico
1767.2-4 Spain’s Carlos III expelled the Jesuits. Clement XIII
1767.3 Lutherans formed a confederation at Torun. Poland-Lithuania
1767.3 Russians invaded Poland-Lithuania. Poland-Lithuania
1767.5 Spain made a friendship treaty with Morocco. Carlos III
1767.6 Catholics formed the Radom Confederation. Poland-Lithuania
1767.6.24 Viceroy Croix ordered Jesuits in Mexico arrested.
1767.6.29 Townshend Revenue Act was enacted. 
1767 British first contacted Tahitians.
1767 Burma of Hsinhpyushin destroyed Ayudhya. Siam
1767 Qing punished Chinese miners at Hanoi. Qianlong
1767 Yamagata Daini was beheaded for treason. Japanese Culture
1767 Joseph Priestley published his book on electricity. Britain
1767 La Rivière published Natural and Essential OrderFrance
1767 Genovesi published his Academic LettersNaples
1767 Maria Theresa ordered smallpox inoculations.
1767 Lessing published Laocoön.
1767 Sejm confirmed conservative principles. Poland-Lithuania
1767.7.2 Townshend’s Revenue Act became law. Britain
1767.7 Ekaterina II set up a commission to revise laws.
1767.9 Venice suppressed 127 monasteries.
1767.9.30 Lessing’s comedy Minna von Barnhelm opened.
1767.10.1 Parliament suspended New York Assembly. Townshend Actss
1767.10.4 Willem V married Wilhelmina of Prussia. Netherlands
1767.11 Naples expelled the Jesuits. Carlos III
1767.11.20 Townshend duties went into effect. 
1767.12.4 Newport adopted non-consumption. Townshend Acts
1767.12 Dickinson published Letters from a FarmerTownshend Acts
1767-68 Many British workers were on strike.
1767-72 Townshend governed Ireland.
1767-78 Sikhs raided the Doab.
1767-82 Taksin organized and ruled Siam.
1767-1816 Ferdinando ruled Naples and Sicily.
1768.1.20 Massachusetts legislature opposed taxes.  Townshend Acts
1768.2.29 Nobles formed the Bar Confederation. Poland-Lithuania
1768.3.11 The Pacification Edict aided Swiss burghers.
1768.5.15 Genoa ceded Corsica to FranceLombardy
1768.5 Ferdinando married Austrian Maria Carolina. Naples
1768 'Ali Bey replaced the viceroy of Egypt.
1768 Nizam 'Ali made a treaty with the English.
1768 Du Pont de Nemours published PhysiocratieFrance
1768 Portugal set up a censorship board.
1768 Basedow published his Appeal to FriendsGerman
1768 13 English colonies demanded representation. Townshend Acts
1768.9 Pope Clement XIII accepted Jesuit refugees.
1768.10.1 700 British soldiers came to Boston. Townshend Acts
1768.10.12 Ekaterina II was inoculated for smallpox.
1768.10 Russia improved trade with China. Ekaterina II
1768.11.3 Iroquois ceded land in Fort Stanwix treaty. Western Frontier
1768.12 Ekaterina II ended the law commission.
1768-71 Hats party governed Sweden.
1768-74 fought war against Russia.Ottoman empire
1768-76 Tanucci was First Secretary in Naples.
1769.1.2 American Philosophical Society elected Franklin. Townshend Acts
1769.6 Russian Navy destroyed Turks in Çeşme Bay. Ekaterina II
1769 'Ali Bey claimed Hijaz for Egypt.
1769 Cook visited Tahiti and New Zealand.
1769 Voltaire wrote History of Paris ParlementFrance
1769 Madame du Barry became Louis XV’s mistress. France
1769 Choiseul abolished the Company of the Indies. France
1769 Voltaire criticized religion in Dieu et les hommes.
1769 Emperor Joseph II visited Naples.
1769 Maria Theresa began dissolving monasteries.
1769 Brzostoski began a Peasant Commonwealth. Poland-Lithuania
1769 Austrians invaded Poland and annexed Spisz. Poland-Lithuania
1769 Ekaterina II began a satirical journal.
1769 Russia began printing paper money. Ekaterina II
1769 Jose Basilio da Gama wrote poem O UraguaiBrazil
1769 Colonies made non-importation agreements. Townshend Acts
1769.7 Emperor Joseph II visited Venice.
1769.7.21 Russians defeated Turks at Kagul. Ekaterina II
1769-70 Turgot published his Reflections on RichesLouis XVI
1769-74 Novikov edited the weekly DroneEkaterina II
1769-84 Serra founded and led California missions.
1769-84 Jonathan Trumbull governed Connecticut. Confederation
1769-1855 War-lords ruled Ethiopia.

1770.1.31 426 women in Boston pledged not to use tea. Townshend Acts
1770.3.5 British soldiers in Boston killed five in a mob. Townshend Acts
1770.4.12 Britain repealed Townshend taxes except on tea.
1770.4 England repealed Townshend duties except tea. 
1770.5.16 Louis-Auguste married Marie Antoinette. Louis XVI Maria Theresa
1770 Ten million died in Bengal and Bihar famine. Hastings
1770 Bawdy comedies were banned in Vienna. Maria Theresa
1770 Austrians took Nowy Targ and Nowy Sacz. Poland-Lithuania
1770 Murray brought Universalism to New England. Townshend Acts
1770.7.6 George III ordered martial law in Massachusetts. Tea Tax
1770.10.22 Bar Confederation renounced Stanisław II. Poland-Lithuania
1770.12 Louis XV dismissed Foreign Minister Choiseul. France
1770-72 Central Europe suffered from a famine. Austrian Empire
1770-72 Queen Matilda and Struensee ruled Denmark.
1770-82 Frederick North was British prime minister. Britain
1770-89 Abiodun ruled Oyo and exported slaves.
1771.1.20 Members of Parlement were exiled. France
1771.5 Mackenzie published The Man of Feeling.
1771.5.16 Militia fought Regulators in North Carolina. Western Frontier
1771.5.23 Stanisław II’s forces defeated confederates. Poland-Lithuania
1771 Russians invaded the Crimea. Ottoman Empire
1771 Egyptians invaded Ottoman Syria.
1771 Trekboers crossed the Gamtoos River. Southern Africa
1771 Encyclopedia Britannica was published. Britain
1771 Tobias Smollett published Humphry Clinker.
1771 Rousseau wrote his Confessions.
1771 Turks returned Little Wallachia to Austria.
1771 Royal Swedish Academy of Music began. Sweden
1771 Swedenborg published The Christian Religion.
1771 Russians invaded the Crimea.
1771 Bubonic plague killed 56,672 people in Moscow. Russia
1771 Sumarokov’s Dimitry the Pretender played. Russia
1771 Jose I took over Brazil’s diamond mines. 
1771 Connecticut prohibited the slave trade. Tea Tax
1771-76 Qing army pacified Tibetans in Sichuan. Qianlong
1771-79 Viceroy Bucarelli promoted missions, education. Mexico
1771-85 Warren Hastings governed Bengal.
1771-88 Zedlitz promoted education in Prussia.
1772.1.16 Kristian VI arrested Struensee & Matilda. Denmark
1772.2.13 Denmark made Danish the official language.
1772.2 Prussia & Russia took Poland’s land. Poland-Lithuania
1772.3.8 Lessing’s tragedy Emilia Galotti opened.
1772.4 Rousseau wrote on Poland’s government.
1772.4.28 Denmark executed Struensee and Brandt.
1772.6.9 100 Sons of Liberty boarded the GaspeeTea Tax
1772.6.22 Chief Justice Murray outlawed slavery in England. Britain
1772 England’s financial crash spread in Europe. Britain
1772 Coimbra University expanded science. Portugal
1772 Herder published On the Origin of Language.
1772 Norwegian Society began in Copenhagen. Norway
1772 Novikov published a book on Russiana writers.
1772 Scientific Academy subsidized in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
1772.8.5 Austrian Empire obtained Polish Galicia.
1772.8.5 Poland-Lithuania was partitioned. Poland-Lithuania
1772.8.18 Confederates at Jasna Gora surrendered. Poland-Lithuania
1772.8.19 Gustav III claimed absolute power in Sweden.
1772.11.2 Sam Adams began correspondence committees. Tea Tax
1772-78 Council & Stackelberg governed Poland-Lithuania.
1772-80 Jauregui governed Chile.  
1772-82 Najaf Khan commanded the Mughal army. North India
1772-84 Juliane, Frederik & Guldberg ruled Denmark.
1772-92 Gustav III ruled Sweden.
1772-1833 Rammohun Roy was a social reformer.
1773.3.15 Goldsmith’s She Stoops to Conquer opened.
1773.5.1 England passed the Tea Tax Act.
1773.5.25 Portugal freed the children of slaves.
1773.6-11 Diderot visited Ekaterina II in St. Petersburg.
1773 Wahhabis took over Riyadh.
1773 John Wesley wrote on the Present Scarcity.
1773 A bad harvest led to a revolt in Palermo. Sicily
1773 Herder wrote On German Character and Art.
1773 Denmark allied with Russia against Sweden.
1773 Gustav III founded the Royal Academy of Art. Sweden
1773 Sejm allowed szlachta to engage in trade. Poland-Lithuania
1773 Stanisław II named an Education Commission. Poland-Lithuania
1773 Pope Clement XIV abolished the Jesuits. Brazil
1773 Charleston imported 8,000 slaves. Townshend Acts
1773 Quebec annexed Indian territory. Canada
1773 Pope Clement XIV abolished the Jesuits. Brazil
1773 Charleston imported 8,000 slaves. Townshend Acts
1773 Quebec annexed Indian territory. Canada
1773.9 Phillis Wheatley published her poems. Townshend Acts
1773.10 Daniel Boone led settlement of Kentucky. Western Frontier
1773.11 Voltaire satirized weapons in La Tactique.
1773.11 Gov. Dunmore granted veterans western land. Western Frontier
1773.12.16 Bostonians dumped British tea in the sea. Tea Tax
1773.12.27 Worcester formed American Political Society. Tea Tax
1773-74 Pugachev led rebellion in Russia.
1773-74 Diderot visited Ekaterina II.
1773-84 Scholars compiled massive Four Treasuries. Qianlong
1773-93 Timur Shah ruled Afghanistan. Persia
1773-1801 Nguyen Van brothers led Tay-son revolt. Vietnam
1774.3.31 George III approved the Boston Port Bill. Tea Tax
1774.4.12 Goethe’s drama Götz von Berlichingen opened.
1774.4 Quebec Act annexed land north of the Ohio. Western Frontier
1774.5.10 Louis XV died of smallpox. France
1774.5.17 Rhode Island delegates proposed a congress. Tea Tax
1774.5.28 Virginians recommended an American congress. Tea Tax
1774.6 9 colonies endorsed the continental congress. Tea Tax
1774 Awadh's Shuja and English annexed Rohilkhand. North India
1774 Muslim troops quelled White Lotus rebellion. Qianlong
1774 John Wesley wrote Thoughts on Slavery.
1774 Pombal decreed free trade in Portugal.
1774 Basedow completed his Elementary BookGerman
1774 Mendelssohn translated the Psalms into German.
1774 Herder wrote Another Philosophy of History.
1774 Goethe published Sorrows of Young Werther.
1774 Goethe’s Clavigo played.
1774 Załuski left the Warsaw library to the state. Poland-Lithuania
1774 Benezet wrote The Potent Enemies of America. Tea Tax
1774 Wilson wrote on the authority of Parliament. Tea Tax
1774 Jefferson wrote on the rights of British America. Tea Tax
1774 Ann Lee and Shakers came to New York. Tea Tax
1774 Hearne established Fort Cumberland. Canada
1774.7 Russian and Ottoman empires made peace.
1774.9.3 General Gage fortified Boston. Tea Tax
1774.9.5 First Continental Congress met at Philadelphia. 
1774.9.6 Worcester Convention banned British courts. Tea Tax
1774.9.27 Continental approved non-importation.  
1774.10.9 Dunmore led Virginians against Indians. Western Frontier
1774.10.11 Massachusetts formed Provincial Congress. Continental Congress
1774.10.14 Continental Congress stated “Rights and Grievances.” 
1774.10.26 Massachusetts formed a militia. Continental Congress
1774.12 Franklin in England tried to avert civil war. Continental Congress
1774-76 Turgot was Controller-General. Louis XVI
1774-77 Portuguese waged war against Ovimbundu.
1774-89 Abdul Hamid ruled the Ottoman Empire.
1774-89 Kpengla ruled Dahomey.
1774-91 Louis XVI ruled France. Louis XVI
1774-91 Warsaw Gazette was published. Poland-Lithuania
1775.1.10 Pugachev was executed in Moscow. Russia
1775.1 Sheridan’s comedy The Rivals opened.
1775.2.1 Pitt’s plan for reconciliation was defeated. Continental Congress
1775.2.9 Parliament declared Massachusetts in rebellion. Britain
1775.2 BeaumarchaisBarber of Seville opened.
1775.3.22 Burke proposed reconciliation with America. Britain
1775.3.23 Patrick Henry asked for liberty or death.  Continental Congress
1775.3.31 Parliament restrained New England’s trade. Britain
1775.4 11 colonies elected delegates to Continental Congress.  
1775.4.19 British soldiers were attacked at Lexington.
1775.4.19 British attacked Lexington and Concord. British War
1775.4.23 Congress voted to raise 13,600 men. British War
1775.4.28 Necker wrote “Essay on Grain-Trade Legislation.”  Louis XVI
1775.5.1 British offered Virginia slaves freedom to fight. British War
1775.5.1 Quebec Act went into effect. Canada
1775.5.10 Georgia joined the Congress. British War
1775.5.10 Allen’s volunteers took Fort Ticonderoga. British War Canada
1775.5.10 2nd Continental Congress met in Philadelphia. British War
1775.5 Soldiers in Paris arrested 162 in Flour War. Louis XVI
1775.5.29 Congress sent Jay’s letter to Canada. British War
1775.6.12 British declared martial law in Massachusetts. British War
1775.6.15 Congress elected Washington commander. British War
1775.6.17 Americans defeated British on Breed’s Hill. British War
1775 Egypt's Abu'l Dhahab invaded Syria.
1775 English took 8,000 slaves from Wolof. West Africa
1775 James Watt built large steam engines. Britain
1775 40,000 troops crushed Bohemian peasants. Austrian Empire
1775 Sweden limited production of alcohol.
1775 Russian army destroyed the Zaporizhian Sich. Ukraine
1775 New Englanders were excluded from fisheries. Canada
1775.7.5 Congress adopted a petition to George III. British War
1775.7.8 Spanish forces attacked Algiers. Spain
1775.7.12 Congress created 3 Indian departments. Frontier
1775.7.26 Congress elected Franklin postmaster general. 
1775.8.23 George III promised to suppress American revolt. Britain
1775.8.23 George III ordered rebellion suppressed. Congress
1775.9.25 Allen was defeated & captured at Montreal. Congress Canada
1775.11.4 Sejm voted to abolish the War Department. Poland-Lithuania
1775.11.7 Ekaterina II announced reorganization.
1775.11.7 Gov. Dunmore declared martial law in Virginia. Congress
1775.11.13 Americans took over Montreal. Congress Canada
1775.12.22 Parliament blockaded American ports. Britain
1775.12.31 Americans were defeated at Quebec. Congress Canada
1775.9 Ferdinando outlawed Freemasons in Naples.
1775-77 Saint-Germain reformed France’s military. Louis XVI
1775-77 John Hancock was president of Congress. British War 1777
1775-79 Krasicki published several books. Poland-Lithuania
1775-80 Kant lectured on ethics.
1775-89 Afghan Timur Shah invaded India 5 times. North India
1775-99 Pope Pius VI was a moderate.
1775-1808 Chief Asfa Wossen ruled Shoa. Ethiopia
1775-1844 Ahmadu taught at Jenne and led a jihad. Segu
1776.1.10 Paine published Common Sense.
1776.1 Beaumarchais supplied weapons for Americans. Louis XVI
1776.2.5 Britain put American colonies under interdict.
1776.2 Richard Price’s pamphlet criticized war with America.
1776.3 Adam Smith published Wealth of Nations.
1776.3.17 British army left Boston. Congress
1776.4.6 Congress declared free trade. 
1776.5.4 Rhode Island declared independence. Congress
1776.5.15 Virginia proposed debating independence. Jefferson
1776.5 Weishaupt began the secret Illuminati. German States
1776.5 10,000 British soldiers arrived in Canada. Canada
1776.6.7 R. H. Lee proposed independence. Declaration of Independence
1776.6.12 Virginia adopted Mason’s “Declaration of Rights.”Declaration of Independence
1776.6.15 Arnold’s army abandoned Montreal. Canada
1776.6.29 Virginia convention adopted a constitution. Declaration of Independence
1776.6.30 France began a national lottery. Louis XVI
1776 Baron d’Holbach published La Morale UniverselleLouis XVI
1776 Reymond wrote The Rights of Parish PriestsFrance
1776 Rousseau wrote Reveries of the Solitary Walker.
1776 Beaumarchais raised funds for Americans.
1776 Austrian Empire abolished torture.
1776.7.4 American Congress declared independence. Britain
1776.7.4 Congress approved independence unanimously. Declaration of Independence
1776.7 Americans attacked Cherokees. Frontier
1776.8.27 British defeated Americans on Long Island.
1776.9.8 Washington advised defensive war.
1776.9.22 British hanged Nathan Hale as a spy.
1776.12 Benjamin Franklin arrived in France. Louis XVI
1776.12.20 Congress met in Baltimore. 1776
1776.12.26 Washington captured 918 Hessians in Trenton. 1776
1776-78 Paine published American Crisis1776 1777 1778-79
1776-81 Necker directed the Royal Treasury. Louis XVI
1776-83 British army occupied New York City.
1776-1800 Chongjo ruled Korea.
1776-1804 Al-Jazzar governed Sidon and Damascus. Palestine
1777.1.1 Journal de Paris was first daily newspaper. Louis XVI
1777.1.1 Washington ordered army not to plunder. 1777
1777.1.9 Cartagena’s royal library was opened to public. New Granada
1777.1 Legislative Council met in Quebec. Canada
1777.2 Congress allowed price controls to help the poor. 1777
1777.3.7 Shawnees attacked Boonesborough. Frontier
1777.3 Burke recognized Americans’ right to revolution. Britain
1777.4 Lafayette left France for America. Louis XVI
1777.5.8 Sheridan’s The School for Scandal opened.
1777.5.28 France allied with Swiss Cantons. Louis XVI
1777 Hannah More published Essays to Young WomenBritain
1777 John Howard published The State of the PrisonsBritain
1777 Viceroy Stigliano allowed free trade in cereals. Sicily
1777 Swiss Confederation allied with France.
1777 Sweden’s grain trade was freed.
1777 Novikov published Freemason’s Morning LightRussia
1777 Viceroy Cevallos invaded Brazil. Rio de la Plata
1777 Vermont abolished slavery. Confederation
1777.8.6 400 Iroquois and Brant attacked 800 Americans. Frontier
1777.9 Voltaire published Le Prix de la justice.
1777.9.26 Howe’s British army entered Philadelphia. 1777
1777.10 Men rebelled against conscription in Baltimore. 1777
1777.10.17 Burgoyne surrendered 5,791 men at Saratoga. 1777
1777.10.31 Congress elected Henry Laurens president. 1777
1777.11.15 Congress adopted Articles of Confederation. 1777
1777.12.17 Franklin made alliance with France. 1777
1777.12.30 Austria claimed Bavarian territory. German States
1777-86 Maria and Pedro III ruled Portugal.
1777-87 Venetian radical Pisani was in prison. Venice
1777-95 George Clinton governed New York. Confederation
1778.1.16 Austrian forces invaded Bavaria. German States
1778.2.6 France allied with the United States. Louis XVI
1778.3.17 Britain declared war against France.
1778.5.4 Congress ratified treaties with France. 1778-79
1778.5.8 Governor Carleton dismissed Chief Justice Livius. Canada
1778.5.30 Voltaire died in Paris.
1778.6 Tories and Iroquois defeated Americans. Frontier
1778.6.17 France declared war on England. 1778-79
1778 Xhosa chief Gcaleka died. Southern Africa
1778 Frances Burney published her novel Evelina.
1778 Free trade was implemented in Venezuela. New Granada
1778 Spain banned miscegenation in colonies. Mexico
1778 2,500 American soldiers died at Valley Forge. 1778-79
1778 Chief Blackfish led invasion of Kentucky.  Jefferson
1778.7.2 Rousseau died.
1778.7.4 Virginians led by Clark captured Kaskaskia. Canada
1778.7.8 French fleet arrived at Delaware Bay. 1778-79
1778.7 France declared war on Britain. Louis XVI
1778.7-10 Prussian army invaded Bohemia.
1778.8 La Scala opera house opened in Milan. Lombardy
1778.9.17 United States recognized Delaware nation. Frontier
1778.10.19 Hamilton criticized war profiteering. 1778-79
1778.10.2 Governor Haldimand granted land to Iroquois. Canada
1778.12.9 Congress elected John Jay president. 1778-79
1778.12 British Navy took over St. Lucia.  West Indies
1778.12.17 British and Indians took over Fort Vincennes. Frontier
1778, 1780 Lessing wrote “Conversations for Freemasons.”
1778-80 Diderot published Jacques the Fatalist.
1778-84 Viceroy Vertiz ruled Rio de la Plata
1778-93 Philippines fought Muslim raiders.
1779.2 George Rogers Clark captured Fort Vincennes. Frontier
1779.3.7 Austria & Prussia agreed to an armistice.
1779.4.3 Spain declared war against Britain.
1779.4.6 Goethe’s Iphigenia in Tauris opened.
1779.5.11 British besieged Charleston. 1778-79
1779.5.13 Teschen treaty ended war over Bavaria. Austrian Empire German States
1779.5 Lessing published Nathan the Wise.
1779.6 Washington ordered attacks on Iroquois. Frontier
1779.6.21 Spain declared war on England. Frontier Canada
1779 Captain Cook was killed in Hawaii.
1779 8,000 workers demolished machines in Lancashire. Britain
1779 William Alexander wrote History of WomenBritain
1779 Parliament passed the Penitentiary Act. Britain
1779 Johnson published Lives of the English Poets.
1779 Diderot wrote his essay on Seneca’s philosophy.
1779 Pestalozzi opened a school for poor children.
1779 Denmark regained Schleswig.
1779 Sweden repealed witchcraft laws.
1779 French seized St. Vincent and Grenada. French West Indies
1779.8.10 Necker got France to end serfdom. Louis XVI
1779.9.23 John Paul Jones captured Serapis1778-79
1779.9.28 Congress elected Huntington president.  1778-79
1779,1780 Virginia elected Jefferson governor.
1779-83 Spanish besieged British at Gibraltar. Louis XVI Spain

1780.1 British navy defeated Spaniards near Portugal.
1780.1.31 Massachusetts constitution abolished slavery. 1780-81
1780.2 Ekaterina II declared armed neutrality.
1780.5.12 British captured Charleston.  1780-81
1780.5 France sent 7,000 men under Rochambeau. Louis XVI
1780.5 Ekaterina II met secretly with Joseph II.
1780.5.27 Zürich executed pastor Waser for his ideas. Swiss
1780.6.2 50,000 protested Parliament’s Papists Act.Britain
1780 Economic crisis began in Egypt.
1780 Pak Chi-won published 26-volume Jehol Diary. Korea
1780  Naples began Academy of Science & Literature.
1780 Pestalozzi published Evening Hour of a Hermit.
1780 Mendelssohn published his Genesis translation.
1780 Lessing wrote “Education of the Human Race.”
1780 Lessing wrote “The Religion of the Christ.”
1780 Clavijero published Historia antigua de Mexico
1780 French West Indies had 437,738 African slaves.
1780 Massachusetts abolished slavery.  1780-81
1780.8.9 Spaniards seized 60 British merchant ships. Spain
1780.8 Denmark joined the League of Armed Neutrality.
1780.8 Denmark allied with Britain.
1780.11.20 Britain declared war against Holland.
1780.12.10 Dutch joined the League of Armed Neutrality.Netherlands
1780.12.20 British declared war against the Dutch. Netherlands
1780-81 Tupac Amaru II led Inca revolt in Peru.
1780-82 Diderot published his novel The Nun.
1780-83 Indians revolted against Spaniards. Rio de la Plata
1780-85 Jefferson wrote Notes on the State of Virginia.
1780-85 John Hancock governed Massachusetts. Shays’s Rebellion
1780-90 Joseph II ruled the Austrian Empire.
1780-1830 Angola exported more than 750,000 slaves.
1781.1.1 American recruits mutinied at Princeton. 1780-81
1781.1.2 Virginia ceded land north of the Ohio. 1780-81
1781.1 Joseph II appointed his sister to govern Belgians.
1781.1 British navy captured 200 Dutch ships. Netherlands
1781.1.19 Necker began Hospital Administration. Louis XVI
1781.3.1 13th state ratified Articles of Confederation. 1780-81
1781.3.13 Herschel discovered the planet Uranus. Britain
1781.3.16 Socorro and San Gil resisted taxes. New Granada
1781.3-5 Galvez and Spaniards captured Pensacola. Frontier
1781.4 20,000 comuneros marched to Bogota. New Granada
1781.4-5 Gruyère peasants revolted. Swiss
1781.5.10 Spanish navy captured Pensacola. Spain
1781.6.12 William Pitt condemned the British war.  1780-81
1781 56 officials were executed for selling degrees. Qianlong
1781 British Captain Shirley took forts from the Dutch. Gold Coast
1781 British defeated Mysore's Haidar. Hastings
1781 Condorcet urged abolition of slavery. France
1781 Beccaria suggested using decimal measures.
1781 Mendelssohn published a book to help Jews. German
1781 Kant published his Critique of Pure Reason.
1781 Joseph II visited the Austrian Netherlands.
1781 Sweden allowed freedom of religion.
1781 Burns wrote “Paraphrase of the First Psalm.”
1781 15 Universalists refused to pay tax to a church.  Washington
1781.8 Spanish troops regained Bogota.  New Granada
1781.10-11 Joseph II decreed religious toleration.
1781.10.19 Cornwallis surrendered 8,087 men. 1780-81
1781-82 Joseph II abolished serfdom in regions.
1781-83 Ekaterina II wrote her elementary-school primer.
1781-86 Viceroy Villamaina governed Sicily with reforms.
1781-87 Pestalozzi published Leonard and Gertrude.
1781-1807 Al-Wali ruled Kano, ended cattle sacrifices. Bornu and Hausaland
1782.1.7 Robert Morris began bank of the United States. Peacemaking
1782.1.13 Schiller’s The Robbers opened in Mannheim.
1782.2 Spain recovered Minorca.
1782.2.27 British Parliament voted to stop the war. Peacemaking
1782.2-4 Irish convention demanded independence. Britain Ireland
1782.4 Dutch Republic recognized the United States. Netherlands
1782.4 Russia reformed its Police Code.
1782.4.19 Netherlands recognized the United States. Peacemaking
1782.4-7 Foreign troops suppressed Geneva conflict. Swiss
1782.5.7 France and Britain began negotiating. Louis XVI
1782.6 Spain formed its first national bank.
1782 Ignatius Sancho published Letters in London. Slavery
1782 Laclos published his novel Dangerous Liaisons.
1782 Priestley published Corruptions of ChristianityBritain
1782 Finished Murazzi protected Venice from the sea.
1782 Patriot movement spread in the Dutch Republic.
1782 Opera house opened in Stockholm. Sweden
1782 Poland’s Black Sea Company was organized.
1782 Viceroy Caballero granted a general amnesty. New Granada
1782 Chauncey wrote Salvation of All MenConfederation
1782.7.27 Franklin wrote on the costs of the war. Peacemaking
1782.4.19 Netherlands recognized the United States. Peacemaking
1782.8 Diderot completed D’Alembert’s Dream.
1782.9.14 Spain made a treaty with the Ottoman Empire.
1782.12.14 British fleet sailed from Charleston. Peacemaking
1782-87 Japan suffered famine.
1782-94 Mahadji Sindia was a chief Maratha. North India
1782-1809 Rama I ruled Siam.
1782-1814 Hamuda Bey ruled Tunisia.
1782-1819 Bodawhpaya ruled Burma.
1783.1 Dordrecht formed the first Free Corps. Netherlands
1783.1.20 British ceded East and West Florida to Spain. Frontier
1783.3 France began a School of Mines.
1783.4.15 Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris.  Peacemaking
1783.4 Russia annexed Crimea, Taman & Kuban Side.
1783.5 Russian decree prohibited peasant movement.
1783.5 Continental officers began order of Cincinnati. Confederation
1783.6.8 Washington wrote letter to governors. Peacemaking
1783 Russia's Catherine II annexed the Crimea. Ottoman Empire
1783 John Wesley wrote on Educating Children.
1783 Laclos wrote “On Women and Their Education.”
1783 Earthquakes killed 40,000 people in Naples.
1783 Joseph II visited Transylvania.
1783 Mendelssohn published Jerusalem.
1783 Skaptar Jokull volcano eruption ravaged Iceland.
1783 Sweden & United States made friendship treaty.
1783 Cossacks were replaced by dragoon regiments. Ukraine
1783 Ekaterina II founded a Teachers’ Training School.
1783 Inca revolt in Huarochiri failed. Peru
1783 Treaty established British territory in Belize. Central America
1783 Noah Webster published his first speller. Shays’s Rebellion
1783.7.2 British barred American ships from West Indies.  Confederation
1783.7.20 Schiller’s Conspiracy of Fiesco in Genoa opened.
1783.7.24 Russia agreed to protect Georgia.
1783.8.1 Russia defeated Nogay Tatars at Laba River.
1783.9.3 Britain, France & Spain made peace.
1783.9.3 British ceded Ohio valley to Americans. Canada
1783.9 British regained Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Kitts. West Indies
1783.11.25 British troops and Tories left New York. Peacemaking
1783.12 Younger William Pitt became prime minister.
1783.12.20 Virginia ceded Ohio land claims to Congress. Peacemaking Frontier
1783-1814 Ahmad ibn Sa’id al-Mazrui ruled Mombasa. East Africa
1784.4.3 Rotterdam Free Corps fired on Orangists. Netherlands
1784.4.13 Schiller’s tragedyIntrigue and Loveopened.
1784.4.23 Congress adopted plan for adding states. Frontier
1784.4.27 Beaumarchais’ Marriage of Figaro opened. France
1784.6.9 Hamilton opened private Bank of New York. Confederation
1784.6 Joseph II made German the official language.
1784 Pitt's India Act banned Company wars. Cornwallis
1784 Yi Sung-hun returned to Seoul as a Catholic. Korea
1784 Britain enacted a national lottery.
1784 Haüy began a school for the blind in Paris. France
1784 French commission studied Mesmer’s theories. France
1784 Schiller wrote “Ode to Joy” and about theater.
1784 Fonvizin published his Life of Count PaninRussia
1784 Russia made some Muslims nobles.
1784.7 North Carolina ceded Tennessee to Congress.Frontier
1784.7.22 Spain closed Mississippi to American ships. Confederation Frontier
1784.7.31 Diderot died.
1784.8.13 Britain’s India Act became law.
1784.8.30 France opened 7 ports to American ships. Confederation
1784.10 30,000 Rumanian serfs rebelled. Joseph II
1784.10.22 Treaty of Fort Stanwix was signed. Confederation Frontier
1784.12.14 Settlers formed state of Franklin in the west.  Frontier
1784.12 Kant published “What is Enlightenment?” 
1784.12.18 Samuel Johnson died.
1784-85 Bavaria suppressed Illuminati & Freemasons. German
1784-86 Necklace fraud affected Cardinal Rohan & Queen. France
1784-88 Sheremetev funded 40 plays, operas & ballets. Russia
1784-88 United States suffered a depression. Confederation
1784-90 Viceroy Croix banned famous books in Peru.
1784-91 Herder wrote Ideas for a Philosophy of History.
1784-1803 Lasuen was president of California missions.
1784-1808 Prince Frederik VI governed Denmark as regent.
1785.1.11 Congress began meeting in New York. Confederation
1785.1.21 Treaty of Fort McIntosh was signed. Confederation Frontier
1785.3 Sweden claimed West Indies islands.
1785.4 Kant published his Metaphysics of Morals.
1785.4.21 Ekaterina II renewed privileges of nobles.
1785.5-11 Creeks made war on Georgians. Frontier
1785.6 Thousands of Free Corps militia met at Utrecht. Netherlands
1785 Plague killed one-sixth of Egyptians.
1785 Burma took over Arakan.
1785 Chongjo prohibited Christianity. Korea
1785 Richard Price wrote on the American Revolution. Britain
1785 Condorcet advised ranking voting. France
1785 Mendelssohn published Morning Hours.
1785 Stroynowski wrote The Science of Natural LawPoland-Lithuania
1785 Russia ennobled Ukrainian aristocrats. Ukraine
1785 Bilingual Montreal Gazette began. Canada
1785.7 League of German states formed. Joseph II
1785.8 Joseph II abolished serfdom in Hungary.
1785.10 Pennsylvania Council elected Franklin president. Confederation
1785.11.8 France mediated a treaty for Joseph II & Dutch. France
1785.11 Cherokees ceded land to Americans at Hopewell. Confederation
1785-86 85,000 people died of starvation in Bajio. Mexico
1785-88 John Adams was minister to Britain. Confederation
1785-89 Jefferson was minister to France. Confederation
1785-94 Henry Knox was Secretary of War. Confederation
1786.1.10 Virginia approved separation of Kentucky. Frontier
1786.1.16 Virginia adopted Statute of Religious Freedom. 1786
1786.1.31 Shawnees signed treaty at Fort Finney. 1786
1786.2 Governor Anza made peace with Comanches. Northern Mexico
1786.2.28 British refused to evacuate northwest garrisons. 1786
1786.5.1 Marriage of Figaro opera opened in Vienna. Joseph II
1786.6 Spain made a treaty with Algiers.
1786 Ottomans sent troops to control Egypt.
1786 Kedah ceded Penang to the English. Malaya
1786 Condorcet wrote On the American RevolutionFrance
1786 Venice made a treaty with Tunis.
1786 Joseph II abolished Milan’s council & senate.
1786 Denmark ended compulsory labor.
1786 Russian State Loan Bank began.
1786 Wollstonecraft wrote On Education of Daughters.
1786 Joel Barlow wrote The Anarchiad.  Shays’s Rebellion
1786.8.22 Massachusetts delegates discussed debt relief. Shays’s Rebellion
1786.9.5 Shays’ rebels blocked Massachusetts Court. Shays’s Rebellion
1786.9 Rhode Island court found a law unconstitutional. Shays’s Rebellion
1786.11.3 Creeks signed treaty fixing Oconee River border. Frontier
1786.12.5 Ekaterina II issued her Statute for Schools.
1786-87 Austrian Empire got new law codes. Joseph II
1786-87 Shawnees, Creeks, Cherokees fought settlers.  Frontier
1786-93 Cornwallis governed British India.
1786-97 Friedrich Wilhelm II ruled Prussia
1786-99 Heshan administered Qing empire corruptly. Qianlong
1787.1.1 Joseph II decreed laws for Austrian Netherlands.
1787.1.4 Massachusetts governor called out 4,400 troops. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.1-5 Belgian protests stopped new laws. Austrian Netherlands
1787.1 France and Russia made a commercial treaty.
1787.1 John Adams wrote Defence of the Constitutions. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.2 Military forces ended the Shays’s Rebellion.
1787.2.22 French Assembly of Notables met. France
1787.4 Madison listed vices of United States politics. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.4.16 Royall Tyler’s The Contrast played in New York. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.4.21 People in Amsterdam demanded a city council. Netherlands
1787.5 British founded Sierra Leone for freed Africans.
1787.5 Dutch troops fought Patriot militia in Utrecht. Netherlands
1787.5.20 Brussels riot led to Belgian revolt & repression. Joseph II
1787.5.25 Constitutional Convention began in Philadelphia.
1787.6 Willem V regained control over Gelderland. Netherlands
1787 Turks declared war on Austria and Russia. Ottoman Empire
1787 Yusuf wrote Shaking the Peasants' Heads. Egypt
1787 British opened Sierra Leone to ex-slaves.
1787 Cugoano wrote book against slavery.
1787 60,000 troops defeated Triad rebels on Taiwan. Qianlong
1787 Captain Bligh lost the Bounty to a mutiny. Tahiti
1787 Clarkson & Wilberforce began abolition committee. Britain
1787 David painted The Death of SocratesFrance
1787 Schiller’s historical tragedy Don Carlos played.
1787 Sweden tried to regain Finnish provinces.
1787 Ekaterina II and Potemkin toured Russia.
1787 British West Indies had 461,864 African slaves. 
1787 Barlow wrote The Vision of ColumbusShays’s Rebellion
1787 Noah Webster founded The American Magazine. Shays’s Rebellion
1787.7.6 Parlement demanded the States General meet. France
1787.7.13 Congress passed Northwest Ordinance. Shays’s Rebellion Frontier
1787.8.1 Land was opened to Continental Army veterans. Frontier
1787.8 Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia. Joseph II
1787.9.7 Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire. Russian
1787.9.13 Prussian army invaded and took over Utrecht. Netherlands
1787.9 Kant published his Critique of Practical Reason.
1787.9.17 Convention adopted United States Constitution
1787.9.28 Congress submitted Constitution to 13 states. 
1787.10.5 Samuel Bryan argued against the Constitution.  
1787.10 Mozart’s Don Giovanni opened in Prague. Joseph II
1787.10.18 “Brutus” article by Robert Yates was published. Ratification
1787.10.27 Federalist Papers by “Publius” began to appear. Ratification
1787.11 Federalist Papers #6-9 by Hamilton appeared.  Ratification
1787.11.22 Mason’s “Objections to Constitution” appeared. Ratification
1787.11.22 Madison published Federalist #10.  Ratification
1787.12 3 states ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1787-88 Brienne was France’s Finance Minister.
1787-93 Matsudaira Sadanobu governed Japan.
1787-1837 Ienari was shogun of Japan.
1788.1.1 London Times began publishing. Britain
1788.1.6 Frederik removed Norway’s grain restrictions.
1788.1 British began sending criminals to Australia.
1788.1.29 Parlement granted Protestants only civil status. France
1788.2 Society of Friends of the Blacks began. France
1788.5 Parlements’ powers were reduced.France
1788.6 Uprisings began in French provinces. France
1788.6.21 9th state ratified the US Constitution.  Ratification
1788.6.27 Dutch States General guaranteed Willem V. Netherlands
1788.6-7 Virginia & New York ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1788 English began penal colony at Sydney. Australia
1788 Ghulam Qadir blinded Emperor Shah Alam II. North India
1788 Otsuki wrote Explanation of Dutch Studies. Japanese Culture
1788 Britain allied with the Netherlands.
1788 Gibbon finished Decline & Fall of Roman EmpireBritain
1788 Bernardin de Saint-Pierre wrotePaul and Virginia.
1788 Madame de Staël published Letters on Rousseau.
1788 Pope Pius VI reformed higher education.
1788 Goethe wrote his historical tragedy Egmont.
1788 Blake wrote “All Religions Are One.”
1788 Spain allowed American ships in Mississippi. Frontier
1788.7.3 Kentucky convention applied for statehood. Frontier
1788.7.6 10,000 troops were called out in Paris. France
1788.7 Britain began restricting the slave trade.
1788.8.8 Brienne agreed to summon the Estates General. France
1788.8 Prussia allied with Britain.
1788.8 Turks invaded Austrian Banat.
1788.8.16 Brienne declared France’s government bankrupt.
1788.9.1 Congress banned whites from Cherokee land. Frontier
1788.9.11 Necker summoned the Estates General. France
1788.9.21 Willem V offered amnesty to Dutch patriots. Netherlands
1788.9.23 Louis XVI recalled the parlements. France
1788.11 Assembly of Notables agreed all should pay tax. France
1788.12.14 Carlos IV became King of Spain.
1788.12 Parlement enforced the ban on petitions. France
1788.12 Prussia & Britain agreed to protect the Dutch. Netherlands
1788.12 Russians defeated Turks at Ochakov in Ukraine.
1788.12.27 France doubled Third Estate representatives. France
1788-92 Gurkhas fought Tibetans.
1788-92 The Great Seym met in Poland.
1788-96 Ambrosio O’Higgins governed Chile
1788-1801 British transported 7,486 prisoners to Australia.
1788-1803 Pomare I ruled Tahiti.
1788-1808 Carlos IV ruled Spanish empire. Rio de la Plata Chile
1788-1820 Pakubuwana IV reigned on Java. Netherlands East Indies
1788-1868 British transported 158,829 convicts to Australia.

1789.1.1 French women petitioned for rights.
1789.1 Emperor Joseph II banned meetings in Brabant. Netherlands
1789.1 Federalists won first congressional elections.  New Government
1789.1.19 Seym abolished Poland’s Permanent Council.
1789.1.24 French election rules were proclaimed.
1789.1.26 Class conflict broke out in Brittany. French
1789.1-9 Jefferson observed the French Revolution.
1789.2.10 Parlement ordered Mirabeau’s book burned. French
1789.2.11 Sieyès and friends began Valois Club. French
1789.2 George III recovered from mental illness. Britain
1789.2 Bread riots broke out in Barcelona. Spain
1789.3.23 Third Estate electors took over Paris. French
1789.3.27 Mirabeau mediated bread-price conflict. French
1789.3-4 Marseille, Orléans & other cities had riots. French
1789.4.3 Sweden’s Gustav III granted rights to peasants.
1789.4.28 Troops killed 25 French destroying factories.
1789.4.30 Washington was inaugurated as President. New Government
1789.5.2 Deputies were presented to Louis XVI. French
1789.5.5 Necker spoke on finances at Assembly opening. French
1789.5.10 Brazilian rebel Tiradentes was arrested. Brazil
1789.5.26 Schiller lectured on “What is Universal History.”
1789.6.17 Third Estate became the National Assembly. French
1789.6.20 Louis XVI approved reforms. French
1789.6.30 4,000 French stormed the Abbaye prison.
1789 Temne’s King Jimmy burned slave-traders’ town. Gold Coast
1789 Ndlambe attacked Gqunukhwebe by Fish River. Southern Africa
1789 Equiano published Narrative of his life. Slavery
1789 Guangxi troops were driven out of Vietnam. Qianlong
1789 Slave trafficking in India was abolished. Cornwallis Reforms
1789 Lavoisier published Elements of ChemistryFrance
1789 Lavoisier published Elements of ChemistryFrance
1789 3,305 pamphlets were published in France. French
1789 Bentham’s Introduction to Principles of Morals.
1789 Bentham wrote a “Plan for Universal Peace.” 
1789 Blake published Songs of Innocence.
1789 Clavijero published history of Baja California. Mexico
1789 Ramsey wrote History of American RevolutionRatification
1789.7.7 Constituent Assembly ordered a constitution. French
1789.7.11 Louis XVI banished Necker. French
1789.7.14 French people killed 6 at the Bastille.
1789.7.15 Louis XVI withdrew troops from Paris. French
1789.7 Austrians captured Berbir in Serbia.
1789.7.16 Louis XVI recalled Necker. French
1789.7.18 Desmoulins published La France LibreFrench
1789.7.18 Prudhomme began Révolutions de ParisFrench
1789.7.28 Brissot resumed Le Patriote françaisFrench
1789.8.1 Russians defeated Turks at Focsani.
1789.8.4 French Assembly abolished feudal privileges.
1789.8.15 People in Liège revolted. Netherlands
1789.8 French towns formed federation of communes.
1789.8.26 French approved a Declaration of Rights.
1789.9.13 Orléans guardsmen killed 90 protesters. Rights
1789.9 Marat began publishing Friend of the PeopleRights
1789.9 Spain began censoring news from France.
1789.9 US Treasury Dept. was created. New Government
1789.9.22 Russo-Austrian army defeated Turks at Râmnic. Russia
1789.9.24 US Judiciary Act became law. New Government
1789.9.25 US Congress sent 12 amendments to states. Bill of Rights
1789.10.5 7,000 women & men marched to Versailles. Rights           
1789.10.6 60,000 and royal family went back to Paris. Rights
1789.10.8 Turks surrendered Belgrade to AustriansHungary
1789.10.10 Bishop Talleyrand proposed selling church land. French
1789.10.22 Miamis and Shawnees defeated US Army. Frontier
1789.10.24 Brabantines rejected Austrian rule. Netherlands
1789.10.28 Britain & Spain agreed on northwest America.
1789.10.29 France passed voting by tax-paying men. Rights
1789.11.4 Price spoke to the London Revolutionary Society. Britain
1789.11 Chénier’s Charles IX played in Paris. Rights
1789.11 Spain expelled foreigners from Madrid.
1789.12 France approved local elections. Rights
1789.12.21 Georgia sold 25,400,000 acres to Yazoo Co. Frontier
1789.12.22 Suvorov’s Russian army captured city of Izmail.
1789.12.31 Brabant States General declared independence. Netherlands
1789-94 Viceroy Güemes reformed Mexico, banned books.
1789-97 Manin was the last Doge of Venice. Italy
1789-1807 Selim III tried to reform the Ottoman empire.
1789-1838 US Government relocated 81,282 Indians. Removal
1790.1.1 Burns wrote a poem on New Year’s Day.
1790.1.9 Washington gave annual message to Congress. New Government
1790.1.11 United States of Belgium was proclaimed. Netherlands
1790.1 Danton’s Cordeliers Club protected Marat. French
1790.1 United States of Belgium deposed Joseph II. Austrians
1790.1 Austrian garrison at Antwerp capitulated. Netherlands
1790.1 Hamilton made “Report on the Public Credit.”  New Government
1790.1.28 Joseph II canceled Hungary’s reforms.
1790.2.4 Louis XVI swore to uphold the constitution. French
1790.2.8 Jacobin Club began forming branches. French
1790.2.9 Burke criticized the French Revolution. Britain
1790.2.13 France dissolved most monasteries. French
1790.2 France had 83 departments & 44,000 communes. French
1790.2 Sweden banned reporting on French Revolution.
1790.2.17 Mechlin Archbishop cried revolutionaries enemies. Netherlands
1790.2.20 Austria’s Emperor Joseph II died. Netherlands
1790.3.2 Burke said dissenters could destroy the Church. Britain
1790.3.13 Conservatives founded the Church and King Club. Britain
1790.3.17 Quakers asked Congress to abolish slavery. New Government
1790.3.29 Poland made a treaty with Prussia.
1790.4 France refused to establish the Catholic religion. French
1790.4 Britain passed the Catholic Relief Bill.
1790.5 Radishchev wrote Journey from St. PetersburgRussia
1790.5.29 13th state ratified the US Constitution. Ratification
1790.6 Tory Party won election seats 340-188. Britain
1790.6 Austrians defeated the Turks at Vidin.
1790.6.19 French Assembly canceled inherited noble ranks.
1790 Sadanobu imposed censorship on Japan.
1790 Wollstonecraft wrote on the Rights of Men.
1790 Blake wrote Marriage of Heaven and Hell.
1790 Staszic published his Warnings for Poland.
1790 Census counted 3,699,535 people in US. New Government
1790 Judith Sargent wrote “On Equality of the Sexes.” Washington
1790 King’s College began in Windsor, Nova Scotia. Canada
1790.7.3 Condorcet advocated citizenship for women.
1790.7.10 Swedes defeated Russians at Svensksund. Sweden
1790.7 Congress passed Hamilton’s debt bill. New Government
1790.7.27 Prussia & Austria made a treaty at Reichenbach. Netherlands
1790.8.7 Creeks ceded land to Georgia. Frontier
1790.8.14 Sweden and Russia made peace in Finland.
1790.8 France began electing priests and bishops. French
1790.8 Peasants revolted in Saxony. Germans
1790.9.2 40,000 Parisians protested executions. French
1790.9.8 Ekaterina II sent Radishchev to Siberia. Russia
1790.9 Austrian & Ottoman empires signed an armistice.
1790.10.22 Miamis and Shawnees defeated US Army. Frontier
1790.10.28 Spain & Britain agreed to the Nootka Convention.
1790.11.2 French Assembly approved selling church land.
1790.11 Burke wrote Reflections on French RevolutionBritain
1790.11 Orange clan allied with Austria, Prussia & Britain. Netherlands
1790.11.27 French priests were required to take an oath.
1790.12.2 Austrian army occupied Brussels. Netherlands
1790.12.10 The Hague declared Leopold II ruler of Belgium. Netherlands
1790.12 Ochs persuaded Basel to abolish serfdom. Swiss
1790.12.20 Assembly approved education for all children. Condorcet
1790-93 Jefferson was US Secretary of State.
1790-97 Greek Ephemeris newspaper published in Vienna.
1790-1801 Ferdinando III ruled Tuscany. Italy
1790-1808 Monzon Diarra ruled the Segu empire.
1791.1.6 Cailly published La necessité du divorce.  French
1791.1 Priestley published his Letters to BurkeBritain
1791.1.12 Austrian army entered Liège. Netherlands
1791.2 Ogé’s slave revolt in St. Domingue was defeated. Haiti
1791.2.24 Spain suspended private periodicals.
1791.2.25 Hamilton’s bank bill became law. New Government
1791.3.3 Congress passed excise tax on luxuries. Washington Whiskey Rebellion
1791.3.15 Jefferson reported to Congress on commerce. Washington
1791.3 French Assembly abolished corporations.
1791.3 Paine published The Rights of Man.
1791.4.25 France began using the guillotine for executions. French
1791.5.3 Poland’s Seym passed a constitution.
1791.5.27 Holland dissolved the East India Company. Netherlands
1791.6 English constitutional societies formed. Britain
1791.6.21 Louis XVI was caught trying to escape. French
1791 Boswell published Life of Samuel Johnson.
1791 Comic writer Santo Kyoden was punished. Japan
1791 Volunteers formed the Belfast Whig Club. Ireland
1791 Tone wrote On Behalf of Catholics in Ireland.
1791 Bentham published Panopticon prison plan.
1791 Blake illustrated Wollstonecraft’s Original Stories.
1791 St. Domingue had 452,000 African slaves. Haiti
1791 Macomb bought 4 million acres. Frontier
1791 New Foundland got a permanent court of justice. Canada
1791 Upper Canada had 14,000 people. Canada
1791.7.1 Paine wrote his Republican Manifesto.
1791.7.2 Cherokees ceded land in the Treaty of Holston. Frontier
1791.7.4 US Bank began selling stock. Washington
1791.7.14 Birmingham mob attacked dissenters. Britain
1791.7.15 French Guard fired on 50,000 protesters.
1791.7 Condorcet & Paine began editing Le RépublicanFrench
1791.8.3 Burke appealed to new and old Whigs. Britain
1791.8.4 Treaty ended the Austro-Turkish War. Austrian
1791.8 Boukman led slave revolt in St. Domingue. Haiti
1791.8.27 Prussia & Austria made Pillnitz declaration. Germans
1791.9.3 France adopted a free & monarchical constitution. French
1791.9 Gouges wrote Declaration of Women’s Rights. French
1791.9.27 France granted citizenship to Jews. French
1791.9.30 Mozart conducted his Magic Flute opera. Joseph II
1791.10.1 France’s new Legislative Assembly opened.French
1791.10.1 Willem of Orange wed Prussia’s Wilhelmine. Netherlands
1791.10 Society of United Irishmen (UI) began at Belfast. Ireland
1791.10.31 Freneau’s National Gazette began publishing. Washington
1791.11.4 Miami’s Little Turtle defeated US Army. Frontier Jefferson
1791.12.5 Hamilton presented economic plan to Congress. Washington
1791.12.15 US Bill of Rights was ratified. 
1791.12.18 Robespierre spoke against war to Jacobins. French
1791.12.26 Constitutional Act divided Canada in two. Canada
1791-93 Schiller published History of the 30 Years War.
1791-94 Western farmers opposed liquor tax. Whiskey Rebellion
1792.1.1 French Legislature disowned émigré princes.
1792.1.9 Russia & Ottoman Empire made peace at Jassy.
1792.1 Neilson began the Northern Star in Belfast. Ireland
1792.1 Sweden’s Gustav III convened the Riksdag.
1792.1.20 Liège joined United Belgium. Netherlands
1792.1.25 Hardy began the London Corresponding Society. Britain
1792.2 Paine published The Rights of Man Part 2.
1792.2 Prussia & Austrians made a defensive alliance.
1792.3.1 Leopold II died, succeeded by Franz II. Austrian Netherlands
1792.3 New York State Bank began. Washington
1792.3.16 Gustav III was mortally wounded at an opera. Sweden
1792.3.31 Manchester Herald began publishing. Britain
1792.4.5 Washington vetoed a bill as unconstitutional. 
1792.4.11 Whigs began the Friends of the People Society. Britain
1792.4 France sent an army to enforce black rights. French
1792.4 Britain banned the slave trade.
1792.4 United Belgium adopted a constitution. Netherlands
1792.4.20 France declared war on AustriaFrench Prussia Netherlands
1792.4.21 Tiradentes was hanged. Brazil
1792.5.1 Kentucky became the 15th state in the US. Frontier
1792.5 Russian armies invaded Lithuania & Ukraine.
1792.5.18 97,000 Russian troops invaded Poland.
1792.5.21 Britain banned seditious writings & meetings.
1792.6.8 Britain charged Paine with sedition.
1792.6.18 France ended feudal rights without compensation. French
1792.6.20 15,000 protesters visited Louis XVI. French
1792 Chinese helped Tibetans defeat the Gurkhas.
1792 Dream of the Red Chamber was completed.
1792 Ex-slaves from Nova Scotia built Freetown. Sierra Leone
1792 Qing army drove Gurkhas back to Nepal. Qianlong
1792 Mackintosh wrote Defence of French RevolutionBritain
1792 Wyvill wrote Defence of Dr. Price and ReformersBritain
1792 Libel Act gave juries right to judge sentences. Britain
1792 Wollstonecraft wrote Rights of Woman.
1792 Barlow wrote Advice to the Privileged OrdersAdams
1792 Lower Canada had 155,000 people.
1792.7.1 France opened official meetings to the public. Britain
1792.7.10 Louis XVI’s ministers resigned. French
1792.7 Friends of the People in Scotland began. Britain
1792.7 Austrians invaded Lorraine. Netherlands
1792.7.16 Ward wrote To the Friends of Free InquiryBritain
1792.8.1 Prussian army crossed the Rhine near Koblenz.
1792.8.3 Paris Commune voted to depose Louis XVI. French
1792.8.10 2,000 National Guard killed 600 Swiss Guards. French
1792.8.11 US Supreme Court found a law unconstitutional. Washington
1792.8.12 Paris Commune arrested Louis XVI. French
1792.8 Marseilles sang and demanded a republic. French
1792.8 France extended vote to most men over 21. French
1792.8.16 LCS demanded annually elected Parliaments. Britain
1792.8.17 British envoy left Paris in protest. Britain
1792.8.19 Lafayette fled to Austria and was imprisoned. French
1792.8-9 France had primary and secondary elections. French
1792.9.12 Paine spoke to Friends of Liberty.
1792.9.13 Austrians invaded the Netherlands.
1792.9 French mob murdered prisoners.
1792.9.17 Upper Canada Assembly began at Newark.
1792.9.20 France approved civil divorce. French
1792.9.20 French defeated Prussians at Valmy. Austrian
1792.9.22 France declared “Year One of the Republic.” French
1792.9.25 Paine wrote an open letter to the French people.
1792.10.3 Basel was declared a republic. French
1792.10 Brissot printed Paine’s Convention speech.
1792.11.6 French army defeated Austrians at Jemappes. Netherlands
1792.11.15 Godoy became Spain’s Prime Minister.
1792.11.16 France declared the Scheldt estuary open. French
1792.11.26 Robert Burns wrote “The Rights of Woman.” 
1792.11.27 France annexed Savoy. French
1792.11.29 French troops entered Antwerp.
1792.12.10 French Convention indicted Louis XVI.
1792.12.17 Lower Canada Legislative Assembly began.
1792.12.18 Britain convicted Paine in absentia.
1792-93 Canadian Mackenzie crossed British North America. Canada Jefferson
1792-94 British government spied on the LCS. Britain
1792-94 South Carolina banned importing slaves. Washington
1792-95 Abolitionist Sonthonax governed St. Domingue. Haiti
1792-1808 John Wentworth governed Nova Scotia. Canada
1792-1810 Hamengkubuwana II ruled at Yogyakarta. Netherlands East Indies
1792-1816 Prince João governed Portugal as regent.
1792-1816 Prince Regent Joao ruled Brazil
1792-1822 Mawlay Sulayman ruled Morocco.
1793.1.1 Convention Girondins organized defense. French
1793.1.8 Britain’s Aliens law to deport immigrants passed.
1793.1.15 Deputies found Louis XVI guilty. French
1793.1 Prussians invaded Poland.
1793.1.21 Louis XVI was beheaded in Paris. French
1793.1.23 Russia and Prussia partitioned Poland.
1793.1.23 Madison published “Parties” essay. Washington
1793.1.31 France annexed Nice. French
1793.2.1 France declared war on Britain & Dutch. French Netherlands
1793.2.1 France declared war on England, Spain, Holland. America
1793.2.11 George III declared war on France. Britain
1793.2 Godwin published Enquiry on Political Justice.
1793.2 France annexed Belgium.  Netherlands
1793.2.15 Condorcet presented a constitution. French
1793.2.24 France drafted 300,000 single men. French
1793.2.24 French army captured Breda. Netherlands
1793.2.25 United States agreed to pay its debt to France. French
1793.3.1 French army invaded Holland. French
1793.3.4 President Washington began second term. America
1793.3.7 France declared war against SpainFrench
1793.3.9 Paris mobs destroyed printing presses. French
1793.3.10 French Convention set up a criminal court.
1793.3.11 Vendée rebellion began in western France. French
1793.3 Paine published Le Siecle de la Raison.
1793.3 Spain allied with Britain.
1793.3.17 Rhineland joined France. French
1793.3.18 France passed death for émigrés, priests & rebels. French
1793.3.18 Austrians defeated French at Neerwinden.
1793.3.21 France agreed to an armistice with Austria. French
1793.3.23 France annexed Basel. French
1793.3.23 Austrians & allies declared war on France. 
1793.3.24 Napoleon became artillery commander in Italy.
1793.3.25 Britain allied with Russia.
1793.4.1 French Convention ended deputies’ immunity.
1793.4.5 General Dumouriez defected to Austria. French Netherlands
1793.4.6 Danton formed the Committee of Public Safety. French
1793.4 Britain implemented the Catholic Relief Act.Ireland
1793.4.8 Genet arrived at Charleston. America
1793.4 Upper Canada Gazette began. Canada
1793.4.18 Napoleon helped French take Oneglia in Genoa.
1793.4.19 British hired 62,000 Prussian soldiers. Netherlands
1793.4.19 Washington proclaimed American neutrality. America
1793.4.24 French Revolutionary Tribunal acquitted Marat.
1793.4.30 Convention dismissed women from French army.
1793.5.1-4 French riots led to a lower price on bread.
1793.5.8 Allies defeated a French army at Raismes.
1793.5.15 De Maistre published Letters of a RoyalistFrench
1793.5.23 Paolist mob plundered Bonaparte home in Corsica. French
1793.5.23 Britain repealed Habeas Corpus Act.
1793.5.25 Britain allied with Spain.
1793.6 Radicals took over the French Convention in Paris. French
1793.6 60 of 83 French departments rebelled.
1793.6 Jefferson advised Genet. America
1793.6.20 Liège voted to join the French Republic. Netherlands
1793 Baptist missionary Carey came to Calcutta. Cornwallis Reforms
1793 Qianlong refused to negotiate with English.
1793 2,000 Loyal Associations formed in England. Britain
1793 Paley published his Reasons for ContentmentBritain
1793 Beattie published Elements of Moral ScienceBritain
1793 Kant published Religion within Limits of Reason.
1793 Fichte published Freedom of Thought.
1793 Nariño was banished from America. New Granada
1793 Slaves revolted in the French West Indies.
1793 4,000 people died of yellow fever in Philadelphia. America
1793 Lower Canada banned importing slaves.
1793 Mountain was first Anglican bishop of Quebec. Canada
1793.7.12 Washington asked France to recall Genet. America
1793.7.13 Charlotte Corday murdered Marat. French
1793.7 Schiller published On Grace and Dignity.
1793.7.18 British Navy blockaded Toulon. Britain
1793.7.23 Prussians drove out French & regained Mainz.
1793.7.27 Robespierre joined the Public Safety Committee. French
1793.7.27 France abolished its slave-trade subsidy. French
1793.8.1 France adopted the decimal metric system. French
1793.8.2 France ordered republican plays performed. French
1793.8.8 Supreme Court declined to advise US President. America
1793.8 99.3% of French voters approved a constitution.
1793.8.22 French Convention elected Robespierre president.
1793.8.23 France drafted 300,000 men aged 18-25. French
1793.8.28 13,000 British allies aided royalists in Toulon. French Britain
1793.8.31 Britain allied with Austria.
1793.8-10 Republican army besieged royalist Lyon. French
1793.8-10 Poland made treaties with Russia & Prussia.
1793.9.5 Jacobins called for revolutionary terror.  French
1793.9.8 French beat British & Germans at Hondschoote.
1793.9.16 French artillery besieged Toulon.
1793.9.17 France began detaining the unpatriotic. French
1793.9.17 French army defeated Spaniards at Peyrestortes.
1793.9.23 Saint-Simon renounced his noble titles.
1793.9.29 France imposed price and wage controls. French
1793.10.3 Public Safety Committee charged many Girondists. French
1793.10.6 France adopted a new seasonal calendar. French
1793.10.13 Germanic allies defeated French at Wissembourg.
1793.10 France began executing 1,867 rebels in Lyon. French
1793.10 Prince Aleksandr married Louise of Baden.
1793.10.16 French defeated Austrians at Wattignies.
1793.10.16 Marie Antoinette was guillotined at Paris. French
1793.10.17 Republican army defeated Vendéans at Cholet. French
1793.10.25 French army defeated Marseille & executed 289.
1793.10.28 France banned clergy from teaching. French
1793.10.31 Saint-Just taxed the rich in Strasbourg. French
1793.10.31 France beheaded 22 Girondins. French
1793.11.23 Commune closed churches in Paris. French
1793.12.6 French Convention affirmed freedom of religion.
1793.12.19 France mandated education for children 6-13. French
1793.12.19 Le vieux Cordelier urged freeing 200,000 suspects. French
1793.12.19 French drove British out of Toulon.
1793-94 France executed about 20,250 in 15 months. French
1794.1 France began replacing pikes with bayonets. French
1794.1.17 Scottish Constitutional Information Society met. Britain
1794.1-2 France executed 5,000 people in Nantes. French
1794.1-9 French army massacred 250,000 in Vendée.
1794.2.4 France abolished slavery in its colonies.  French
1794.2.10 Quebec’s governor urged Indians to help British. America
1794.2 France began manufacturing rifles.  French
1794.2 Paine published his Age of Reason.
1794.2 British seized Martinique and American ships. America
1794.2.21 Russia ordered the Polish army reduced. Poland
1794.2.24 Washington offered reward to catch criminals. Whiskey Rebellion
1794.3.1 French Convention elected Saint-Just president.
1794.3.4 Congress proposed 11th amendment. America
1794.3.12 A Russian force entered Krakow. Poland
1794.3.13 Convention arrested Cordeliers & foreigners. French
1794.3 French army deported thousands of Basques.
1794.3 Liberal Lord-lieutenant Fitzwilliam was recalled. Ireland
1794.3 Spain exiled Aranda for criticizing war.
1794.3 Eli Whitney got a patent on his cotton gin. Washington
1794.3.24 Krakow citizens declared right to resist tyranny. Poland
1794.3.27 France ordered the Revolutionary Army disbanded. French
1794.3.27 Washington authorized ships for US Navy. America
1794.3.29 Condorcet was found dead in prison. French
1794.4.5 Danton & 15 were beheaded for corruption. French
1794.4.13 France executed 19 for prison conspiracy. French
1794.4.16 Washington appointed Jay envoy to Britain. America
1794.4.17 Poles drove the Russians out of Warsaw. Poland
1794.4.22 Col. Jasinski led the Wilno uprising. Poland
1794.4.28 Adams broke tie in Senate on British trade. America
1794.4-6 Emperor Franz II visited Brussels. Netherlands
1794.5.7 Kościuszko proclaimed his Połaniec Manifesto. Poland
1794.5.8 France executed Lavoisier with tax collectors.  French
1794.5.11 France nationalized medical care and pensions.  French
1794.5 French bread rations were reduced.
1794.5 Godwin published his novel Caleb Williams.
1794.5 Britain charged 13 reformers with treason.
1794.5 Britain suppressed the Dublin United Irish (UI). Ireland
1794.5 The Hours (Die Horen) began publishing. Schiller
1794.5 Toussaint joined republican French. Haiti
1794.5.18 French defeated Coalition allies at Tourcoing. Netherlands
1794.5.27 Washington named Monroe minister to France. America
1794.5.31 Lower Canada passed Alien and Sedition Act.
1794.6.10 France restricted trials, ending right to defense. French
1794.6.17 60 were executed for conspiring to kill Robespierre. French
1794.6.26 French defeated allies at Fleurus. Netherlands
1794 Agha Muhammad Khan founded Qajar dynasty.
1794 Duane published Indian World. Cornwallis Reforms
1794 France got 701 new songs. French
1794 Wollstonecraft wrote on the French Revolution.
1794 Martinovics led revolutionaries in Hungary.
1794 Magnus Stephensen began a society in Iceland.
1794 York became the capital of Upper Canada.
1794.7 Madame de Staël wrote Reflections on Peace.
1794.7 French invaded Guipuzcoa in Spain.
1794.7.13 66,000 Russians & Prussians besieged Warsaw. Poland
1794.7.17 France executed 16 Carmelite sisters in Paris. French
1794.7.28 Robespierre, Saint-Just & 20 were beheaded. French           
1794.8.1 France repealed Draconian laws. French
1794.8.14 Western delegates demanded excise tax repeal. Whiskey Rebellion
1794.8 France released 3,500 suspects in Paris. French
1794.8 France conscripted 732,000 men into the army. French
1794.8 Brackenridge mediated with whiskey rebels. Whiskey Rebellion
1794.8.20 US Army defeated Indians at Fallen Timbers. Frontier
1794.9 Babeuf began the Journal of Press Freedom
1794.9.18 French army defeated Austrians at Sprimont. Netherlands
1794.10.6 A Polish army invaded Royal Prussia. Poland
1794.10.9 Russians took Kościuszko as a hostage.
1794.10.16 France banned collective petitioning. French
1794.10.20 Godwin’s Cursory Strictures aided reformers.  Britain
1794.10-11 3,000 soldiers suppressed Whiskey Rebellion.  
1794.11.4 Russians killed 16,000 people in Warsaw. Poland
1794.11.8 Chickamauga wars ended in a peace treaty. Frontier
1794.11.19 Jay & Grenville agreed on US-British treaty. America Canada
1794.12.8 French Convention reinstated 73 deputies.
1794.12.24 France abolished economic maximums. French
1794-99 Afghan Shah Zaman invaded India 4 times. North India
1794-1856 Wei Yuan proposed numerous reforms. Daoguang Era

1795.1.2 France ended restrictions on trade. French
1795.1 Prussia, Russia & Austria met on Poland.
1795.1 Schiller began On Aesthetic Education of Man.
1795.1 Georgia sold 35 million acres to Yazoo Co. Frontier
1795.1.16 Estates of Utrecht surrendered to the French. Netherlands
1795.1.18 Stadtholder Willem V fled to England. Netherlands
1795.1-2 British army retreated from Holland. Britain
1795.2.2 White Terror began in Lyon killing Jacobins.
1795.2-9 White Terror killed 30,000 French revolutionaries.
1795.3.8 French Convention recalled outlawed Girondists. White Terror
1795.3 H. More began writing Cheap Repository TractsBritain
1795.3 France imprisoned Philippe Buonarroti. Italy
1795.4.5 Basel treaty ceded Rhine to France. French Prussia
1795.5.4 30,000 “anti-terrorists” killed 110 prisoners in Lyon. French
1795.5.4 Britain and Austria made a treaty.
1795.5 Convention expelled leftists & arrested Jacobins. French
1795.5.16 Batavian Republic ceded territory to France. French Netherlands
1795.5.20 Martinovics and six were beheaded for treason. Hungary
1795.5.21 20,000 French demanded bread & a constitution.
1795.5.30 France returned churches to worshippers. French
1795.6.5 Marseilles killed 700 Jacobin prisoners. French
1795.6.7 French army took Luxembourg from Austrians.
1795.6.11 British took Cape Town from the Dutch. Britain
1795.6 Fire destroyed central Copenhagen. Denmark
1795.6.23 Bread riot broke out in Birmingham. Britain
1795.6.24 Senate approved Jay’s Treaty with changes. Washington
1795.6.28 British landed 8,000 troops at Quiberon. French
1795.6.29 Thousands met with LCS in St. George’s Fields. Britain
1795 Al-Azhar scholars led uprising in Egypt.
1795 Qing emperor Qianlong abdicated.
1795 Missionaries arrived in Tahiti.
1795 Germaine de Staël published Reflections on Internal peace.
1795 Coleridge gave “A Moral and Political Lecture.”
1795 Kant published Perpetual Peace.
1795 Economic Society of Guatemala began.  Central America
1795 Spanish army suppressed slave revolt on Cuba. Puerto Rico
1795 Spain left Española, and the English invaded. Haiti
1795 Spain strengthened forts on the Mississippi. Frontier
1795.7.7 Paine spoke to France’s Convention.
1795.7.14 “Marseillaise” became France’s national anthem. French
1795.7 Paine wrote On First Principles of Government.
1795.7 Food riots spread in England. Britain
1795.7.21 French army killed 750 surrendered émigrés.
1795.7.22 France and Spain agreed on a peace treaty. French
1795.8.3 Indians ceded land to US in Wayne’s treaty.Frontier
1795.8.18 Washington signed treaty with Ohio Indians. 
1795.8.19 Washington sent address to Cherokees. 
1795.8.22 French Convention approved a new constitution.
1795.9.6 96% of French voters approved the constitution.
1795.9 Sweden made a defensive alliance with France.
1795.9 Persians burned city of Tiblisi. Russia
1795.9.21 Irish Protestants founded the Orange Order. Ireland
1795.9.25 Republican army defeated royalists at St. Cyr. French
1795.10.1 France annexed Belgium & Luxembourg. French Netherlands
1795.10.5 Soldiers killed 1,400 insurgents in Paris. French
1795.10.25 Napoleon became Interior Army commander. French
1795.10.27 Spain ceded territory to the US. Mexico Washington Frontier
1795.11.9 Washington met with warriors from 11 tribes.
1795.11.12 Thelwell spoke to 300,000 in London. Britain
1795.11 Baxter published Resistance to Oppression.  Britain
1795.11 Babeuf and Buonarroti began the Panthéon Club. Italy
1795.11.22 Austrians captured besieged Mannheim.
1795.11.24 French army defeated Austrians near Genoa.
1795.11.30 Babeuf published his Plebeian Manifesto.
1795.12.11 Stock Exchange in Paris closed. Babeuf
1795.12.18 Britain passed Treason and Sedition laws.
1795-96 Goethe’s Apprenticeship of Wilhelm Master.
1795-96 Second Maroon War was fought in Jamaica. West Indies
1795-97 Fedon led a rebellion in Grenada. West Indies
1795-1803 British governed Cape Town. Southern Africa
1795-1816 Wolde Selassie ruled eastern Ethiopia.
1795-1819 Kamehameha I ruled the Hawaiian Islands.
1795-1832 Yusuf Qaramanli ruled in Tripoli.
1796.1.25 French Directory appointed city officials.
1796.2.1-20 French Directory restricted bread & meat rations.
1796.2.15 Britain took Ceylon from the Dutch. Netherlands
1796.2.25 France executed royalist Nicolas Stofflet. French
1796.3.2 Directory appointed Napoleon commander in Italy. French
1796.3.6 Napoleon married Joséphine Beauharnais.
1796.3 Napoleon led French invasion of Italy.
1796.3 Washington agreed to pay Barbary pirates. 
1796.3.29 France executed Vendée leader Charette. French
1796.3.30 Babeuf & Buonarroti formed conspiracy of equals.
1796.4.12 Napoleon’s army beat Austrians at Montenotte.
1796.4.16 France ruled royalists could be killed or deported. French
1796.4.20 Equals wrote People’s Cry against OppressorsFrench
1796.4.28 Piedmontese accepted an armistice. French Italy
1796.5 Jenner gave first smallpox vaccination.  Britain
1796.5 Congress funded Jay’s treaty. Washington
1796.5.10 French army defeated Austrians at Lodi. Italy
1796.5.26 General Lannes had the Pavia Council shot. French
1796.6.1 Tennessee became the 16th state in the US. Frontier
1796.6.3 Napoleon’s army captured Verona.
1796.6.4 French army besieged Mantua. Italy
1796.6.5 Napoleon & Naples agreed to an armistice.
1796.6.23 Napoleon & Pope Pius VI signed an armistice. Italy
1796.3.27 Napoleon’s army took Livorno from British.
1796 'Abd al-Qadir invaded Wolof. West Africa
1796 English occupied Dutch possessions in Sri Lanka.
1796 Opium was prohibited in China. Daoguang Era
1796 Maréchal published the Manifesto of Equals.
1796 Paine published The Age of Reason Part 2.
1796 Britain’s debt was £310,400,000.
1796 Britain gave Austria £6 million subsidy. Austrian
1796 Scandinavian Literary Society began. Denmark
1796 British withdrew troops from northwest. Frontier
1796.7.4 Napoleon’s army besieged Austrians at Mantua.
1796.8.15 David and artists protested looting of Italian art. French
1796.8 Spain went to war against England. Mexico
1796.8 Paine’s Wearmouth Bridge was completed.
1796.8.18 France allied with SpainFrench
1796.8.26 Napoleon organized a Lombardy government.
1796.9.19 Washington published “Farewell Address.” 
1796.10.2 French army defeated Austrians at Biberach.
1796.10.4 Napoleon’s army invaded Modena.
1796.10.5 Spain declared war on Britain.
1796.10.19 Austrian army defeated French at Emmendingen.
1796.10.10 France made peace with Ferdinando IV of Naples. French
1796.11.3 French Directory established military courts. 
1796.11.6 Empress Ekaterina II died; Pavel succeeded. Russia
1796.12.4 Paris churches were allowed to reopen. French
1796.12 Spain opened Mississippi River to US ships. Frontier
1796.12.27 Bologna, Ferrara et al began Cispadane Republic. Italy
1796-97 LCS published Moral and Political MagazineBritain
1796-97 Fichte published Foundations of Natural Right.
1796-1802 British governed Guiana.  
1796-1804 White Lotus Society rebelled in China. Qianlong, Jiajing Era
1796-1806 Lazaro Ribera Espinosa ruled Paraguay. Rio de la Plata
1796-1809 King Gustav IV Adolf ruled Sweden.
1797.1.9 Dąbrowski commanded Polish Legion in Milan. Poland
1797.1.15 Napoleon’s army defeated Austrians at Rivoli.
1797.1 Paine joined the Theophilanthropists.
1797.1 Russia, Prussia & Austria divided Poland.
1797.1.20 Polish legion joined the French in Italy.
1797.1.31 Napoleon declared war on the Papal States. Italy
1797.2.2 After 8 months the French conquered Mantua. French Italy
1797.2.14 British beat Spaniards off Cape St. Vincent. Britain Spain
1797.2 Erskine published a book on the war with France. Britain
1797.2.19 Napoleon & Pius VI signed Tolentino treaty. Italy
1797.2.26 Britain issued paper money.
1797.3.1 Cispadane Republic adopted a Constitution. Italy
1797.3.4 John Adams became 2nd US President.
1797.3.10 Louis XVIII urged supporters to vote in France. French
1797.4.4 Royalists won 170 seats in France’s Council. French
1797.4 Maréchal published “Manifesto of Equals.”  French
1797.4 British blockaded Cadiz. Spain
1797.4 Toussaint’s republicans defeated the English. Haiti
1797.4.17 Verona rose up against the French. Italy
1797.4.18 Napoleon & Austrians signed armistice. Italy Greek
1797.4-5 Spithead mutiny made gains for British sailors. Britain
1797.5.3 Napoleon declared war on Venice.
1797.5.12 Venice’s Great Council surrendered. Italy
1797.5.15 US Congress began special session. Adams
1797.5 Britain hanged 29 mutineers.
1797.5 Chateaubriand published Essay on Revolutions.
1797.5.16 Adams declared policy of neutrality. 
1797.6 Napoleon set up Ligurian Republic in Genoa. Italy
1797.6 6,000 British troops entered Portugal.
1797.6.29 Cisalpine Republic formed in Lombardy. Italy
1797 France drafted 382,000 men into the army.
1797 Germaine de Staël wrote On the Influence of the Passions
1797 Paine published “Agrarian Justice.”
1797 Sectarian conflict increased in Ireland.
1797 Coleridge wrote Rime of the Ancient Mariner.
1797 Kant published The Science of Right.
1797.7.9 Cisalpine Republic got a constitution. French Italy
1797.7.10 US Congress funded 3 Navy ships. Adams
1797.7 LCS meeting at St. Pancras field was dispersed. Britain
1797.7 Wybicki composed Dąbrowski's MazurkaPoland
1797.7 Callender exposed Hamilton’s adultery. Adams
1797.7.16 Talleyrand became France’s Foreign Minister. French
1797.7.21 MacLane hanged for trying to seize Quebec. Canada
1797.8.8 Batavian voters rejected a proposed constitution. Netherlands
1797.8 Society of United Irishmen began. Adams
1797.9.5 French councils began passing repressive laws. France
1797.9.17 Seneca chiefs sold land to Holland Company. Frontier
1797.10.11 British defeated a Batavian fleet at Camperdown. Netherlands
1797.10 Rigas published a revolutionary manifesto. Greek
1797.10.17 French & Austrians made a peace treaty. France Italy
1797.11 Canning founded weekly Anti-JacobinBritain
1797.11.16 Prussia’s Friedrich Wilhelm II died.
1797.12 Austria arrested Rigas & 17 others. Greek
1797.12 Miranda claimed Spanish American junta. New Granada
1797.12.17 French Directory banned 16 royalist newspapers. France
1797-1803 Marathas fought civil war.
1797-1803 Johnstone governed Dominica badly. West Indies
1797-1804 Burma fought a war with Siam.
1797-1830 Yuhi Gahindiro ruled Rwanda.
1797-1834 Fath 'Ali Khan ruled Persia.
1796-1835 Mangkunegara II ruled at Surakarta. Netherlands East Indies
1798.1.28 France annexed Alsace.
1798.1.22 Ultras made a coup in the Batavian Republic. Netherlands
1798.1.30 LCS issued Binns’ Address to the Irish NationBritain
1798.2.5 Bern proclaimed liberty and equality. Swiss
1798.2.10 College of Cardinals surrendered Rome. Italy
1798.2.12 Stanisław II died in St. Petersburg. Poland           
1798.2.15 France proclaimed the Republic of Rome.
1798.2.15 Lyon and Griswold fought in Congress. Adams
1798.2.21 France made a treaty with the Cisalpine Republic.
1798.3.4 Bern surrendered to the French. France
1798.3 Rastatt Congress ceded Rhineland to France. Prussia
1798.3 Spain ceded land to US east of Mississippi. Frontier
1798.3-10 Hédouville governed St. Domingue for France. Haiti
1798.3.28 Spain’s Prime Minister Godoy resigned.
1798.4.12 France proclaimed the Helvetic Republic.
1798.4.12 Directory authorized Napoleon to seize Egypt. France
1798.4.12 Swiss cantons declared the Helvetic Republic.
1798.4 Batavian Republic approved a constitution. Netherlands
1798.5.9 Day of prayer resulted in riots in Philadelphia. Adams
1798.5.11 French Council excluded 127 elected Jacobins. France
1798.5 Irish revolt began. Ireland
1798.5 US Congress authorized 9 warships. Adams
1798.6.11 Malta surrendered to France
1798.6 British suppressed the Irish revolt. Ireland
1798.6.18 Naturalization Act extended time to 14 years. Adams
1798.6.26 Judge Peters ordered Bache arrested for libel. Adams
1798.6.29 Helvetians elected a Directory of 5 led by Ochs. Swiss
1798 Honda Toshiaki wrote Secret Proposals. Japanese Culture
1798 Napoleon led French invasion of Egypt.
1798 Malthus published his Essay on Population.
1798 Fichte published Systems of Ethical Theory.
1798 Society of Polish Republicans began. Poland
1798 Judith Sargent published The GleanerAdams
1798.7.2 Napoleon’s army took over Alexandria, Egypt. France
1798.7.6 Alien Enemies Act authorized deportations. Adams
1798.7.7 United States repealed its treaties with France.
1798.7.9 US Direct House Tax became law. Adams
1798.7.14 US Sedition Act banned “malicious” writing. Adams
1798.7.21 Napoleon’s army defeated Mamluks in Egypt. France
1798.7.31 Moderates won Batavian elections. Netherlands
1798.8.3 British navy defeated French at Abū Qīr Bay. France Britain
1798.8.16 France ended embargo of American ships. Adams
1798.8.19 France allied with the Swiss.
1798.8.22 Napoleon founded the Egyptian Institute. France
1798.8.24 Helvetic Republic allied with France. Swiss
1798.9.9 Ottoman Empire declared war on France.
1798.9.15 French army in Ireland surrendered to the British. France
1798.9 Belgians resisted French military conscription. Netherlands
1798.10.1 Lyon published Scourge of AristocracyAdams
1798.10 Lyon was re-elected while in jail for sedition. Adams
1798.10 Russians took Ionian islands from the French.
1798.11.16 Gov. Garrard signed Kentucky Resolutions. Adams
1798.12 French forces secured the Suez port. France
1798.12.20 Barlow wrote “On Certain Political Measures.”  Adams
1798.12.24 Madison’s Virginia Resolutions were enacted. Adams
1798-1805 Richard Wellesley governed British India.
1799.1.15 Adams began negotiating a treaty with France. 
1799.1.1 Second Coalition formed against France. Prussia
1799.1.22 French army defeated 14,000 Mamluks. France
1799.1.23 French forces took over Naples. France
1799.1.30 Congress passed the Logan Act. 1799-1800
1799.1-3 Fries rebellion stopped tax collection.  1799-1800
1799.2.1 Washington urged Adams to make peace. 
1799.2.9 Adams authorized trade with Toussaint’s Haiti. 
1799.2 Napoleon’s army invaded Syria. France
1799.2 France annexed Piedmont. Italy
1799.3.7 French killed 2,000 Albanian prisoners at Jaffa.France
1799.3.10 Britain arrested 19 United Irishmen.
1799.3.12 France declared war on Austria and Tuscany.
1799.3 Russians & Turks drove French from Ionian Isles. France
1799.3 Austro-Russian army invaded Cisalpine Republic. Italy
1799.3-5 French besieged Acre & lost 2,300 men. France
1799.3-5 Fries tax rebellion was suppressed. 1799-1800
1799.4.5 Austrians defeated the French in Verona.
1799.4 Jacobins won a majority in French elections. France
1799.4.24 Library of Congress was started. 1799-1800
1799.5 Justice Chase indicted Callender for sedition. 1799-1800
1799.6.5 Austro-Russian army entered Milan. Italy
1799.6 Austrians drove French out of Zurich. Swiss
1799.6 French executed author Pieter Corbeels. Netherlands
1799.6 Polish legions suffered heavy losses at Trebbia. Poland
1799.6.20 Austro-Russian army defeated French at Trebbia. Italy
1799.6.22 Britain subsidized the Russian military.
1799 Napoleon attacked al-'Arish, Jaffa, and Acre. Egypt
1799 Ranjit Singh took over Lahore. North India
1799 Turks allied with Russia and England. Ottoman empire
1799 Blacks revolted in Sierra Leone.
1799 Hegel wrote The Spirit of Christianity & Its Fate.
1799 Batavian Republic spent 80 million on war. Netherlands
1799 Denmark enacted comprehensive poor relief.
1799 Road from Lima to Callao was completed. Peru
1799 Revolutionaries in La Guaira were punished. New Granada
1799.7.12 Britain banned workers from organizing.
1799.7.17 Cornwallis granted amnesty in Ireland.           
1799.7.29 Directory appointed Fouché Police Minister. France
1799.8.5 Jacobins voted to redistribute wealth. France
1799.8.27 Anglo-Russian army beat Dutch at Callantsoog. Netherlands
1799.9.3-4 Directory shut down 50 newspapers. France
1799.9.8 Irish rebels & French surrendered. Ireland
1799.9 French defended Swiss Republic from invaders. France
1799.9.30 Austro-Russian army ended Roman Republic. Italy
1799.10.17 Napoleon met with Directory in Paris. France
1799.10.24 Council of 500 elected Lucien Bonaparte president. France
1799.10.29 Sweden made a defensive alliance with Russia.
1799.11.9 Napoleon ordered officers to protect 2 Councils. France
1799.11.10 Council made Napoleon, Sieyès & Ducos consuls.France
1799.11.14 Kentucky passed more resolutions. 1799-1800
1799.11.19 Anglo-Russian army left Holland. Netherlands
1799.11.24 Napoleon claimed the power to tax. France
1799.12.14 George Washington died of illness. 1799-1800
1799.12.15 Napoleon decreed a constitution giving him power. France
1799-1801 Britain suspended Habeas Corpus.
1799-1805 Prussia’s Friedrich Wilhelm III freed the serfs.
1799-1805 Robert Shore Milnes governed Lower Canada.
1799-1808 Republican McKean governed Pennsylvania. 1799-1800
1799-1820 Jiajing ruled the Qing empire.
1799-1820 Jiajing ruled the Qing empire.

1800.1.17 Napoleon closed 60 newspapers.
1800.1.24 French army left Egypt. Britain
1800.1.27 Napoleon forced Ouvrard to loan France 14 million.
1800.2 Napoleon invaded Syria.
1800.2 Voters passed France’s new constitution.
1800.3.2 Napoleon & Lucien chose moderate prefects.
1800.3 Napoleon replaced 3,000 judges and prosecutors.
1800.3 Napoleon led an army of 51,400 across the Alps.
1800.5.1 Republicans won elections in New York. 1799-1800
1800.5.10 Land Act gave American settlers credit. 1799-1800
1800.5 Adams fired McHenry and Pickering. 
1800.6.2 Napoleon’s army regained Milan. Northern Italy
1800.6.14 French defeated Austrians at Marengo. Napoleon Northern Italy
1800.6.14 Schiller’sMary Stuart opened at Weimar.
1800.6 Moreau’s army defeated Austrians in Bavaria. Napoleon
1800.6 Sweden & Russia revived Armed Neutrality.
1800.6.23 Britain subsidized Austria.
1800 British began publishing Cape Gazette.
1800 English bought 23 million pounds of Chinese tea. Jiajing Era
1800 Germaine de Staël published Literature Considered.
1800 Beethoven composed his first symphony. Austria
1800 Fichte published The Vocation of Man.
1800 Schiller published his Wallenstein Trilogy.
1800 Novalis wrote Hymns to the Night.
1800 79,000 people died of yellow fever in Cadiz. Spain
1800 Polish Society of Friends of Learning began. Poland
1800 Census found 5,308,483 in US, 893,602 slaves. 1799-1800
1800.7.11 Iceland’s Althing assembly was replaced. 
1800.7 Tripoli threatened war against the United States. America’s Naval War
1800.7.16 Napoleon & Pope Pius VII agreed on a Concordat.
1800.7.28 Austria and France agreed to an armistice. Britain
1800.9.4 France’s Malta garrison surrendered. Britain
1800.9.30 France signed a trade treaty with USA envoys.
1800.10.1 Spain ceded Louisiana to France.  Frontier
1800.10 Gabriel and 25 slaves were hanged for revolt. 1799-1800
1800.11.28 Spain prohibited factories in its colonies.
1800.12.3 Moreau’s army beat Austrians at Hohenlinden. France
1800.12 Godoy returned to power in Spain.
1800.12 Toussaint’s troops occupied Santo Domingo. Haiti
1800.12 Electors gave 73 votes to Jefferson and Burr. 1799-1800
1800.12.24 Napoleon survived an explosion aimed at him. Britain
1800-03 Mahmud Mirza ruled Afghanistan. North India
1800-07 Septinsular Republic was on Ionian islands. Greek
1800-34 Sunjo was king of Korea.
1801.1.8 France deported 130 Jacobins to Guiana.
1801.1.14 Britain imposed embargo on the Neutral League.
1801.1.14 French army captured Siena. Northern Italy
1801.1 Harrison became governor of Indiana Territory. Indian
1801.1 Tripoli made demands of the United States. America’s Naval War
1801.1.31 Adams nominated Marshall as Chief Justice. 
1801.2.2 US Senate ratified altered French treaty. Adams
1801.2.5 British Prime Minister Pitt resigned. Britain
1801.2.9 France & Austria made Lunéville treaty. Northern Italy
1801.2.13 Federalist Senate added 23 new judges. Adams
1801.2.17 House elected Jefferson President.
1801.3.4 Thomas Jefferson became 3rd US President.
1801.3.5 Britain released many political prisoners.
1801.3.6 Jefferson wrote to Dickinson on revolution.
1801.3 Spain ceded Louisiana back to France.
1801.3.18 Jefferson wrote to Paine on peace & Europe.
1801.3.21 France got Parma & Tuscany in Aranjuez treaty. Northern Italy
1801.3.23 Conspirators murdered Tsar Pavel. Russia
1801.3.24 Aleksandr became Tsar of Russia.
1801.3.24 Jefferson wrote to Dr. Rush on US Post Office.
1801.4.1 24,000 Prussian troops invaded Hanover.
1801.4.5 Tsar Aleksandr formed a Permanent Council.
1801.4.12 French army occupied Piedmont. Northern Italy
1801.4 British led by Nelson attacked Copenhagen. Britain Denmark
1801.5.13 Gallatin began work as Treasury Secretary. Jefferson
1801.5.14 Tripoli declared war on the United States. America’s Naval War
1801.5.19 Alexander disbanded Armed Neutrality League. Britain
1801.5-6 Spaniards invaded Portugal for three weeks. Spain
1801.6.6 Britain & Portugal made a treaty at Badajoz. 
1801 Wahhabis defeated Muscatis and took Bahrain.
1801 British forced the French out of Egypt.
1801 Nizam and Bhangi Sikhs submitted to Ranjit Singh.
1801 Korea persecuted Catholics.
1801 Korean government emancipated 66,067 slaves.
1801 Chong brothers were banished from Korea.                      
1801 Chateaubriand published his novella Atala.
1801 British took first comprehensive census. Malthus
1801 Pestalozzi wrote How Gertrude Teaches ChildrenSwiss
1801 Denmark had 3% paupers, Britain 13%.
1801 Aleksandr made Czartoryski Foreign Minister. Poland
1801 St. Domingue became self-governing. Haiti
1801 McGill University began. Canada
1801.7 British East India Company (BEIC) took Karnatak.
1801.7 Jaswant Rao Holkar captured Ujjain. British
1801.8.1 USS Enterprise defeated the Tripoli.  America’s Naval War
1801.8 Tories won British elections 383-275. Britain
1801.8 20,000 attended religious revival in Kentucky. Frontier
1801.9 Pope Pius VII & Napoleon agreed on a concordat. Southern Italy
1801.9.18 Schiller’sMaid of Orleans opened at Leipzig.
1801.10.1 France & Britain signed an armistice.
1801.10 Prussians withdrew from Hanover.
1801.10 Napoleon gave Genoa a constitution. Northern Italy
1801.11 Awadh ceded half its territory to BEIC. British
1801.12.7 Republican Macon became House Speaker. Jefferson
1801.12 Marbury sued Secretary of State Madison. Jefferson
1801.12.19 US Senate ratified treaty with France. Louisiana
1801-12 Harrison governed Indiana Territory. 1805-06
1801-19 Gia Long ruled united Vietnam.
1801-24 Osei Bonsu was Asantehene. Asante
1802.1 Italian Constitutional Assembly met at Lyon. Northern Italy
1802.1 Congress rejected fugitive slave bill.  Jefferson
1802.1 US agreed to pay British creditors £600,000. Jefferson
1802.1.25 Napoleon became president of Italian Republic. Northern Italy
1802.1-2 Napoleon sent 28,000 to fight a slave revolt.
1802.2.2 Congress authorized US Navy against Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1802.2 French seized 20 American ships at Cap Français. Jefferson
1802.3.3 Congress repealed Judiciary Act of 1801. Jefferson
1802.3.16 Jefferson approved West Point military academy.
1802.3.25 French & British made peace at Amiens. France Britain Netherlands
1802.4.8 France gave rights to Protestants & Jews.
1802.4 Chateaubriand published “René” & Christianity.
1802.4.24 Congress set Georgia’s western border. Jefferson
1802.4.30 Ohio became 17th state in US. Jefferson
1802.5.1 France established 45 secondary schools.
1802.6.4 Sardinia’s Carlo Emanuele IV abdicated. Northern Italy
1802.6.17 Tripoli seized USS FranklinAmerica’s Naval War
1802.6.25 Morocco declared war on the United States. America’s Naval War
1802.6.26 France made a trade treaty with Ottoman Empire.
1802 Madame de Staël wrote her novel Delphine.
1802 Wilberforce founded Suppression of Vice Society. Britain
1802 Brougham founded the Edinburgh ReviewBentham
1802 Scotland was allowed to form militia.
1802 Cobbett began the weekly Political RegisterTories
1802 Italian Republic began military conscription. Northern Italy
1802 France sent 6,000 Poles to Sainte Domingue. Poland
1802 Wahhabis captured Karbala in Iraq.
1802 British proclaimed Ceylon a crown colony. Sri Lanka
1802 Triads spread in Guangxi and Guangdong. Jiajing Era
1802 Napoleon’s army tried to restore slavery. French West Indies Haiti
1802 Republicans won most US elections. Jefferson
1802.8 France banned British newspapers.
1802.9.21 France annexed Piedmont.
1802.9.27 Swiss Diet adopted a federalist constitution.
1802.10.1 France bought Louisiana from Spain.
1802.10 Spain closed New Orleans to American trade. Louisiana
1802.12.31 Baji Rao and British signed treaty of Bassein.
1802-03 French Army lost 50,000 men in Haiti
1803.2.19 Jefferson approved Ohio’s constitution. 
1803.2.21 Col. Despard & 6 were executed for treason. Britain
1803.2.24 Marbury v. Madison ended unconstitutional law. 1803
1803.2.28 Congress authorized 4 more warships. America’s Naval War
1803.3.2 Stuart v. Laird authorized federal courts. 1803
1803.3.19 Schiller’s Bride of Messina opened at Weimar.
1803.3.26 US Senate increased import duties 2.5%. America’s Naval War 1804
1803.4.27 Franz II dissolved 112 imperial states. Prussia
1803.4.27 Toussaint died in a French prison.  Haiti
1803.4.30 France sold Louisiana to USA for 80 million francs.
1803.5.2 France sold Louisiana to the United States. 
1803.5 France allied with Dutch and Swiss.
1803.5 British captured 1,200 French & Dutch ships. Netherlands
1803.5.18 George III declared war against FranceBritain
1803.5.18 USS John Adams captured the MeshudaAmerica’s Naval War
1803.5 British restored Baji Rao in Puna.
1803.5.27 Queen Maria Luisa began ruling Etruria. Northern Italy
1803.6 British accepted Portugal’s neutrality.
1803 Wahhabis destroyed mausoleums in Mecca.
1803 British evacuated Egypt.
1803 Admiral Popham designed a signal code. Britain
1803 Kant published On Pedagogy.
1803 Dutch got the Napoleonic Civil Code. Netherlands
1803 Denmark made slavery illegal.
1803 Canadian courts gained jurisdiction over Indians. Canada
1803.8 Arthur Wellesley captured Ahmadnagar. British
1803.8 General Lake captured Aligarh. North India
1803.10 Jefferson reduced US Navy budget. 1803
1803.10.20 US Senate ratified Louisiana Purchase. 
1803.10.21 16 Irish rebels were hanged. Ireland
1803.10.31 Tripoli captured USS Philadelphia and 307 men. America’s Naval War
1803.12.14 Spain declared war on England. Louisiana
1803.12 Fourier published “Universal Harmony.”
1803.12.20 US Army took over New Orleans. Louisiana
1803-05 British fought the Marathas.
1803-05 British fought the Kandyans. Ceylon
1803-08 Shah Shuja ruled Afghanistan. Marathas, North India
1803-08 Viceroy Iturrigaray raised money for war. Mexico
1803-08 General Ferrand governed Santo Domingo.   Haiti
1803-09 Shuja-ul-Mulk ruled Afghanistan. British North India
1803-21 Sultan Ahmad ruled Kedah. Malaya
1803-21 Pomare II ruled Tahiti.
1804.1.1 Haiti was proclaimed an independent republic. 
1804.2 Trevithick’s steam engine ran a railway. Britain
1804.2.16 Decatur’s USS Intrepid killed 33 Tripolitans. America’s Naval War
1804.2.16 Hamilton favored Clinton over Burr. 1804
1804.2.24 Mobile Act created a customs district. 1804
1804.2.25 Republican caucus nominated Clinton for VP. 1804
1804.3.12 Congress removed judge John Pickering. 1804
1804.3.17 Schiller’sWilhelm Tell opened at Weimar.
1804.4.5 Russia broke diplomatic relations with France. Aleksandr  
1804.4 Richard Wellesley declared war on Jaswant Rao Holkar. British
1804.4.25 New York’s Governor Clinton defeated Burr. 1804
1804.5.14 Lewis & Clark expedition left St. Louis. Exploration
1804.5.3 British killed 50 Aborigines.                 
1804.5.18 France proclaimed Napoleon emperor. Northern Italy
1804.5.18 Pitt became Prime Minister again. Britain
1804.6.15 United States ratified 12th amendment. 1804
1804.6.18 Pitt’s Force Bill for the army passed 265-223. Britain
1804 Usman dan Fodio led emigration from Degel. Bornu and Hausaland
1804 Jind and Thanesar went over to the British.
1804 8th Dalai Lama died. Tibet
1804 Johnston led rebellion by Irish convicts. Australia
1804 Bread riots broke out in Madrid and Bilbao. Spain
1804 Napoleonic code imposed in the Italian Republic. Northern Italy
1804 Batavian debt passed 1 billion guilders. Netherlands
1804 Dessalines had thousands of French killed. Haiti
1804 Republicans won most Congressional elections. 1804
1804 Blackburn started a school for Cherokee boys. 1804
1804.7.11 Burr killed Hamilton in a duel. 1804
1804.8.7 USS Constitution blockaded Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1804.8 Burr met with British ambassador Merry. 
1804.10.2 Claiborne became Governor of New Orleans. Louisiana
1804.10.5 British stole £1 million from Spanish gold convoy. Britain
1804.10.8 Dessalines was crowned Emperor Jacques. Haiti
1804.10.11 Lear negotiated treaty with Morocco. America’s Naval War
1804.10 Holkar occupied Muttra and besieged Delhi. British
1804.10 Norwegian preacher Hauge was arrested. Denmark
1804.11.6 Russia allied with Austria. Aleksandr
1804.11.7 Lewis & Clark expedition reached Pacific Ocean. Exploration
1804.12.2 Napoleon in Paris crowned himself emperor. Northern Italy
1804.12.12 Spain declared war on Britain. Mexico
1804.12 Russia issued a Jewish Constitution. Aleksandr
1804-07 South Carolina imported 39,310 slaves. 1807-09
1804-08 Napoleon supervised revision of law codes.
1804-14 Arrillaga governed California
1804-56 Imam Saud ben Sultan ruled Oman. Persian Gulf

1805.1.2 Envoy Monroe arrived in Madrid. 1805-06
1805.1.4 Spain made a naval alliance with France.
1805.1.8 Jefferson decided not to pay tribute to Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1805.1 Russia allied with Sweden. Aleksandr
1805.2 Ranjit Singh called for a united Sikh state.
1805.2 US Senate acquitted Justice Chase. Jefferson
1805.3.2 Congress gave Louisiana rights. 
1805.3.3 US Senate banned armed commerce. 1805-06
1805.3.17 Napoleon in Paris was crowned King of Italy. Northern Italy
1805.4.11 Britain & Russia formed Third Coalition.  Napoleon Aleksandr
1805.4 British made a treaty with Jats of Bharatpur.
1805.4 Gaikwar of Baroda made a subsidiary treaty. British
1805.4  Federalists won elections in Massachusetts. 1805-06
1805.6.3 United States ransomed 307 men from Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1805.6.4 France annexed the Ligurian Republic. Northern Italy
1805 Wahhabis stopped Ottoman caravans to Mecca.
1805 Tripoli made a treaty with the United States.
1805 Ranjit Singh formed a Sikh confederation.
1805 Penang became a British presidency. Malaya
1805 Napoleonic Code was imposed on the Rhineland. Prussia
1805 Bustamante began El Diario de Mexico
1805 Seneca Chief Red Jacket defended his religion. Indian Issues
1805 Kentucky court recognized a free African’s rights. 1805-06
1805 Mercy Warren published history of US revolution.1805-06
1805 Quebec Mercury began in English. Canada
1805.7.12 16 principalities formed the Rhine Confederation. Prussia
1805.7 Gov. Harrison made a treaty in Indiana Territory. 1805-06
1805.7.22 British & Nelson defeated French off Finisterre. France
1805.7.27 Italian Kingdom boycotted British goods. Northern Italy
1805.7.30 United States sent 18 Navy ships to Tunis Bay. America’s Naval War
1805.7-10 Cornwallis governed British India for 3 months.
1805.8.1 Rhine Confederation seceded from the Empire. Prussia
1805.8.9 Britain loaned Austria £1,666,665.
1805.8.25 France allied with Bavaria.
1805.9.13 Prussians entered Saxony.
1805.9.23 Swiss declared neutrality.
1805.9.23 Lewis & Clark expedition returned to St. Louis. Exploration
1805.10.3 Sweden accepted support from Britain.
1805.10.3 Sweden joined the 3rd anti-French Coalition.
1805.10.9 Prussia declared war on France.
1805.10 French army defeated Austrians in Germany. France
1805.10 Stephen published War in Disguise1805-06
1805.10.21 British Navy showed dominance at Trafalgar. 1805-06
1805.10.21 British beat French off Trafalgar; Nelson died. France Britain
1805.10.31 Sweden declared war on France.
1805.11 Barlow made a treaty with Daulat Rao Sindia. British
1805.11 Anglo-Russian army invaded Naples. Southern Italy
1805.11 Miranda appealed to US for help. New Granada 1805-06
1805.12.1 Jefferson was warned of Burr conspiracy.
1805.12.2 French beat Russians & Austrians at Austerlitz.France
1805.12.3 Jefferson criticized Spain in annual message. 1805-06
1805.12 Barlow made a treaty with Jaswant Rao Holkar. British North India
1805.12.26 France & Austria made Pressburg treaty. Northern Italy
1805-28 Chao-Anou ruled Vientiane. Laos
1805-48 Muhammad ‘Ali was viceroy (wali) of Egypt.
1806.1.1 France went back to the Gregorian calendar.
1806.1.1 Napoleonic Civil Code became law in Italy.
1806.1.8 Pike’s expedition reached Sandy Lake. Louisiana
1806.1.18 Dutch surrendered Capetown to the British. Britain
1806.1.23 William Pitt the Younger died. Britain
1806.2.15 Napoleon forced Prussia to annex Hanover.
1806.2.26 Prussia barred British ships & invaded Hanover. Britain
1806.3.5 John Randolph began opposing Jefferson. 1805-06
1806.3 Prussia captured 1,000 Swedes in Hanover. Sweden
1806.3.30 Napoleon made Joseph King of Naples. Southern Italy
1806.4.12 US Senate ratified the treaty with Tripoli. America’s Naval War
1806.4 British blockaded New York harbor. 1805-06
1806.5 Spain’s Godoy sent 24 million livres to Napoleon.
1806.5.23 Smallpox vaccine came to Peru.
1806.6.5 Napoleon made brother Louis King of Holland. Netherlands
1806.6.27 Prussia made a secret treaty with Britain.
1806.6.27 Buenos Aires surrendered to the Britain.
1806.6-8 British occupied Buenos Aires. Rio de la Plata
1806 Asante invaded Fante and defeated their army.
1806 Sepoys mutinied at Madras. Marathas
1806 Fichte published The Way to the Blessed Life.
1806 Louisiana adopted the Code Noir.  
1806 Le Canadien began in French. Canada
1806.7.2 Joseph began selling church land in Naples. Southern Italy
1806.7.10 Sepoys attacked Europeans at Madras. British
1806.7.12 Napoleon was Protector of Rhine Confederation.
1806.7.13 Russia & Austria made a secret alliance. Aleksandr
1806.7.24 Sen. Dayton sent Burr an encouraging letter.  
1806.7.29 Burr sent Wilkinson a letter in cipher.
1806.8.6 Franz II ended the Holy Roman Empire. France Prussia Austria
1806.9.4 Blennerhassett suggested Ohio should secede. Burr
1806.9.9 Denmark annexed Holstein.
1806.9.23 Burr demanded Spaniards evacuate Orleans.
1806.10.14 French defeated Prussians at Jena. France
1806.10.16 Russians invaded the Ottoman Empire. Aleksandr
1806.10.17 Pétion defeated Dessalines who was killed. Haiti
1806.10.27 French army occupied Berlin. Prussia
1806.11.3 Jackson received $3,500 from Burr for boats.
1806.11.5 Kentucky D.A. Daveiss charged Burr in court. 
1806.11.11 British announced blockade of European ports. Netherlands
1806.11.15 Pike named a mountain “Grand Peak.” Exploration
1806.11.15 US Non-importation Act went into effect. 1805-06
1806.11 Grenville’s Whig party won British election. Britain
1806.11.21 Napoleon declared a blockade against Britain. Netherlands
1806.11.25 Wilkinson took control of New Orleans. Burr
1806.11.26 Murat led a French force into Warsaw. Poland
1806.11.27 Jefferson banned invading Spanish territory. 1805-06 Burr
1806.12.12 Wilkinson began arresting Burr conspirators. 
1806.12.14 Jackson persuaded Burr to disavow rebellion. 
1806-08 Captain Bligh governed New South Wales. Australia
1806-35 Ang Chan II ruled Cambodia.
1806-56 Sayyid Sa'id al-Busa'idi ruled Oman. Arabs
1807.1.7 England ended American coasting privileges. Embargo
1807.1.11 Burr and 55 people surrendered to militia. 
1807.1.14 Napoleon set up a Polish government at Posen.
1807.2.3 British besieged Montevideo. Britain
1807.2 British invaded Montevideo. Rio de la Plata
1807.2.8-9 French defeated Russians & PrussiansFrance Aleksandr
1807.2 Hegel published his Phenomenology of Spirit.
1807.2 Goethe’s Torquato Tasso opened at Weimar.
1807.2 British invaded Montevideo. Rio de la Plata
1807.2 Goman rebelled against Pétion. Haiti
1807.2.26 United States ended slave trade after 1807. Embargo
1807.2-6 Spaniards detained Pike’s expedition. Northern Mexico Exploration
1807.3.6 British deported Batavian troops from Cape.
1807.3 Napoleon annexed Tuscany, Parma & Lucca.
1807.3.15 Jefferson rejected treaty with England.Embargo
1807.3.18 British invaded Egypt & occupied Alexandria. Britain
1807.3.24 Prime Minister Grenville resigned. Britain
1807.3.25 British Slave Trade Act became law. Britain
1807.3.25 British abolished the slave trade. Embargo
1807.3.30 Britain gave Sicily’s Ferdinando IV a subsidy.
1807.4  Madame de Staël published her novel Corinne.
1807.4.26 Russia and Prussia allied in 4th Coalition. France Aleksandr
1807.5.4 Persia allied with France against British.
1807.5.24 Danzig capitulated to French siege.  France
1807.6.14 French army defeated Russians at Friedland. France Aleksandr
1807.6.22 British removed 4 men from the ChesapeakeEmbargo
1807 Janissaries mutinied and deposed Selim III. Ottoman empire
1807 British abolished the slave trade.
1807 Sierra Leone treaty dispossessed Temne rulers.
1807 London Missionary Soc. sent Morrison to Canton. Daoguang
1807 Bilderdijk wrote Sickness of the LearnedNetherlands
1807.7.2 Jefferson ordered British ships out of US waters. Embargo
1807.7.7 Russia & France made the Tilsit treaty. Netherlands Aleksandr
1807.7.9 Tilsit treaty created the Westphalia kingdom. Prussia
1807.7 Napoleon dictated a constitution for Poland.
1807.8.12 Napoleon closed Portuguese ports to British. Brazil
1807.8.16 Prince Frederik declared war on Britain. Denmark
1807.8.22 Jerome Bonaparte married Catharina Frederica. Prussia
1807.9.2-4 British bombarded Copenhagen. Denmark
1807.9.4 Fulton demonstrated his steamship invention. Embargo
1807.9.5 Copenhagen capitulated to the British. Britain
1807.9 Tecumseh spoke at a conference. Indian Issues
1807.9.25 British evacuated Egypt. Britain
1807.10.8 Stein replaced Hardenberg in Prussia.
1807.10.18 A French army invaded Spain.
1807.10.22 Britain and Portugal allied.
1807.10.27   France & Spain divided Portugal.
1807.11.4 Denmark declared war on Britain.
1807.11.5 Fernando’s conspiracy confession was published. Spain
1807.11.7 Russia broke relations with Britain. Aleksandr
1807.11.15 Napoleon sent a constitution to Westphalia.
1807.11 French occupied the Papal Marches. Southern Italy
1807.11.29 Portuguese court left for Brazil. Britain Portugal
1807.11.29 French troops occupied Lisbon.  France Portugal
1807.12.1 Burr was acquitted by a jury. 
1807.12 France annexed and dissolved Etruria. Northern Italy
1807.12 Napoleon freed peasants in the Warsaw Duchy. Poland
1807.12.22 Embargo Act banned foreign trade by US ships. Embargo
1807, 1814 Slaves revolted in Bahia. Brazil
1807-09 Persia & France opposed Russia & Britain. Aleksandr
1807-11 Jaswant Rao Holkar was insane. British
1807-11 James Henry Craig governed Lower Canada.
1807-13 Minto governed British India.
1807-14 Linde published his Great Polish DictionaryPoland
1807-1915 Vietnam used civil service examinations. French
1808.1.1 British made the slave trade illegal. West Indies
1808.1.8 2nd US embargo made punishment harsher. Embargo
1808.1.14 Britain and Spain signed a friendship treaty.
1808.1 French armies invaded SpainFrance
1808.1 Edinburgh Review criticized Byron’s poems.
1808.1 Napoleon’s army invaded the Papal States. Southern Italy
1808.1.22 Joao and 10,000 nobles arrived at Bahia. Brazil
1808.2.20 Napoleon appointed Murat to rule Spain.
1808.2.21 Russian army invaded FinlandAleksandr
1808.2.29 Denmark declared war on Sweden.
1808.3.7 Brazilians welcomed Joao to Rio de Janeiro. 
1808.3.12 3rd embargo banned all US exports. Embargo
1808.3.14 War between Denmark and Sweden began.
1808.3.15 Tsar Alexander claimed Finland.
1808.3 Kleist’s The Broken Jug failed at Weimar.
1808.3 Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro began publishing. Brazil
1808.3.23 Murat’s French army occupied Madrid. France Spain
1808.4.6 Fernando abdicated in favor of Josef Bonaparte. Spain
1808.4.10 Prince Fernando left Madrid to meet Napoleon. Spain
1808.4.12 US Congress expanded Army to 8 divisions. Embargo
1808.4.25 US Enforcement Act increased penalties. Embargo
1808.5.2 Murat ordered rebels in Madrid shot. France Spain
1808.5.4 Carlos IV named Josef Spain’s Lt. General. Spain
1808.5.6 Napoleon forced Fernando VII to abdicate. Peru Bolivar Mexico
1808.5 Napoleon made his brother Joseph King of Spain.
1808.5 Spaniards revolted against French rule. France
1808.5 France took over Parma and Piacenza. Northern Italy
1808.5 Tenskwatawa founded Prophetstown. Indian Issues
1808.5.23 Valencia began uprisings against the French. Spain
1808.5.25 Asturias Assembly declared war on Napoleon. Spain
1808.6.15 French looted Cordoba & besieged Zaragoza. France Spain
1808 Usman established a caliphate at Sokoto. Dahomey
1808 United States prohibited the slave trade. Sierra Leone
1808 British made Sierra Leone a colony.
1808 Lin Qing was beaten for teaching Buddhism. Jiajing Era
1808 Saint-Simon published Scientific Studies.
1808 Fourier published Theory of Four Movements.
1808 Fichte gave Addresses to the German Nation
1808 Kleist published his tragedy Penthesilea.
1808 Goethe published Faust Part 1.
1808 Spain’s debt reached 7 billion reales.
1808 Brazil imported £2,000,000 of British goods. 
1808 Cherokees reformed their laws. Indian Issues
1808 1,130 Chickamaugas moved to Arkansas. Indian Issues
1808.7.7 Napoleon issued a constitution for Spain.
1808.7.19 Seville’s army defeated the French at Bailén. Spain
1808.7.20 Joseph Bonaparte entered Madrid. France Spain
1808.7.21 British defeated a French army in Portugal. France
1808.7.31 King Josef left Madrid. Spain
1808.8.11 Castile Council proclaimed King Fernando VII. Spain
1808.8 Napoleon made Murat King of the Two Sicilies. Southern Italy
1808.8 Jefferson sent US Army and Navy north. Embargo
1808.8.31 French gave up Portugal in Cintra Convention. Britain
1808.9.8 Paris Convention limited the Prussian army.
1808.9.15 Rebels seized Viceroy Iturrigaray. Mexico
1808.9 Quintana began weekly Semanario PatrioticoSpain
1808.9 Portuguese Regency Council was restored. Portugal
1808.9.25 Suprema Junta met in Aranjuez palace. Spain
1808.9-10 Napoleon & Tsar Aleksandr met in Erfurt.
1808.10 Ranjit Singh sent Karam Singh to take Faridkot. North India
1808.10 Verdad and Talamantes died in prison. Mexico
1808.11.4 Napoleon led an army into Spain.
1808.11.11 Finns and Russians agreed on an armistice. Finland
1808.11.19 Prussia granted towns self-government.
1808.11.23 French army defeated Spaniards at Tudela. Spain
1808.12.4 Madrid capitulated to Napoleon.
1808.12 Ranjit Singh suppressed riots in Amritsar, Lahore. North India
1808.12.16 Napoleon declared Stein an enemy. Prussia
1808-10 Chile’s Governor Carrasco repressed dissent. 
1808-11 Daendels governed Java for France. Netherlands East Indies
1808-21 Royal Bragança family was in Brazil. Portugal
1808-27 Da Monzon ruled the Segu empire.
1808-39 Mahmud II ruled the Ottoman empire.
1809.1 Spain allowed colonies representation.
1809.1.4 Junta in Seville rescinded Law of Consolidation. Mexico
1809.1.22 Spain included Americans in Central Junta. Chile Peru
1809.1.31 Spain’s 5-man regency began.
1809.2.4 Connecticut refused to enforce Embargo.
1809.2.5 French forces besieged Cadiz. Spain
1809.2.20 Zaragoza capitulated to the French. France Spain
1809.3.1 Non-Intercourse Act ended the US Embargo.
1809.3.2 Napoleon’s sister Elisa began ruling Tuscany. Northern Italy
1809.3.4 Madison became the 4th US President. 
1809.3.7 Madison’s cabinet was confirmed.  
1809.3.13 Duke Karl replaced Gustav IV.  Sweden
1809.3 Walter Scott began the Quarterly ReviewScotland
1809.3.16 Byron wrote English Bards & Scotch Reviewers
1809.3.29 Gustav IV abdicated, replaced by Karl XIII. Sweden
1809.3.29 Russia allowed Finland to be self-governing. Aleksandr
1809.4.3 Austria declared war on France and Bavaria.
1809.4 Ranjit Singh and British made Treaty of Amritsar. Sikhs
1809.4 French & Bavarians beat Austrians in Bavaria. France
1809.4.16 Austrians defeated Franco-Italian army at Sacile. Northern Italy
1809.4-11 Hofer led a peasant revolt in Tyrol. Prussia
1809.5.12 Wellesley’s army defeated French at Oporto. Britain
1809.5.13 Napoleon’s army entered Vienna.
1809.5.15 600 French prisoners escaped from Cadiz.  Spain
1809.5.17 France annexed Rome & imprisoned Pius VII. Southern Italy
1809.5.22 Austrians defeated Napoleon’s army near Vienna.
1809.5.31 Dolly Madison held first evening levee. 
1809.6.27 John Quincy Adams became minister to Russia. Madison
1809 British defeated Saudis' Omani allies.
1809 British required Khoisan to carry a pass.
1809 Ranjit Singh made a treaty with the British. Marathas
1809 British destroyed the Melaka fort. Malaya
1809 Fujian pirate chief was drowned. Jiajing Era
1809 Shen Fu's autobiographical account ends. Jiajing Era
1809 Goethe published Elective Affinities.
1809 Spain allowed Panama to trade with Jamaica. Central America
1809.7.5 Napoleon had Pope Pius VII taken to Savona.
1809.7.5-6 French defeated Austrians at Wagram. France
1809.7 Louis abdicated, and France annexed Holland. Netherlands
1809.7.27 Portugal’s Joao made Wellesley top general. Britain
1809.7.27-8 Anglo-Portuguese fought French at Talavera. Portugal
1809.8.9 Madison banned trade with Britain.  
1809.7.27-8 Anglo-Portuguese fought French at Talavera. Portugal
1809.8.15 British captured Flushing. Netherlands
1809.8.19 Creoles formed a junta in Quito. New Granada
1809.9 Camilo Torres published Memorial de agraviosNew Granada
1809.9.17 Sweden lost territory to RussiaFinland
1809.9.30 Harrison made treaty with Miamis and others. Madison
1809.10.14 France & Austria made Schönbrunn treaty. Northern Italy
1809.10 Spain’s Junta decreed equal representation. Mexico
1809.12.7 Napoleon and Josephine divorced.
1809.12.10 Jönköping treaty ended Denmark-Sweden War.
1809.12 Washington Irving wrote his History of New York.
1809-18 Pétion was President of southern Haiti
1809-24 Rama II ruled Siam.

1810.1.6 France and Sweden made a treaty.
1810.1 French suppressed Tyrolian revolt. Northern Italy
1810.1 Belgrano began publishing Correo de ComercioRio de la Plata
1810.2.10 Napoleon closed 97 presses in Paris.
1810.2 Brazil and British agreed to a trade treaty. 
1810.2.19 Napoleon ordered Hofer shot. Austria
1810.3 Sweden enacted press freedom.
1810.4.1 Napoleon married Archduchess Marie Louise.
1810.4.16 Fletcher v. Peck upheld a property sale. Madison
1810.4.17 French abolished religious houses in Italy. Southern Italy
1810.5.1 US Congress closed ports to warring nations. Madison
1810.5.3 Caracas Junta withdrew from Spanish empire. Bolivar
1810.5 Britain and Portugal agreed on a treaty.
1810.5.17 Governor Craig seized Le Canadien press. Canada
1810.5.22 Revolutionary Cabildo began in Buenos Aires. Argentine Revolution
1810.5.25 Buenos Aires overthrew its government. Argentine Revolution
1810.6.2 Gaceta de Buenos Aires began publishing. Argentine Revolution
1810.6.15 Cobbett was convicted of treasonous libel. Tories
1810.6 Five Norwegian brigs captured 47 British ships. Denmark
1810 Wahhabis banned commerce with Syria and Iraq.
1810 Lebanese drove Ottomans out of Syria.
1810 British took Mauritius and Réunion from French.
1810 British took over Ambona. Netherlands East Indies
1810 Madame de Staël published On Germany.
1810 Britain gave Portugal a subsidy of £1 million.
1810 Ricardo published The High Price of Bullion.
1810 Owen began advocating an 8-hour workday.
1810 France annexed Hamburg, Bremen & Lübeck. Prussia
1810 Humboldt founded the University of Berlin. Prussia Idealism
1810 Swedish romantics began publishing Phosphoros. Sweden
1810 Juan Egaña wrote Plan of GovernmentChile
1810 Census found 7,239,881 in US, 1,191,362 slaves. Madison
1810.7.3 Napoleon deposed his brother Louis in Holland.
1810.7.10 French army captured Ciudad Rodrigo. Spain
1810.7.20 Viceroy Amar was overthrown at Bogota. Bolivar
1810.8.2 Spanish troops defeated Quito uprising. Peru
1810.8 English agreed with Stephensen in Iceland.
1810.8 Many Indians joined Tecumseh’s confederacy. Madison
1810.9.16 Hidalgo called for a revolution in Mexico
1810.9.18 Santiago Cabildo Abierto met, elected Zambrano. Chile
1810.9.23 Americans declared West Florida Republic. Madison
1810.9.24 Bishop Abad excommunicated Hidalgo & Allende. Mexico
1810.9.27 Anglo-Portuguese army beat French at Bussaco. Portugal
1810.10.15 Hidalgo’s army entered Valladolid. Mexico
1810.10.27 Madison claimed West Florida for the US. 
1810.10.30 Prussia nationalized the churches.
1810.11.2 Madison announced non-intercourse with British.
1810.11.5 Bernadotte became Prince Karl Johan. Sweden
1810.11.7 Revolutionaries defeated royalists at Suipacha. Peru
1810.11.7 Calleja’s royalists defeated Hidalgo’s army. Mexico
1810.11 Madison named 2 justices to US Supreme Court.
1810.11.15 Tecumseh got aid from the British.  Madison
1810.12.5 Hidalgo ordered Indian lands returned. Mexico
1810.12.7 Claiborne took over West Florida for the US. Madison
1810.12 Morelos and revolutionaries captured Acapulco. Mexico
1810.12.18 Buenos Aires formed the Junta Grande. Argentine Revolution
1810.12.19 Napoleon annexed Hamburg, Bremen & Lübeck.
1810.12.22 Congress represented provinces in Bogota. New Granada
1811, 1816 Brazil’s Joao sent military to annex Banda Oriental. 
1810-21 Macquarie governed New South Wales. Australia
1810-28 Radama I ruled Madagascar.
1811.1 Britain had 239 bankruptcies.
1811.1 66 slaves died in rebellion near New Orleans. Madison
1811.1.15 US Congress approved invasion of East Florida. Madison
1811.1.17 Royalists defeated Hidalgo’s revolutionaries. Mexico
1811.1.22 Rebel Casas arrested Gov. Salcedo and Herrera. North Mexico
1811.2.5 British Parliament made Prince George Regent. Britain
1811.2  Napoleon ended his alliance with Russia.
1811.2.20 US Congress did not renew the US Bank. Madison
1811.2.24 Spain’s Cortes moved to Cadiz.
1811.3.2 Venezuelan Congress met in Caracas. Bolivar
1811.3.4 Liberal Moreno died suspiciously at sea. Argentine Revolution
1811.3.5 British broke the French siege of Cadiz. Britain
1811.3 Luddites smashed machines in Nottinghamshire. Britain
1811.3 Austrian government became bankrupt.
1811.3 Karl XIII had a stroke making Karl Johan regent. Sweden
1811.3.21 Hidalgo and Allende were captured. Mexico
1811.3.30 Censors closed the Berliner AbendblätterKleist
1811.4.1 Monroe began running the State Dept. Madison
1811.4 Hundreds protested military draft at Leiden. Netherlands
1811.5.3-5 British defeated French at Fuentes de Oro. BritainPortugal
1811.5.14 Paraguay’s military took over Asuncion. Argentine Revolution
1811.5 French forces withdrew from Portugal.
1811.5 Red Jacket called Americans crooked. Madison
1811.5.16 Allies & French each lost 7,000 men at Albuera. Britain
1811.6 Britain, Sweden & Prussia made a treaty.
1811 24 Mamluk beys in Egypt were massacred.
1811 Ranjit Singh seized Bhimbar. Sikhs
1811 Rama II banned opium in Siam.
1811 Hong Kyong-nae led rebellion in P'yongan. Korea
1811 Japan captured Russians at Kunashiri.
1811 Weavers formed unions in Glasgow. Scotland
1811 Goethe began writing Poetry and Truth
1811 Sweden’s Royal Agricultural Academy began.
1811 British navy seized 17 slave ships at Salvador. Brazil
1811 Steamboat operated on Ohio and Mississippi. Madison
1811.7.4 Chile’s first National Congress began.  
1811.7.7 Venezuelan Congress declared independence. Bolivar
1811.7 Northern France’s harvest failed, causing famine. Napoleon
1811.7.19 Ferdinando IV arrested 5 Parliament members. Southern Italy
1811.7.27 Tecumseh met with Harrison at Vincennes. Madison
1811.7.31 Inquisition executed Hidalgo. Mexico
1811.8.4 British force invaded Java. Netherlands
1811.8.6 Spain’s Cortes abolished seigneurial privileges.
1811.9 British took over Java from the Dutch. Netherlands East Indies
1811.9.17 Dutch surrendered Java to the British. Netherlands
1811.9.25 Cadiz Cortes repealed governors’ powers. Puerto Rico
1811.9-11 Napoleon visited the Netherlands.
1811.10 Austen published Sense and Sensibility.
1811.10 General Brock began governing Upper Canada.
1811.11.7 US Army defeated Indians at Tippecanoe. Madison
1811.11 Henry Clay was elected Speaker of the House. Madison
1811.11.15 Jose Miguel Carrera became dictator of Chile
1811.11.27 Representatives formed New Granada Federation.
1811.12 US Congress voted to arm merchant ships. War in 1812
1811.12.21 Congress signed Venezuela’s new constitution. Bolivar
1811-15 Chin Byan led rebel attacks on Arakan.British Expansion Burma
1811-16 Raffles governed and reformed Java. Netherlands East Indies
1811-18 Egyptians invaded Hijaz and Wahhabis. Arabia
1811-20 Christophe as King Henri ruled northern Haiti
1811-47 Vietnam dominated Cambodia.
1812.1.1 Austria’s General Civil Code began.
1812.1.8 Valencia capitulated to the French. Spain
1812.1.13 Buenos Aires became an Intendancy. Argentine Revolution
1812.1 Anglo-Portuguese army occupied Salamanca. Spain
1812.1.20 France annexed Swedish Pomerania. Napoleon
1812.2.15 Congress promulgated Free State of Quito. New Granada
1812.2 Shelley published his Address to the Irish People.
1812.2 Prussia allied with France. Austria
1812.2.29 Byron published Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage.
1812.3.1 Tecumseh told Harrison tribes wanted peace. War in 1812
1812.3.12 Spain’s liberal constitution went into effect. Mexico
1812.3 Shelley became a vegetarian.
1812.3 Prussia removed restrictions on Jews.
1812.3 Aleksandr banished Speranskii to Viatka.
1812.3 US Army had only 5,000 fit soldiers. War in 1812
1812.3.18 184 deputies signed Spain’s Constitution. Spain
1812.3.26 Earthquake in Venezuela killed 14,000. Bolivar
1812.4.4 US enacted 90-day embargo. War in 1812
1812.4 Gallardo’s Critical & Satirical Dictionary published. Spain
1812.4 Russia allied with Sweden.
1812.4 Louisiana became 18th state in the US. War in 1812
1812.4.23 Venezuela Congress made Miranda dictator. Bolivar
1812.4.24 Luddites burned factory in West Houghton. Britain
1812.5.6 800 in Albany petition to repeal the embargo. War in 1812
1812.5.11 Ruined merchant killed Prime Minister Perceval. Britain
1812.5.28 Russian & Ottoman empires made peace.
1812.6.16 England repealed offensive Orders in Council. War in 1812
1812.6.17 US Congress declared war against England. War in 1812 Canada
1812.6.18 United States declared war on Britain.
1812.6.20 Federal Republican opposed war, led to riots. War in 1812
1812.6.24 Napoleon & 600,000 invaded Russia’s empire.
1812.6.28 Napoleon set up a Polish-Lithuanian government.
1812.3.1 Tecumseh told Harrison tribes wanted peace. Madison
1812.3.2 Shelley wrote about Association of Philanthropists.
1812.3.12 Spain’s liberal constitution went into effect. Mexico
1812.3 US Army had only 5,000 fit soldiers. Madison
1812.3.26 Earthquake in Venezuela killed 14,000. Bolivar
1812.4.4 US enacted 90-day embargo. Madison
1812.4 Louisiana became 18th state in the US. Madison
1812.4.23 Venezuela Congress made Miranda dictator. Bolivar
1812.5.6 800 in Albany petition to repeal the embargo. Madison
1812.6.16 England repealed offensive Orders in Council. Madison
1812.6.17 US Congress declared war against England. Madison Canada
1812.6.20 Federal Republican opposed war, led to riots. American-British War
1812 Russians restored Moldavia, Wallachia to Turks. Ottoman empire
1812 Law allowed Khoisan children to be "apprenticed." South Africa
1812 Graham ordered men to kill Kaffirs. South Africa
1812 Ranjit Singh seized Rajauri. Sikhs
1812 Tahiti’s Pomare II became a Christian.
1812   140,000 French soldiers died of disease in Russia. Napoleon
1812 Shelley printed his Declaration of Rights.
1812 During famine 20,000 died in Madrid. Spain
1812 Italian Kingdom had 72,000 soldiers. Northern Italy
1812 Spain adopted a liberal constitution. New Granada
1812 English became legal language in Guiana.
1812 Benjamin Rush published Medical Inquiries. 1778-79
1812.7.1 American citizens were ordered to leave Quebec. Canada
1812.7.17 British took over Fort Mackinac. War in 1812
1812.7.22 Wellington beat French at Salamanca. Napoleon Britain Spain
1812.7.25 Miranda capitulated to royalists. Bolivar
1812.7-12 One million people died in Franco-Russian War. Napoleon
1812.8.12 Wellington’s army occupied Madrid. Britain
1812.8 Boston town meeting condemned the war. War in 1812
1812.8.16 British defeated US Army at Detroit. War in 1812 Canada
1812.8.17 Napoleon’s army beat Russians at Smolensk.
1812.8.19 USS Constitution sank the Guerriere. War in 1812
1812.9.7 French defeated Russians at Borodino.  Napoleon
1812.9.14 Napoleon’s army entered deserted Moscow. Russia
1812.9.15 Fire destroyed two-thirds of Moscow. Napoleon Russians
1812.9.25 Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Tucuman. Argentine Revolution
1812.10.5 Lizardi published The Mexican ThinkerMexico
1812.10.12 1,500 militia were called out from Tennessee. War in 1812
1812.10.13 1,300 Americans retreated from Queenstown. War in 1812
1812.10.13 General Brock was killed in Queenstown battle. Canada
1812.10.18 Napoleon’s army left Moscow. Russia
1812.10.23 General Malet’s coup attempt in Paris failed. Napoleon
1812.10-12 Russians captured 100,000 French soldiers. Napoleon
1812.11 Pino gave Cortes a report on New Mexico. North Mexico
1812.11.25 Morelos and revolutionaries entered Oaxaca. Mexico
1812.12.15 Bolivar wrote “Manifesto of Cartagena.”  
1812.12 Tsar Aleksandr began the Russian Bible Society.
1812.12.26 Joel Barlow died in Poland. War in 1813
1812-13 Britain gave Spain £2.2 million.
1812-13 Britain gave Portugal £4.8 million.
1812-15 George Prevost governed Canada.  
1812-16 Miranda lived and died as a Spanish prisoner. Bolivar
1812-16 Panama was the capital of New GranadaCentral America
1812-29 Pangeran Pakualam ruled at Yogyakarta. Netherlands East Indies
1813.1.5 Denmark declared bankruptcy.
1813.1.7 Sweden declared war on France.
1813.1.8 Madison named Armstrong Secretary of War. War in 1813
1813.1 Coleridge’s Remorse opened in London.
1813.1 Austen published Pride and Prejudice.
1813.1 Austria allied with Russia.
1813.1 US Congress authorized $16 million loan. War in 1813
1813.1.22 British defeated Americans at the River Raisin. War in 1813
1813.2.2 Federalists blocked annexation of Floridas. War in 1813
1813.2.18 Spain’s Cortes abolished the Inquisition.
1813.2.20 Belgrano defeated Spaniards at Salta. Argentine Revolution
1813.2.28 Russia and Prussia allied at Kalisz.
1813.2.28 Bolivar’s patriots invaded Venezuela.
1813.3.3 Britain gave Sweden £1 million.
1813.3.3 Sweden allied with Britain.
1813.3 Russia and Prussia declared war on France.
1813.3 Luddites broke power-looms in Lancashire. Britain
1813.3.29 Republicans defeated royalists at Rosillo. North Mexico
1813.4.6 Gutierrez claimed to be president of Texas
1813.4.15 US Army captured British garrison at Mobile. War in 1813
1813.4 US Army burned capital buildings at York. War in 1813 Canada
1813.4 Tecumseh led 600 recruits to Fort Malden. War in 1813
1813.4.25 British and Indians besieged Fort Meigs. War in 1813
1813.4.27 Royalists defeated Chileans at Yerbas Buenas.
1813.4.28 Napoleon’s army of 121,000 invaded Saxony. France
1813.4-8 Army of Morelos besieged fortress at Acapulc . Mexico
1813.5.5 Tecumseh’s warriors defeated Kentucky militia. War in 1813
1813.5.9 Madison sent Gallatin and Bayard to Russia. War in 1813
1813.5.20 French lost 21,200 men at Bautzen. France Russia
1813.6.15 Bolivar promised Venezuelans victory over Spain.
1813.6 Byron published The Giaour.
1813.6 Bogota made Nariño dictator for life. New Granada
1813.6.21 Wellington’s army beat French at Vitoria. France Britain Spain
1813.6-7 War truce was to be for 46 days. France Prussia Austria Russia
1813 Persia ceded territory to Russia.
1813 Egypt's army captured Mecca and Medina. Arabia
1813 Sweden prohibited slave trade. Sierra Leone
1813 Cape Town Free School for poor began.South Africa
1813 Mohkam Chand defeated Fateh Khan at Attock. North India
1813 Burma seized Manipur. British Expansion
1813 Charter Act encouraged Christian missionaries. Mutiny
1813 Heavenly Reason Society revolted in China. Jiajing Era
1813 Banishing criminals to Manchuria was ended. Jiajing Era
1813 Britain gave its allies £11 million.
1813 Shelley published his poem Queen Mab.
1813 Egaña started Instituto Nacional de Chile
1813.7.6 Bolivar seized 200,000 pesos to pay soldiers. 
1813.7.30 Wellington’s army defeated French at Sorauren. Britain
1813.7.31 Willem took over Belgium’s government.
1813.8.6 Bolivar liberated Caracas, established republic.
1813.8.12 Austria declared war on France.
1813.8 Quit-rent system made land-owning hereditary. South Africa
1813.8.18 Royalists defeated rebels at Medina River.  North Mexico
1813.8.27 French army beat Allies at Dresden. France Prussia Russia
1813.8.30 Red Stick Creeks killed 517 at Fort Minns. War in 1813
1813.9.3 Sweden declared war on Denmark.
1813.9.6 Allies defeated the French at Brandenburg. France
1813.9.9 Allies restored borders of Austria & PrussiaRussia
1813.9.10 Perry’s 9 ships defeated a British squadron. War in 1813
1813.9 Allies ended the Confederation of the Rhine. France
1813.9 North began the Philomuses Etairelia in Athens. Greek
1813.10.3 Britain gave Austria £1 million.
1813.10.5 Harrison’s army defeated British in Ontario. War in 1813
1813.10.5 Tecumseh was killed in Thames battle. Canada
1813.10.6 Bavaria declared war on France
1813.10.7 Wellington’s army invaded France
1813.10.16 Harrison agreed to truce with Indians. American-British War
1813.10.19 Allies beat French army at Leipzig. France Prussia Austria Russia
1813.10.24 Allies recognized Murat as King of Naples. France
1813.11.6 Congress of Anahuac declared independence. Mexico
1813.11.9 Jackson’s army defeated Red Sticks at Talladega. War in 1813
1813.11.14 Spaniards defeated Belgrano at Ayohuma. Argentine Revolution
1813.11.15 Dutch revolted in Amsterdam. Netherlands
1813.11 British Navy blockaded southern coast of US. War in 1813
1813.11.29 Georgia’s militia burned Autosee and Tallassee. War in 1813
1813.11.30 Prince Willem landed at The Hague. Netherlands
1813.12.6 Prince Willem began governing in Amsterdam. Netherlands
1813.12.11 Napoleon recognized Fernando VII. Spain
1813.12.11 Napoleon recognized Fernando VII in Spain. Bolivar
1813.12.17 Madison signed an Embargo Act. War in 1813
1813.12.19 British captured 358 soldiers at Fort Niagara. War in 1813
1813.12.23 Royalists defeated rebels led by Morelos. Mexico
1813.12.29 Swiss canceled agreement with Napoleon. France
1813.12.30 British burned Black Rock and Buffalo. War in 1813
1813-14 Venice suffered from famine. Northern Italy
1813-15 Alejandro Ramirez reformed Puerto Rico
1813-16 Viceroy Calleja defeated rebels in Mexico.  
1813-23 Lord Hastings governed British India. North India
1813-47 King Sahle Selassie ruled Shoa. Ethiopia
1814.1.2 Caracas assembly gave Bolivar supreme power.  
1814.1.6 Madison agreed to negotiate with British. War in 1814
1814.1.14 Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden.
1814.1 Constant published The Spirit of Conquest.
1814.1 Austria allied with King Joachim of Naples.
1814.1.15 Spain’s national congress met in Madrid.
1814.1 Nariño defeated royalists in Popayan.  New Granada
1814.1.29 Allies agreed to limit France’s borders. Britain
1814.1.31 Buenos Aires made Posadas Supreme Director. Argentine Revolution
1814.1-5 British troops besieged Antwerp. Britain
1814.2.1 Byron published The Corsair.
1814.2.8 Bolivar ordered Spanish prisoners shot. 
1814.2.16 Norwegian Assembly elected Kristian Frederik. Norway
1814.3.9 Four allies agreed on a plan to defeat France. Britain Prussia
1814.3.10 Allies defeated Napoleon’s army at Laon. France
1814.3 Denmark gave Jews equal rights.
1814.3 Fernando VII regained Spanish throne. Mexico
1814.3.25 Allies reached Paris. France Russia
1814.3.27 Jackson’s army defeated Red Stick Creeks. War in 1814
1814.3.29 Dutch notables approved a constitution. Willem
1814.3.30 Allies & Talleyrand organized a coup in Paris.France Prussia
1814.3.31 French army surrendered to Allies. France Prussia Russia
1814.4.2 France’s legislature deposed Napoleon.
1814.4.6 Napoleon abdicated to live on Elba. France
1814.4.10 Wellington’s army defeated French at Toulon.France
1814.4.10 Byron published his Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte.
1814.4.11 Allies signed treaty of Fontainebleau. France
1814.4.11 Marie-Louise began ruling Parma & Piacenza. Italy
1814.4.11 Napoleon’s abdication freed British forces. War in 1814
1814.4.14 United States ended the embargo. War in 1814
1814.4.24 Austria regained northern Italy in Mantua treaty.
1814.4.25 British Navy blockaded entire US coast. War in 1814
1814.5.3 Napoleon moved to Elba. France
1814.5.3 Louis XVIII arrived in Paris.
1814.5.3 Chileans made treaty accepting Fernando VII.
1814.5.4  Fernando VII abolished the 1812 Constitution. Spain
1814.5.11 Royalists defeated republicans and Nariño. New Granada
1814.5 Austen published Mansfield Park.
1814.5.17 Norway’s Assembly voted for independence. Sweden
1814.5.24 Pope Pius VII returned to Rome. Southern Italy
1814.5.30 Allies agreed on French cessions. Britain Prussians Austria Portugal
1814.5.30 British restored captured colonies to France. West Indies
1814.6.4 King Louis XVIII offered France a Charter. France
1814.6 France dismissed 300,000 soldiers. Louis XVIII
1814 Dutch abolished the slave trade. Sierra Leone
1814 Ranjit Singh’s Kashmir expedition failed. Sikhs
1814 British made a treaty with Persia.
1814 Rammohun Roy began a friendship society.
1814 Redfern reformed health conditions on ships. Australia
1814 New South Wales began 15 elementary schools. Australia
1814 Kurozumi founded the sun goddess sect. Japan
1814 Görres founded the Rheinische MerkurPrussia
1814 Italian Kingdom had 7 million people. Northern Italy
1814 Naples had an army of 80,000 men. Southern Italy
1814 Noah Worcester wrote a book on war customs. Peace
1814.7.5 US Army recaptured Fort Erie. War in 1814
1814.7.6 US-British peace conference met at Ghent. War in 1814
1814.7 Scott published his novel Waverley.
1814.7 Scott published the works of Jonathan Swift.
1814.7 Denmark enacted schools for all children.
1814.7.16 Royalists led by Boves regained Caracas. Bolivar
1814.7.25 US Army and British both lost at Lundy’s Lane. War in 1814
1814.7.26 Sweden’s army invaded Norway.
1814.8.7 Pope Pius VII re-established the Jesuit Order.Southern Italy
1814.8.9 Creeks ceded territory at Fort Jackson.  War in 1814
1814.8.14 Norwegians & Swedes agreed on a truce.  Norway Sweden
1814.8.15 Cardinals outlawed secret societies. Southern Italy
1814.8 Creeks ceded 23 million acres to US.
1814.8.16 19 Swiss cantons accepted a Federal Confederation.
1814.8.17 Morales’ royalists defeated Bolivar at Aragua. 
1814.8.24 British burned the Capitol and the White House. War in 1814
1814.8.29 Alexandria surrendered to the British. War in 1814
1814.8.31 Prevost led invasion of US from Montreal.  War in 1814
1814.8-9 British besieged Fort Erie for 48 days. War in 1814 Canada
1814.9.4 Secretary of War Armstrong resigned. War in 1814
1814.9.15 Congress of Vienna began meeting. France
1814.9 Bolivar returned to Cartagena. 
1814.9 Battle of Plattsburg lasted six days. War in 1814
1814.9.13 British attacked Fort McHenry in Baltimore. War in 1814
1814.10.1 Willem decreed Flemish a language in Belgium.
1814.10.2 Royalists led by Osorio defeated Chileans. 
1814.10.11 Norway’s Kristian Frederik abdicated.
1814.10  Louis XVIII restored property to émigrés.
1814.11.1 Congress of Vienna opened. Metternich
1814.11.7 Jackson attacked Pensacola against orders. War in 1814
1814.11.10 Pumacahua led Incas who seized Arequipa. Peru
1814.11 Sweden’s Karl XIII became King of Norway.
1814.12.15 26 New England delegates met at Hartford. War in 1814
1814.12 Noah Worcester published a book against war. Madison
1814.12.18 Louis XVIII confiscated Napoleon’s property.
1814.12.24 Britain & United States made peace at Ghent.
1814.12.24 British & Americans signed treaty at Ghent. 1815 Canada
1814-17 British defeated Gurkhas and made a treaty. Nepal
1814-20 Munro reformed the Madras judicial system. British Expansion
1814-20 Nariño was a prisoner. Bolivar
1814-24 Mahmud Bey ruled Tunisia.
1814-24 Ferdinando III ruled Tuscany. Italy
1814-40 Francia governed ParaguayArgentine Revolution
1815.1.3 France allied with Britain and Austria. Louis XVIII
1815.1.8 Jackson’s army defeated British at New Orleans. 1815
1815.1-6 Sicily suppressed the carboneriaItaly
1815.2 Three powers partitioned Poland again. Austria
1815.2 Fernando VII sent 10,000 troops to Venezuela.
1815.2.16 US Senate ratified peace treaty with Britain.  1815
1815.2.26 Napoleon left Elba.
1815.3.13 Seven Allies proclaimed Napoleon an outlaw. Austria
1815.3 Weavers in Sarrat rebelled against Spaniards. Philippines
1815.3 British shot at escaping American prisoners. 1815
1815.3.19 Louis XVIII fled from Paris.
1815.3.20 Napoleon returned to Paris.
1815.3.25 Allies formed 7th Coalition against Napoleon.
1815.3.26 Napoleon ordered 8 new armies formed.
1815.4.7 Franz declared Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom. Austria Italy
1815.4.11 Vendée region rebelled against Napoleon.
1815.4 French voted for an Imperial Constitution. France
1815.4.18 Austria declared war on Naples.
1815.5.2-3 Austrian army beat Murat’s army at Tolentino.Southern Italy
1815.5.8 Bolivar resigned from Colombian Army. 
1815.5.12 Morillo with large Spanish army entered Caracas. Bolivar
1815.5.15 Allies declared war against France.
1815.5 Constant published Principles of Politics.
1815.5.22 Austrians took over Naples.
1815.5.26 Federation of the Midi formed in Toulouse. Louis XVIII
1815.5.30 Murat proclaimed a war of Italian liberation. Southern Italy
1815.6.9 Vienna Congress signed Final Act. Prussia Italy
1815.6.12 Students at Jena organized a union. Prussia
1815.6.12 Ferdinando IV allied Sicily with Austria. Italy
1815.6 Denmark sold Swedish Pomerania to Prussia. Britain
1815.6.16 Napoleon’s army defeated Allies at Ligny.
1815.6.18 Allies beat Napoleon’s army at Waterloo. Britain Willem
1815.6.22 Napoleon abdicated and fled.
1815.6.24 Insurrection broke out in Marseille. Louis XVIII
1815.6.28 Louis XVIII granted amnesty.
1815 Egypt began manufacturing guns.
1815 European treaty banned piracy and slavery. Tripoli
1815 United States declared war on Algeria.
1815 Bezuidenhout led Boer rebellion against British. South Africa
1815 British helped end Kandyan monarchy. Ceylon
1815 Tambora’s eruption affected global climate. Netherlands East Indies
1815 Kendall wrote The New Zealander’s First Book. New Zealand
1815 800 Christians were arrested in Sichuan. Jiajing Era
1815 Fernando VII ended Spain’s liberal constitution. Philippines
1815 Britain’s national debt was £860 million. Tories
1815 Byron wrote The Prisoner of Chillon.
1815 Bonn University was founded. Prussia
1815 British ended their occupation of Sicily. Italy
1815 Dodge wrote War Inconsistent with ReligionPeace
1815 Massachusetts Peace Society began.
1815.7.3 US & British signed commercial treaty in London. 1815
1815.7.6 Louis XVIII appointed Fouché Police Minister.
1815.7.9 Congress declared independence of Rio Plata. Argentine Revolution
1815.7.15 Napoleon surrendered to the British.
1815.7.24 British took Napoleon to England. Britain
1815.7.31 Norway’s Assembly ratified union with Sweden.
1815.7-9 Americans and Indians made treaties. 1815
1815.8.2 Allies designated Napoleon a British prisoner. Britain
1815.8   48,500 French voted; Ultraroyalists won. Louis XVIII
1815.8 New York formed first peace society. Madison
1815.8 Dodge began the New York Peace Society.
1815.8.17 Louis XVIII appointed 94 new Peers.
1815.8-12 Morillo and Morales besieged and took Cartagena. Bolivar
1815.9.6 Bolivar wrote his “Jamaica Letter.”  
1815.9.26 Russia & allies formed a Holy Alliance. Austria Willem
1815.10.13 Restored Naples executed Murat. Southern Italy
1815.11.9 France passed a sedition law. Louis XVIII
1815.11 United States of the Ionian Islands began. Greek
1815.11.20 France ceded territory in a peace treaty. Louis XVIII Britain Austria
1815.12.11 Indiana became the 18th state in the US. 1815
1815.12 Austen published Emma.
1815.12 Madison reported public debt of $120 million. 1815
1815.12 Massachusetts Peace Society began.  Madison
1815.12 Cuffe paid for 38 blacks to go to Sierra Leone. Madison
1815.12.22 Morelos was executed for heresy and treason. Mexico
1815-20 Henry Clay was Speaker of US House. Monroe Era Missouri
1815-21 Napoleon lived isolated at St. Helena.
1815-22 Lt. Col. Sola governed Alta California.

Copyright © 2015-18 2020-22 by Sanderson Beck

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
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World Chronology 1588-1714
World Chronology 1715-1815
World Chronology 1816-1830

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950

Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
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