BECK index

Chronology of Europe

To 1400

Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830
World Chronology to 1830

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(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)

c. 7300 Dogs domesticated in Britain. Europe
c. 7200 Sheep domesticated in Greece.
c. 7000 Barley, millet, and legumes cultivated in Thessaly. Greece
c. 7000 Greeks sailed to Melos for obsidian. Greece
c. 6000 Village farming spread in Greece.
c. 5000 Wheat farmed in Italian peninsula. Rome
c. 4500 Megalithic tombs built in Europe.
c. 4350 Horses domesticated in Ukraine. Europe
c. 4000 Plows and carts used in Europe.
c. 4000 Gold and copper used in Europe.
c. 3000 Stonehenge built in England. Europe
c. 2200 Palaces built at Knossos and Phaistos on Crete.
c. 2000 Aryan language used in Central Asia. Europe
c. 2000 Daggers and axes used in Europe.
1628 Volcanic eruption destroyed Thera in the Aegean. Crete
c. 1500 Bronze-age warriors fought in Europe.
c. 1400 Myceneans conquered Minoans.
c. 1400 Linear B used as early form of Greek writing. Crete
1380 Suppiluliumas became Hittite king.
c. 1300 Two-wheeled chariots used in Europe.
c. 1300 Legendary Theseus became king at Athens. Mycenae
c. 1200 200 years of Mycenaean dominance ended by raiders.
1183 End of Trojan war according to Eratosthenes. Mycenae
c. 1000 Ionians colonized Asia Minor. Dorians
c. 800 Iron tools improved in Europe.
c. 800 Homer composed Iliad and Odyssey.
776 First Greek Olympiad held. Aristocrats
753 Rome founded according to tradition.
c. 753-716 Legendary Romulus ruled Rome.
c. 750 Greeks began colonizing Italy and Sicily. Aristocrats
c. 750 Lycurgus made laws for Sparta.
735 Chalcidians led by Theocles founded Naxos. Aristocrats
734 Corinthians established Syracuse. Aristocrats
c. 730-710 Sparta conquered Messenia.
728 Leontini and Catana founded. Aristocrats
c. 716-672 Numa Pompilius ruled Rome.
c. 710 Lelantine war between Chalcis and Eretria. Aristocrats
c. 700 Theogony and Works and Days written by Hesiod.
c. 700 Corinthian pottery traded widely. Aristocrats
682 Athenian kingship reduced to annual election.
c. 675 Athens gained Attica by taking Eleusis.
c. 672-640 Tullus Hostilius ruled Rome.
c. 670 Archilochus wrote Greek poetry. Poets
c. 670 Pheidon of Argos standardized weights and measures. Tyrants
c. 670 Polydorus and Theopompus ruled Sparta with reforms.
669 Argos hoplites defeated Spartans at Hysiae.
c. 665 Spartan king Polydorus assassinated by Polemarchus.
c. 664 Corcyra defeated Corinth in first Greek naval battle. Tyrants
c. 660 Messenian Aristomenes led revolt against Sparta.
c. 655 Demaratus emigrated from Corinth to Italy. Aristocrats
c. 655-625 Cypselus ruled Corinth. Tyrants
c. 650 Orthagoras ruled Sicyon. Tyrants
c. 650 Poetry by Tyrtaeus inspired Spartans.
c. 650 Sparta crushed Messenian revolt.
c. 645 Eunomia written by Tyrtaeus. Poets
c. 640-616 Ancus Marcius ruled Rome.
632 Cylon seized Acropolis of Athens.
c. 630-580 Sappho wrote and taught on Lesbos. Poets
c. 625 Metal coins used in Greece. Aristocrats
c. 625-584 Periander ruled Corinth. Tyrants
621 Dracon codified strict Athenian laws.
c. 620 Aesop born a Phrygian slave.
c. 616-579 Tarquin ruled Rome.
c. 610 Theagenes ruled Megara. Tyrants
610-545 Anaximander of Miletus wrote on nature. Early Philosophy
594 Solon elected archon in Athens.
585 Thales predicted eclipse of the sun. Early Philosophy
c. 584-581 Psammetichus ruled Corinth. Tyrants
c. 580 Cleisthenes ruled Sicyon. Tyrants
c. 580 Thrasybulus ruled Miletus. Tyrants
c. 580 Alcaeus wrote poetry in Mytilene and Lydia. Poets
c. 579-535 Servius Tullius ruled Rome.
c. 570 Spartans defeated at Tegea.
c. 570-560 Pittacus ruled Mytilene. Early Philosophy
c. 570-485 Anacreon of Teos composed love and drinking songs. Poets
c. 570-475 Ionian philosopher Xenophanes wrote about God. Early Philosophy
565 Peisistratus led Athenian conquest of Salamis.
561 Peisistratus seized Acropolis in Athens.
559-556 Peisistratus ruled Athens.
555 Tyranny in Sicyon ended. Tyrants
c. 555 Pindarus surrendered Ephesus to Croesus. Tyrants
c. 550 Bias persuaded Croesus to make peace with islands. Aristocrats
c. 550 Theognis of Megara composed elegies. Poets
c. 550 Chilon elected ephor at Sparta.
c. 547 Sparta invaded Thyrea.
546-527 Peisistratus returned to rule Athens.
c. 540-480 Heraclitus of Ephesus. Early Philosophy
535-509 Tarquin Superbus ruled Rome.
534 Peisistratus sponsored dramatic contest with Thespis. Greek Theatre
532-522 Polycrates ruled Samos. Tyrants
c. 531-510 Pythagoras taught at Crotona.
c. 530 Sybaris and Crotona destroyed Siris. Tyrants
527-514 Hippias and Hipparchus ruled Athens.
525-456 Aeschylus wrote tragedies for Athens.
c. 525 Sparta attacked Samos.
c. 520-491 Cleomenes I and Demaratus co-ruled Sparta.
519 Athens took Plataea from Thebes.
519 Aeginetan fleet defeated pirates in Cydonia. Athens
514-510 Hippias ruled Athens harshly.
510 Spartan king Cleomenes expelled Hippias from Athens.
510 Crotona destroyed Sybaris. Tyrants
509 Brutus and Collatinus first consuls elected in Rome.
509-43 Rome governed as a republic.
508 Isagoras elected archon in Athens.
508 Cleomenes intervened in Athens.
508 Clusium king Porsena invaded Rome.
508-501 Cleisthenes reformed Athens.
506 Athenians defeated Chalcidean and Boeotian armies.
501 Roman senate appointed first dictator for six months.
500 Ionian cities revolted against Persia.
c. 500-100 Celts flourished in western Europe.
499 Aeschylus' first play presented at Athens.
496-406 Sophocles wrote tragedies for Athens.
494 Roman plebeians asserted rights, elected tribunes.
c. 493 Capture of Miletus by Phrynichus banned in Athens. Greek Theatre
491 Coriolanus and Volscians marched on Rome.
486 Spurius Cassius executed for proposing land reform in Rome.
482-474 Rome warred with Veii.
481-411 Protagoras of Abdera first sophist taught in Greece.
480-406 Euripides wrote tragedies for Athens.
479 Fabius clan killed at Cremera. Rome
478 Pausanias' Spartan expedition to Cyprus and Byzantium. Athenian Empire
478-467 Hieron ruled Syracuse. Athenian Empire
476 Delian league attacked Thrace. Athenian Empire
474 Etruscans attacked Cyme, defeated by Syracuse. Rome
472 The Persians by Aeschylus was produced by Pericles.
c. 471 Themistocles ostracized by Athenians.
471 Roman tribunes elected by tribal assembly.
470 Himera and Acragas became independent in Sicily. Athenian Empire
469 Socrates born in Athens.
467 Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus won first prize.
466 Greek ships invaded Caria. Athenian Empire
465 Athenians put down revolt in Thasos.
464 Athenians colonized Amphipolis, defeated by Thracians.
464 Helots revolted against Sparta. Athenian Empire
463 Athens sent a force led by Cimon to Messenia.
462 Pericles led democratic reforms in Athens.
461 Cimon ostracized by Athenians.
461 Athenian reformer Ephialtes murdered.
460 Athens allied with Argos and Megara.
c. 460-377 Hippocrates practiced medicine.
459 Athenians captured Memphis in Egypt.
458 Oresteia by Aeschylus won first prize. Agamemnon
c. 458 Cincinnatus appointed dictator in Rome.
457 Sparta defeated Athens at Tanagra.
457 Athenians defeated Boeotians at Oenophyta.
457 Athens completed its long walls.
456 Persians and Phoenicians drove Greeks out of Memphis. Athenian Empire
456 Athens conquered Aegina.
455 Athenian general Tolmides captured Chalcis.
454 Delian league treasury moved to Athens.
451 Cimon negotiated 5-year Athens-Sparta truce.
451 Argos made 30-year peace with Lacedaemonians. Athenian Empire
451 Periclean law limited Athenian citizenship.
451-450 Decemvirs ruled Rome, wrote 12 tables of law.
c. 450 On Nature and Purifications by Empedocles of Acragas.
c. 450 Celts invaded the British isles. Europe
450 Sicels led by Ducetius defeated by Syracuse. Athenian Empire
449 Cimon died besieging Citium on Cypress. Athenian Empire
449 Valerio-Horatian laws enshrined in Rome.
448-438 Acropolis and Periclean Athens rebuilt.
447 Boeotia regained independence from Athens.
446 Euboean revolt crushed by Athens.
446 Megara regained independence from Athens.
c. 446-366 Antisthenes studied and taught in Athens. Diogenes
445 Herodotus recited his History in Athens.
445 Pericles made 30-year peace with Sparta. Athenian Empire
445 Canuleius laws liberalized marriage; military tribunes in Rome.
c. 445-385 Aristophanes wrote comedies for Athens.
443 General Thucydides ostracized by Athenians.
443 Roman censors appointed.
442 Sophocles treasurer of Athenian naval league.
441 Miletus aided by Athens defeated by Samos.
441 Antigone produced by Sophocles.
440 Pericles and Sophocles elected generals in Samian War. Athenian Empire
439 Samos and Byzantium revolts defeated by Athens.
438 Alcestis produced by Euripides.
436 Epidamnus civil war drew in Corinth and Corcyra. Peloponnesian War
436-338 Isocrates wrote and taught rhetoric in Greece.
435 Corcyra destroyed 15 Corinthian ships. Peloponnesian War
433 Athenian defensive alliance with Corcyra. Peloponnesian War
433 Corinthians seized Anactorium, sold 800 Corcyraeans. Peloponnesian War
432 Potidaean revolt besieged by Athens. Peloponnesian War
432 Socrates rescued Alcibiades at Potidaea.
432 Pericles decree excluded Megara from trade. Peloponnesian War
432 Peloponnesian league declared war on Athens.
431 Thebes attacked Plataea; Sparta invaded Attica. Peloponnesian War
431 Medea produced by Euripides.
431-404 Peloponnesian war between Sparta and Athens.
c. 430 Oedipus the Tyrant produced by Sophocles.
430-429 Many Athenians including Pericles died of plague. Peloponnesian War
428 Athenian property taxed for war. Peloponnesian War
428 Hippolytus produced by Euripides.
c. 428 Xenophon and Plato born in Athens.
428-427 Mytilene revolt crushed by Athens. Peloponnesian War
427 Corcyra civil war erupted. Peloponnesian War
427-400 Agis II co-ruled Sparta. Peloponnesian War
425 The Acharnians produced by Aristophanes.
c. 425 Heracleidae, Andromache, and Hecuba produced by Euripides.
424 Athens appointed Cleon general, banished Thucydides. Peloponnesian War
424 Spartan general Brasidas won over Amphipolis. Peloponnesian War
424 Hermocrates speech kept Sicily out of war. Peloponnesian War
424 The Knights produced by Aristophanes.
423 Spartans and Athenians agreed on 1-year armistice. Peloponnesian War
423 The Clouds by Aristophanes satirized Socrates.
422 Athens lost Amphipolis; Cleon and Brasidas killed. Peloponnesian War
422 The Wasps by Aristophanes won first prize.
421 Nicias peace and Sparta-Athens defensive alliance. Peloponnesian War
421 Peace produced by Aristophanes.
420 Athens allied with Argos, Mantinea, and Elis. Peloponnesian War
420 Eleians excluded Sparta from Olympic games. Peloponnesian War
c. 420 The Suppliant Women produced by Euripides.
418 Athenians elected Nicias general. Peloponnesian War
418 Spartans defeated Athenians at Mantinea. Peloponnesian War
417 Hyperbolus last Athenian ostracized. Peloponnesian War
416 Athenians killed men of Melos, enslaved the rest. Peloponnesian War
416 Alcibiades won chariot race at Olympics. Peloponnesian War
416 Egesta in Sicily asked Athens for aid. Peloponnesian War
415 Accused Alcibiades led Athenian invasion of Sicily. Peloponnesian War
415 The Trojan Women produced by Euripides.
414 The Birds produced by Aristophanes.
414-413 Athenian siege of Syracuse failed; 7,000 enslaved. Peloponnesian War
413 Electra produced by Euripides.
412 Sparta-Persia treaty of Miletus. Peloponnesian War
412 Helen produced by Euripides.
412-411 Athenian allies Samos, Rhodes, Euboea revolted. Peloponnesian War
411 400 ruled Athens for 4 months; Cynossema naval win. Peloponnesian War
411 Lysistrata and The Thesmophoriazusae produced by Aristophanes.
410 Athenian democracy restored. Peloponnesian War
409 Athenians invaded Lydia. Peloponnesian War
409 Carthage navy destroyed Selinus and Himera in Sicily. Syracuse
409 Philoctetes by Sophocles won first prize.
409 Three plebeians elected quaestors in Rome.
408 Gorgias made speech at Olympia. Peloponnesian War
408 Orestes produced by Euripides.
408-395 Pausanias co-ruled Sparta.
407 Alcibiades returned to Athens. Peloponnesian War
406 Alcibiades retired to Chersonese. Peloponnesian War
406 Athenian generals executed for Arginusae naval loss. Peloponnesian War
406 Carthaginians besieged Acragas. Syracuse
406-396 Roman siege of Veii.
405 Spartan Lysander defeated Athenians at Aegospotami. Peloponnesian War
405 Dionysius made treaty with Himilco of Carthage.
405 Iphigenia in Aulis and The Bacchae produced by Euripides.
405 The Frogs by Aristophanes won first prize.
405-404 Blockade and surrender of Athens to Sparta. Peloponnesian War
405-367 Dionysius I ruled Syracuse.
404 Thirty led by Critias ruled Athens, executed 1500. Spartan Hegemony
404-403 Thrasybulus led revolution against the 30 in Athens. Spartan Hegemony
404-323 Diogenes founded Cynic school of philosophy.
403 Speech against Eratosthenes by Lysias. Spartan Hegemony
403 Revolt at Syracuse against Dionysius.
403-322 Athens ruled by democracy. Spartan Hegemony
402 Oedipus at Colonus produced by Sophocles.
402 Isocrates speech against Callimachus.
401 Cyrus and Greek officers killed by Persians at Cunaxa. Spartan Hegemony
401 Athenians attacked Eleusis. Spartan Hegemony
400 Dionysius conquered Catane and Naxos.
c. 400 Peloponnesian War written by Thucydides.
c. 400 Lysis written by Plato.
400-360 Agesilaus II co-ruled Sparta.
399 Spartan Dercylidas gained control of Troad.
399 Socrates tried and executed in Athens.
398 Sparta made truces with Pharnabazus and Tissaphernes.
396 Spartan king Agesilaus invaded Phrygia.
396 Roman soldiers paid by the state.
395-380 Agesipolis I co-ruled Sparta.
c. 395 Defense of Socrates by Plato.
394 Persian navy defeated Spartan navy off Cnidus.
394 Sparta defeated Athenian-Theban coalition at Corinth.
393 Conon helped Athenians rebuild their long walls. Spartan Hegemony
c. 393 Defense of Socrates by Xenophon.
392 Lysias gave patriotic funeral oration in Athens. Spartan Hegemony
392 Dionysius defeated Carthaginians led by Mago.
392 The Ecclesiazusae produced by Aristophanes.
391 Athenians rejected treaty, banished Andocides. Spartan Hegemony
c. 390 Memoirs of Socrates written by Xenophon.
c. 390 Charmides, Protagoras, Laches, Euthydemus written by Plato.
390 Gauls captured Rome, besieged citadel.
388 Athenians Thrasybulus and Conon died overseas. Spartan Hegemony
388 Lysias speech at Olympics criticized Greek wars. Spartan Hegemony
388 Plutus produced by Aristophanes.
387 Athenians supported revolt of Euagoras at Cyprus. Spartan Hegemony
387 Plato founded Academy in Athens.
385 Roman dictator Camillus defeated Volscians.
384 Aristotle born in Stagira.
384 Demosthenes born in Attica.
382 Spartans seized citadel at Thebes.
380 Spartans defeated at Olynthus; Agesipolis killed.
380 Isocrates wrote Panegyric oration.
c. 380 Meno, Gorgias, Phaedrus, Symposium, Phaedo by Plato.
380-371 Cleombrotus I co-ruled Sparta.
379 Syracuse defeated Carthaginians at Cabala; Mago killed.
378 Carthaginians beat Syracuse at Cronion, made treaty.
378 Spartans expelled from Theban citadel.
378 Spartan Sphodrias raided Piraeus.
378 Athens allied with Thebes against Sparta.
378-377 Spartan king Agesilaus invaded Boeotia.
377 Athens formed league with 70 cities, added tax. Spartan Hegemony
377-366 Tribunes Licinius and Sextius agitated for reform. Rome
376 Athenian Chabrias defeated Lacedaemonians at Naxos. Spartan Hegemony
374 Short peace between Athens and Sparta.
373 Athenians led by Iphicrates defeated Sparta at Corcyra.
373 Isocrates speech asked aid for Plataeans.
371 Athenians made peace with Sparta.
371 Thebes defeated Spartans at Leuctra.
371-287 Theophrastus studied with and succeeded Aristotle.
370 Jason of Pherae assassinated. Theban Hegemony
370-309 Cleomenes II co-ruled Sparta. Greece
370 Arcadian union built Megalopolis. Theban Hegemony
370 Boeotians led by Epaminondas invaded Lacedaemonia. Theban Hegemony
c. 370 Republic written by Plato.
368 Ptolemy murdered Alexander II of Macedonia. Theban Hegemony
368 Iphicrates intervened in Macedonia. Theban Hegemony
368 Pelopidas, who helped Thessaly form union, captured. Theban Hegemony
368 Dionysius I defeated by Carthaginians at Lilybaeum.
368 Theaetetus written by Plato.
368 Isocrates wrote to Dionysius I of Syracuse.
367 Athens executed envoy Timagoras. Theban Hegemony
367 Plato visited Dionysius II in Syracuse.
367 Licinian law limited land ownership by Romans.
367-357 Dionysius II ruled Syracuse.
367-347 Aristotle studied in Plato's Academy.
366 Thebans seized Oropus.
366 Athens allied with Arcadia. Theban Hegemony
366 Lycomedes killed by Mantinean exiles. Theban Hegemony
366 Isocrates wrote oration for Spartan Archidamus.
366 Sextius first plebeian elected consul in Rome.
366 Roman patricians created new office of praetor.
365 Macedonian regent Ptolemy assassinated. Theban Hegemony
365 Athens led by Timotheus conquered and settled Samos. Theban Hegemony
364 Pelopidas killed attacking Alexander at Pherae. Theban Hegemony
364 Olympic games disrupted by Arcadian invasion of Elis. Theban Hegemony
364 Demosthenes sued trustees of his estate.
364 Etruscan dance and music used in Rome during a plague.
362 Epaminondas killed in battle at Mantinea. Theban Hegemony
361 Corcyra oligarchs left Athenian league. Theban Hegemony
c. 360 Hellenica history of Greece 411-362 by Xenophon.
c. 360 Laws written by Plato.
360 Plato visited Syracuse again.
360-338 Archidamus co-ruled Sparta. Macedonian Expansion
c. 360-270 Pyrrho of Elis founded Skeptical school of philosophy.
359 Cotys of Thrace and Alexander of Pherae killed. Macedonian Expansion
359 Macedonian king Perdiccas killed.
359-336 Philip II ruled Macedonia.
358 Macedonian Philip defeated Paeonians and Illyrians.
358 Rome outlawed bribery and reduced interest rates.
357 Philip II's army captured Amphipolis.
357 Chios, Rhodes, and Cos seceded from Athenian league. Macedonian Expansion
357 Chian fleet killed Chabrias and blockaded Samos. Macedonian Expansion
357 Dion led revolution in Syracuse.
356 Caria, Rhodes, Chios, Cos, and Byzantium confederated. Macedonian Expansion
356 Philip's army captured Pydna and Potidaea.
356 Isocrates wrote letter to Spartan king Archidamus.
356 Phocians seized treasury of Delphi. Wars
356 Alexander III born in Macedonia.
356 Rutulus first plebeian appointed dictator of Rome.
355 Athenians acquitted Iphicrates and fined Timotheus. Wars
355 Chares supported Artabazus rebellion against Persia. Wars
355 Athens made peace with Chios, Rhodes, Cos, Byzantium. Wars
355 On the Peace written by Isocrates.
355 Demosthenes spoke against Leptines and Androtion.
c. 355 Ways and Means written by Xenophon.
354 Thebans defeated Phocians, killed Philomelus. Wars
354 Areopagiticus written by Isocrates.
354 Samnites allied with Rome.
354 Dion murdered in Syracuse.
354-353 Callippus ruled Syracuse. Sicily
354-350 Eubulus administered Theoric fund in Athens. Wars
353-351 Hipparinus ruled Syracuse. Sicily
353 Philip's Macedonian army captured Methone.
353 Phocians led by Onomarchus captured Coroneia. Wars
353 Demosthenes spoke against Aristocrates.
352 Macedonians defeated Phocian army.
351 First Philippic oration by Demosthenes.
351-346 Nysaeus ruled Syracuse. Sicily
349 Thirty-two cities of Chalcide submitted to Philip.
349 Three Olynthiac orations by Demosthenes.
348 Philip's forces captured Olynthus.
348 Rome renewed treaty with Carthage.
348 Roman taxes, interest, and conscription reduced.
347 Plato died in Athens.
347 Athenian embassy led by Philocrates to Philip.
347-339 Speusippus headed Academy in Athens. Aristotle
346 Athens made treaty with Macedonia.
346 Philip allied with Thebes defeated Phocis.
346 Isocrates wrote to Macedonian king Philip.
346-344 Dionysius II ruled Syracuse.
345 Aeschines prosecuted Timarchus.
344 Demosthenes made speeches in the Peloponnese.
344 Second Philippic oration by Demosthenes.
344 Timoleon defeated Hicetas at Hadranum.
343-338 Spartan king Archidamus II fought in Italy.
343 Philocrates and Aeschines impeached in Athens.
343 Antiphon executed for treason by Athens. Wars
343 Demosthenes and Aeschines spoke on the treaty.
343 Roman senate declared war on Samnites.
343-341 Athenians formed various alliances. Wars
342-341 Philip's Macedonian army invaded Thrace.
342-336 Aristotle tutored Alexander in Macedonia.
342-292 Menander wrote more than a hundred comedies.
341 Third Philippic and On the Chersonese by Demosthenes.
341-325 Rome observed truce with Samnites.
341-270 Epicurus founded Hedonist school of philosophy.
340 Amphictyonic Council conflicts. Wars
340 Philip appointed Alexander regent in Macedonia.
340, 338 Athenians crowned Demosthenes.
339 Amphictyons asked Philip to lead sacred war.
339 Timoleon's army defeated Carthaginians at Crimisus.
339-314 Xenocrates headed Academy in Athens.
338 Macedonian army captured Amphissa and Chaeronea.
338 Timoleon liberated Sicily, instituted democracy.
338-326 Lycurgus administered Athenian finances. Demosthenes
338-318 Sicily ruled by democracy.
337-333 Demosthenes administered Athenian Theoric fund.
336 Philip sent force to secure the Hellespont.
336 Philip murdered; Alexander made king of Macedonia.
336 Alexander elected general by the Greeks.
336 Aristotle founded Lyceum in Athens.
335 Macedonian army attacked Ionian coast. Alexander
335 Alexander invaded Thrace and Illyria.
335 Alexander's Macedonians destroyed Thebes.
335-323 Aristotle lectured on logic, metaphysics, nature.
335-323 Aristotle lectured on Ethics, Politics, and Rhetoric.
334-323 Alexander's Macedonian army conquered Persian empire.
334-263 Latins settled in 19 colonies in Italy.
334 Alexander's Macedonian army conquered Lydia.
334 Alexander of Epirus defeated Brettian league in Italy.
333 Alexander's Macedonian army conquered Cilicia.
332 Alexander's army conquered Phoenicia, Judea, and Egypt.
c. 332-260 Zeno founded Stoic school of philosophy.
331 Alexandria founded in Egypt. Alexander
331 Macedonian army defeated Persians at Gaugamela. Alexander
331 Revolt led by Spartan king Agis defeated at Megalopolis. Alexander
330 Alexander's Macedonian army destroyed Persepolis.
330 Alexander of Epirus killed in battle at Pandosia. Alexander
330 Aeschines spoke against Ctesiphon and Demosthenes.
330 Demosthenes defended himself in On the Crown.
329 Alexander's Macedonian army conquered Arachosia.
329 Romans defeated Privernum.
328 Demosthenes became Athenian wheat commissioner.
328-302 Second Roman-Samnite war.
327 Alexander's Macedonian army conquered Sogdiana.
326 Alexander's Invasion of India.
324 Alexander and 80 officers wed Persians.
324 Demosthenes convicted and exiled from Athens.
323 Hephaestion and Alexander died of possible poisoning.
323 Aristotle, accused of impiety, fled Athens.
323-283 Ptolemy I Soter ruled Egypt. Alexander's Successors
322 Aristotle died in Chalcis.
322 Demosthenes poisoned himself.
322 Antipater's Macedonians put down Athenian revolt. Alexander's Successors
322-307 Macedonian garrison in Athens. Alexander's Successors
321 Ptolemy's forces defeated and killed Perdiccas in Egypt. Alexander's Successors
321 20,000 Roman soldiers surrendered to Samnites.
321-301 Antigonus I ruled Asia Minor area. Alexander's Successors
c. 320-232 Cleanthes studied and taught Stoic philosophy.
319 Antipater died in Macedonia, succeeded by Cassander. Alexander's Successors
317-289 Agathocles ruled Syracuse. Alexander's Successors
316 Cassander executed Olympias, mother of Alexander. Alexander's Successors
316 Dyskolos by Menander won a prize at Athens.
315 Romans captured 7,000 Samnite soldiers at Luceria.
315-281 Lysimachus ruled Thrace area. Alexander's Successors
315-241 Arcesilaus founded Middle Academy in Athens. Pyrrho
314-260 Zeno taught Stoic philosophy in Athens.
312 Ptolemy I defeated Demetrius at Gaza. Alexander's Successors
312 Censor Appius Claudius started highway and aqueduct. Rome
312-280 Seleucus I ruled Mesopotamia area. Alexander's Successors
310 Agathocles' Syracusan army attacked Carthage. Alexander's Successors
310 Roman army defeated Etruscans.
c. 310-240 Callimachus wrote poetry in Alexandria.
c. 310-250 Theocritus wrote poetry in Alexandria and Syracuse.
309-265 Areus I co-ruled Sparta. Greece
307 Macedonian Demetrius liberated Athens. Alexander's Successors
306-270 Epicurus taught hedonistic philosophy in Athens.
306 Rome's treaty with Carthage renewed.
305 Treaty made by India's Chandragupta and Seleucus. Alexander's Successors
305 Macedonian Demetrius captured Rhodes. Alexander's Successors
302 Rome intervened for aristocratic class at Arretium.
301 Antigonus defeated and killed at Ipsus. Alexander's Successors
301 Ptolemy I claimed Syria. Alexander's Successors
301-281 Lysimachus ruled Anatolia area. Alexander's Successors
301-266 Mithridates I ruled Pontus. Alexander's Successors
c. 300 Euclid taught geometry, wrote Elements in Alexandria.
c. 300 Sacred History written by Euhemerus. Greece
298 Cassander died in Macedonia. Alexander's Successors
298 Agathocles' army captured Corcyra from Macedonia. Alexander's Successors
298-290 Third Roman-Samnite war.
297-279 Zipoetes I ruled Bithynia. Seleucid Empire
297-272 Pyrrhus I ruled Epirus. Alexander's Successors
296 Rome intervened for aristocratic class at Lucania.
c. 295-215 Apollonius of Rhodes wrote the Argonautica. Alexandrian Poetry
294 Demetrius of Phalerum organized museum in Alexandria.
294-288 Demetrius ruled Macedonia. Alexander's Successors
290 Aetolian League took over Delphi. Alexander's Successors
289-280 Hicetas ruled Syracuse. Alexander's Successors
288 Pyrrhus and Lysimachus conquered Macedonia. Alexander's Successors
287 Ptolemy I married Berenice. Egypt
287 Hortensius Roman dictator; plebiscites made law.
c. 286-206 Chrysippus studied and taught Stoic philosophy.
283 Gauls invaded Etruria; Romans destroyed Senones.
283-246 Ptolemy II Philadelphus ruled Egypt.
282 Tarentines destroyed Roman fleet.
281 Lysimachus defeated by Seleucus and killed in Lydia. Alexander's Successors
281 Seleucus assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus. Alexander's Successors
c. 280 Qin devastated Zhao, Wei and Han. Warring States
280 Ptolemy II's army took Damascus from Seleucids.
280-274 Pyrrhus' army invaded Italy and Sicily.
280-261 Antiochus I ruled Seleucid empire.
279 Gauls invaded Macedonia, killed Ceraunus.
279 Aetolian League defeated Gauls at Delphi. Greece
279-250 Nicomedes I ruled Bithynia. Seleucid Empire
277 Antigonus II defeated invading Gauls at Lysimacheia.
277-239 Antigonus Gonatas ruled Macedonia.
276 Gauls invaded Anatolia and settled Galatia. Seleucid Empire
275 Antiochus I defeated Galatians in Anatolia. Seleucid Empire
275 Ptolemy II Philadelphus married his sister Arsinoe.
274 Antiochus I invaded lower Syria. Seleucid Empire
273 Latin colony settled in Cosa. Italy
272 Pyrrhus invaded Peloponnesus and was killed. Greece
270-215 Hiero II ruled Syracuse. Rome
268 Latin colony settled in Ariminum. Italy
268 Roman silver coin denarius (day's wage) minted.
267-261 Chremonidean War between Athens and Macedonia.
264 Latin colony settled in Firnum. Italy
264 Rome intervened for aristocratic class at Volsinii.
264 First gladiatorial contests held in Rome.
264-241 First Punic war of Rome with Carthage.
263-241 Eumenes I ruled Pergamum. Seleucid Empire
261-246 Antiochus II ruled Seleucid empire.
260 Ephesians revolted against Egypt. Seleucid Empire
c. 260 Apollonius of Rhodes became librarian at Alexandria.
260 Roman navy defeated Carthaginians at Mylae.
259 Antigonus Gonatas defeated Egyptians off Cos. Macedonia
256 Roman navy captured 64 Carthaginian ships.
255 Ptolemy II ceded Ionia and Cilicia to Antiochus II.
255 Ariarathes III began ruling Cappadocia. Seleucid Empire
255 Spartan general Xanthippus defeated Rome's Regulus.
c. 254-184 Plautus produced comedies for Rome.
253 Roman fleet wrecked by storm off Palinurus.
252 Antiochus II married Ptolemy's daughter Berenice.
c. 250 Bactria led by Diodotus became independent. Seleucid Empire
250 Romans besieged Lilybaeum.
249 Sicyon joined Achaean League. Greece
249 Carthaginians captured 93 Roman ships at Drepana.
247-207 Devanampiyatissa ruled Ceylon. India
246-226 Seleucus II ruled Seleucid empire.
246-221 Ptolemy III Euergetes ruled Egypt.
245 Aratus elected general of Achaean League. Greece
245 Aetolian League defeated Boeotians. Greece
244-241 Agis IV co-ruled Sparta. Greece
243 Achaeans led by Aratus captured Corinth. Greece
242 Rebuilt Roman navy defeated Carthaginians.
c. 241 Ptolemy III signed peace treaty in Palestine.
241 Rome annexed Sicily.
241-238 Mercenary revolt crushed in Carthage.
241-235 Leonidas II ruled Sparta. Greece
241-219 Phoenician coast ruled by Ptolemies.
241-197 Attalus I ruled Pergamum. Seleucid Empire
c. 240 Livius Andronicus adapted Greek plays in Rome. Plautus
239-229 Demetrius II ruled Macedonia.
239-169 Quintius Ennius adapted Greek tragedies in Rome. Plautus
238 Seleucus II defeated Antiochus the Hawk near Ancyra. Seleucid Empire
238-225 Rome invaded and annexed Sardinia and Corsica.
238-229 Carthage's Hamilcar conquered Iberia (Spain).
235 Achaeans declared war on Lacedaemonians. Greece
235-222 Cleomenes III co-ruled Sparta. Greece
231 Federal republic established in Epirus. Greece
230 Seleucus II invaded Parthia. Seleucid Empire
230-228 Roman army intervened in Illyria.
230-182 Prusias I ruled Bithynia. Seleucid Empire
229 Argos joined Achaean League. Greece
228 Athens paid off Macedonian garrisons.
227 Achaeans defeated by Spartan forces at Elis. Greece
227 Cleomenes III reformed Sparta. Greece
227 Colossus of Rhodes destroyed in earthquake. Greece
226 Roman-Carthaginian treaty in Spain.
226-223 Seleucus III ruled Seleucid empire.
225 Roman army defeated invading Gauls.
224 Macedonia allied with Achaeans, Thessaly, Epirus, etc.
223-187 Antiochus III ruled Seleucid empire.
222 Macedonian alliance defeated Sparta at Sellasia.
222 Insubres Gauls submitted to Rome.
221 Hasdrubal assassinated and replaced by Hannibal. Carthage
221-179 Philip V ruled Macedonia.
221-204 Ptolemy IV Philopator ruled Egypt.
220-219 Antiochus III's army put down revolt in Babylon. Seleucid Empire
219 Roman navy defeated piratical Demetrius of Pharos.
219 Hannibal captured Saguntum in Spain. Carthage
219-217 Antiochus III's Seleucids invaded Phoenicia.
218 Lex Claudia barred Roman patricians from commerce.
218 Hannibal crossed Alps and invaded Italy. Carthage
218-201 Second Punic war of Rome with Carthage.
217 Egyptians defeated Antiochus III at Raphia. Seleucid Empire
217 Philip V made a treaty with Aetolians. Greece
217 Roman navy defeated Hasdrubal off the Ebro.
217 Hannibal defeated Roman army at Lake Trasimene.
216 Carthaginian army defeated Roman forces at Cannae.
c. 215 The Menaechmi by Plautus performed in Rome.
214 Antiochus III besieged Achaeus at Sardis. Seleucid Empire
214 Romans led by Fabius Maximus devastated Caudini.
213-211 Syracuse besieged by Marcellus and Romans.
213-129 Carneades headed New Academy in Athens. Pyrrho
212 Roman army up to 25 legions.
212-211 Capua starved into surrender by Romans.
212-204 Antiochus III invaded Parthia and Bactria. Seleucid Empire
211 Archimedes killed as Syracuse is captured by Romans.
210 12 Latin colonies refused to support Roman war.
209 Scipio's Roman army captured New Carthage in Spain.
208 Philopoemen's Achaeans defeated Sparta at Mantinea. Greece
207 Nabis instituted radical policies in Sparta. Greece
207 Rome's Scipio defeated Hasdrubal at Metaurus in Spain.
205 The Swaggering Soldier produced by Plautus.
205 Carthaginian army surrendered Spain at Gades.
204 Asian cult of mother goddess Cybele brought to Rome.
203 Rome's Scipio defeated Syphax's Numidians in Africa.
203-181 Ptolemy V Epiphanes ruled Egypt.
202 Rome's Scipio defeated Hannibal at Zama near Carthage.
201 Rome made treaty with Carthage and Masinissa.
200 Seleucid army defeated Egyptians at Panium.
200 Insubres destroyed Placentia. Rome
200 Rome declared war on Philip's Macedonia.
200 Stichus produced by Plautus.
199 Aetolians joined Roman alliance against Philip. Greece
198 Achaeans and Boeotians joined Roman alliance. Greece
198 Carthaginian captives and slaves revolt crushed. Rome
197 Roman army defeated Macedonian army in Thessaly.
197 Roman army defeated Insubres and Hamilcar.
197 Romans defeated Macedonian phalanx at Cynocephalae.
197 Rome made peace treaty with Macedonia's Philip V.
197-160 Eumenes II ruled Pergamum. Seleucid Empire
196 Flamininus proclaimed Greek liberty at Corinth. Rome
196 Slave rebellion in Etruria put down. Rome
195 Lex Oppia restricting women's luxuries repealed. Rome
195 Rome declared war on Spartan tyrant Nabis.
194 Romans withdrew garrisons from Greece.
192 Antiochus III's Seleucid army invaded Greece.
192-189 Rome at war with Seleucid Antiochus III.
191 Romans defeated Seleucids at Thermopylae and Corycus.
191 Pseudolus produced by Plautus.
190 Scipio's army defeated Seleucid army at Magnesia. Rome
189 Roman forces punished Galatia for raids.
188 Seleucids lost Anatolia in treaty of Apamea.
188 Achaean League led by Philopoemen captured Sparta. Greece
187 Scipio brothers charged with peculation in Rome.
187-175 Seleucus IV ruled Seleucid empire.
186 Bacchic cult suppressed in Rome.
186 Amphitryo produced by Plautus.
c. 185 Terence born a slave in Carthage.
184 Elder Cato elected censor in Rome.
183 Pontic king Pharnaces I invaded Galatia. Seleucid empire
182 Messenia revolted; Philopoemen poisoned. Greece
181 Philip's son Demetrius killed by poison. Greece
181-173 Cleopatra I ruled Egypt as regent.
c. 180 Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach written. Judea
179-167 Perseus ruled Macedonia.
177 Sempronius Gracchus defeated Sardinians. Rome
175-163 Antiochus IV Epiphanes ruled Seleucid empire.
173 Roman consul Popillius Laenas subjugated Statielli.
173-145 Ptolemy VI Philometor ruled Egypt and Cypress.
172 Menelaus appointed high priest in Jerusalem. Judea
172 Rome declared war on Macedonia.
171-168 Roman army invaded Greece.
c. 171-155 Eucratides I ruled Bactria. Seleucid Empire
171-138 Mithridates I ruled Parthia. Seleucid Empire
c. 170 Bactrian king Demetrius II conquered northwest India. Seleucid Empire
169 Seleucid army invaded Bactria.
169 Antiochus IV captured Ptolemy VI at Memphis. Seleucid Empire
169-116 Ptolemy VII ruled Cyrene.
168 Antiochus IV seized Jerusalem treasury. Seleucid Empire Judea
168 Rome's envoy Popillius forced Antiochus out of Egypt.
168 Romans defeated Macedonian army at Pydna.
167 Antiochus IV Epiphanes Hellenized Jerusalem temple. Seleucid Empire
167-150 1000 Achaeans including Polybius held in Rome. Greece
166 The Woman of Andros produced by Terence in Rome.
165 The Mother-In-Law produced by Terence.
164 Maccabees rededicated Jerusalem temple. Judea
c. 164 Daniel written in Judea.
163 The Self-Tormentor produced by Terence.
162-150 Demetrius I ruled Seleucid kingdom.
161 Alcimus appointed high priest in Jerusalem. Judea
161 The Eunuch and Phormio produced by Terence.
160 Judas killed in Maccabean revolt. Judea
160 The Brothers produced by Terence.
c. 160 On Agriculture written by the elder Cato. Rome
155 Athenian philosopher diplomats dismissed from. Rome
c. 155-130 Menander ruled Bactria. Seleucid Empire
154 Rome made Bithynia's Prusias II pay war damages.
154-138 Rome at war with Lusitanians in Spain.
152-142 Jonathan high priest in Jerusalem. Judea
151 Roman men resisted conscription. Rome
c. 150 Laws of Manu written.
c. 150 Panchatantra tales written down.
150 Achaean League attacked Sparta. Greece
150-146 Third Punic war of Rome with Carthage.
150-145 Balas ruled Syria. Seleucid Empire
c. 150-120 Mithridates V ruled Pontus. Seleucid Empire
149 Andriscus raised an army and ravaged Thessaly. Greece
149 Lex Calpurnia established extortion court in Rome.
147-145 Egypt's Ptolemy VI Philometor invaded Syria.
146 Carthage destroyed by Romans.
146 Romans defeated Achaean army, destroyed Corinth. Greece
145-140 Demetrius II ruled Syria. Seleucid Empire
145-116 Ptolemy VII (Euergetes II) ruled Egypt.
142-135 Simon Maccabeus ruled Judea.
140 Mithridates I captured Seleucid king Demetrius II.
140-129 Antiochus VII ruled Syria. Seleucid Empire
139 Astrologers and Jews expelled from Rome.
138-133 Attalus III ruled Pergamum. Rome
135-132 Slave revolt in Sicily led by Syrian Eunus. Rome
c. 135-50 Poseidonius taught philosophy at Rhodes. Stoics
133 Attalus III willed Pergamum to Rome.
133 Roman army destroyed Numantia in Spain.
133 Roman tribune Tiberius Gracchus proposed land reform.
133 Senators killed Tiberius Gracchus in Rome.
131-126 Ptolemy VII exiled from Egypt by Cleopatra II.
129 Roman province of Asia organized. Reforms
129-104 John Hyrcanus I ruled Judea.
125 Consul Fulvius Flaccus proposed Italian citizenship. Reforms
123 Gaius Gracchus elected tribune and proposed reforms.
123- 86 Mithridates II ruled Parthia. Seleucid Empire
121 Gaius Gracchus killed in Rome riots.
121 120,000 Gauls were killed by Roman army. Reforms
c. 120-63 Mithridates VI ruled Pontus. Rome
118 Numidian king Micipsa died; kingdom divided. Marius
116-108 Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII co-ruled Egypt.
114 Last religious human sacrifice in Rome. Marius
113-112 Numidian Jugurtha besieged Adherbal at Cirta. Marius
112 Rome declared war on Numidia's Jugurtha. Marius
108-101 Cleopatra III and Ptolemy IX co-ruled Egypt.
107 Marius elected consul and replaced Metellus in Africa.
106 Cicero and Pompey born in Italy.
106 Sulla captured Jugurtha in Africa.
105 Teutons and Cimbri defeated Romans at the Arausio. Marius
104 Mithridates VI occupied Galatia and Cappadocia. Marius
104 Jugurtha executed in Rome. Marius
104 Slaves revolted in Sicily. Marius
103-76 Alexander Janneus ruled Judea.
102 Marius' proletarian Roman army defeated Ambrones.
101-88 Ptolemy IX and Berenice co-ruled Egypt.
100 Marius served sixth consecutive Roman consulate.
100 Reforming tribune Saturninus killed in Rome. Marius
100 Julius Caesar born in Rome.
97 Scaevola established judicial tribunals in Asia. Marius
97 Rome banned human sacrifice. Marius
94-74 Nicomedes IV ruled Bithynia. Sulla
93-87 Pharisee revolt put down in Judea.
92 Rutilius Rufus convicted of extortion by Romans. Marius
91 Tribune Drusus assassinated in Rome. Marius
91-88 Rome war with Marsi and other Italians. Marius
89 Asiello murdered by creditors in Rome. Marius
88 Mithridates VI invaded Bithynia and Asia Minor. Marius
88 Sulla's Roman legions besieged and captured Athens.
88 Sulla marched on Rome; tribune Sulpicius killed.
88-81 Ptolemy VIII ruled Egypt.
87-84 Consul Cinna ruled Rome. Sulla
86 Flaccus' and Fimbria's soldiers deserted to Sulla.
86 Marius died of illness during 7th consulate.
84 Cinna killed by troops mutinying at Ancona. Sulla
83 Armenian king Tigranes I conquered Syria. Sulla
83 Sulla's forces returned to Italy, aided by Pompey.
83-66 Tigranes I ruled Armenia. Pompey
82 Sulla won Roman civil war, proscribed enemies.
81-79 Dictator Sulla reformed Rome's laws.
80 Cicero defended Sextus Roscius on murder charge.
80-51 Ptolemy XI king of Egypt.
79-78 Sulla retired and died of illness.
78 Roman Consul Lepidus proposed reforms. Pompey
78-75 Servilius attacked pirates in Lycia and Cilicia. Pompey
77 Catulus defeated Lepidus; Pompey sent to Spain.
76-67 Salome Alexandra ruled Judea.
75 Cicero served as quaestor in western Sicily.
74 Nicomedes IV bequeathed Bithynia to Rome. Pompey
74 Armenian Tigranes I invaded Cappadocia. Pompey
74 Mithridates VI invaded Bithynia; Rome sent Lucullus. Pompey
74 Rome annexed Cyrene. Pompey
73-71 Spartacus led slave revolt in Italy crushed by Crassus.
72 Perperna murdered Sertorius in Spain. Pompey
70 Consuls Crassus and Pompey reformed Sullan laws.
70 Cicero prosecuted Verres for governing Sicily corruptly.
70-19 Virgil wrote poetry in Italy.
69 Roman army led by Lucullus invaded Armenia. Pompey
69-63 Judea civil war between Hyrcanus II and Aristobolus II.
68-48 Xuan-di ruled China.
67 Pompey cleared pirates out of the Mediterranean.
67 Rome annexed Crete. Pompey
66 Lucullus replaced by Pompey in Mithridatic war.
66 Cicero praetor and defended Cluentius.
65 Julius Caesar aedile and Crassus censor in Rome.
63 Pompey made Judea a Roman province.
63 Julius Caesar elected pontifex maximus and praetor.
63 Cicero defended Rabirius on murder charge.
63 Cicero defended Murena on bribery charge.
63 Consul Cicero executed 5 Catiline conspirators.
62 Pompey organized Syria as a Roman province.
62 Catiline and Manlius defeated and killed fleeing Italy. Cicero
62 Pompey given the largest triumph in Rome.
61-60 Caesar became rich governing farther Spain.
60 Caesar elected consul allied with Pompey and Crassus.
59-56 Ptolemy XI exiled from Egypt.
59-50 Caesar' governed and conquered Gaul.
58-56 Rome sent Cato to annex Cypress.
58 Tribune Clodius passed law distributing free grain. Cicero
58 Caesar's army defeated Helvetii and Ariovistus.
58-57 Cicero exiled from Rome in Greece.
57 Caesar's army defeated Belgae and Nervii.
57-37 Orodes ruled Parthia. Crassus
56 Cicero opposed Caesar's land law.
56 Pompey, Crassus, and 120 senators met Caesar at Luca.
55 Second consulship of Pompey and Crassus.
55 Pompey sent Syrian governor Gabinius to occupy Egypt.
55 Caesar's army invaded Germans and Britain.
55 Cicero wrote on Oratory.
c. 55 Lucretius, who wrote poem On the Nature of Things, died.
54 Julia, Caesar's daughter and Pompey's wife, died.
c. 54 Catullus, who wrote erotic poetry, died at the age of 30.
53 Crassus took 10,000 talents from Jerusalem temple.
53 Crassus was killed invading Parthia.
52 Clodius attacked Milo and was killed. Cicero
52 Caesar's army defeated revolt led by Vercingetorix.
c. 51 Cicero wrote his Republic.
51-48 Ptolemy XII and Cleopatra VII co-ruled Egypt.
c. 50 Wisdom of Solomon written. Judea
50 Pompey mobilized his forces.
49 Pompey fled; Caesar made dictator in Rome.
49 Caesar's army won battle at Ilerda in Spain.
49 Curio's army destroyed by Juba's Numidians. Caesar
48 Caesar's army defeated Pompey's at Pharsalus.
48 Pompey killed in Egypt; Caesar fought Alexandria.
48-30 Cleopatra VII ruled Egypt.
47-44 Julius Caesar ruled Roman empire as dictator.
46 Caesar's army victorious at Thapsus in Africa.
c. 46 Laws by Cicero.
45 Julian calendar inaugurated by Caesar.
45 Caesar's army victorious at Munda in Spain.
45-43 Cicero wrote books on philosophy and ethics.
44.3.15 Caesar assassinated by Casca, Cassius, Brutus, et al.
44 Conspirators fled Rome; Octavian returned to Rome.
44 Mark Antony assigned to Gaul.
44-43 Cicero's "Philippics" criticized Antony.
43 Octavian defeated Antony at Mutina.
43 Rhodes devastated by Cassius. Brutus
43.8.19 Roman senate elected Octavian consul.
43.8.27 Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed triumvirate.
43 Proscriptions killed Cicero and many others. Antony
42 Antony defeated Cassius and Brutus at Philippi.
42-36 Sextus Pompey controlled Sicily. Octavian
41 Antony visited Cleopatra in Alexandria.
40 Antony and Octavian divided Roman empire.
40 Virgil wrote pastoral Eclogues.
38 Octavian divorced wife and married Livia in Rome.
37 Roman triumvirate renewed for five years. Octavian
37-4 Herod I ruled Judea.
36 Agrippa defeated Sextus Pompey in naval battle. Octavian
36 Antony retreated from Armenia.
34 Antony invaded Armenia, donated kingdoms.
32 Antony divorced Octavia; his will read in Rome.
31 Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra at Actium.
30 Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide at Alexandria.
30 Octavian made tribune for life in Rome.
30 Virgil wrote Georgics.
30 BC-14 CE Octavian Augustus ruled the Roman empire.
30 Herod had Hyrcanus executed.
30 Hillel came to Judea and began teaching.
29 Propertius published poems.
29 Herod had his wife Mariamme executed.
28 Bastarnae, Moesians and Thracians conquered by Rome.
27 Octavian given the name Augustus.
25 Romans sold Salassi tribe into slavery. Rome
24 Herod bought Egyptian grain to relieve famine.
23 Augustus consolidated power as imperator and tribune.
23 Roman army led by Petronius plundered Napata. Rome
23 Horace published Odes.
22 Marcus Primus tried for making war on Thrace. Rome
20 Rome made peace with the Parthians.
20 Herod began rebuilding temple at Jerusalem.
16 Rome annexed by force Noricum and Raetia.
c. 13 Horace published Art of Poetry.
12 Augustus became chief priest in Rome.
10 New city Caesarea completed in Judea.
10 Tiberius married Augustus' daughter Julia.
9 Drusus died returning from Germany. Rome
7 Herod executed Aristobolus and Alexander.
c. 6 Jesus born to Mary in Bethlehem.
4 King Herod executed Antipater and died.
4 BC-6 CE Archelaus ruled Judea for Rome.


2 Lucius Caesar died at Massilia. Rome
4 Augustus adopted Tiberius.
6 Dalmatian army led by Bato defeated Romans. Rome
8 Ovid wrote Metamorphoses and banished by Augustus.
9 Three Roman legions destroyed in Teutoburg forest. Rome
14-37 Tiberius ruled Roman empire.
15-17 Roman army led by Germanicus invaded Germany. Rome
15-26 Valerius Gratus governed Judea for Rome.
17 Ovid died in exile.
17-24 Numidian Tacfarinas revolted against Rome.
19 Germanicus died in Syria. Rome
19 Virgil wrote the Aeneid and died at Brindisi.
19 Jewish and Egyptian religions banned in Italy. Rome
21, 25 Rome crushed uprisings in Thrace.
22 Tiberius got Drusus tribunician power.
23 Drusus poisoned by Sejanus. Rome
23-79 Elder Pliny wrote Natural History. Rome
26 Tiberius retired from Rome to Capri.
26-36 Pontius Pilate governed Judea for Rome.
c. 27 John began baptizing people in Jordan River.
c. 27-30 Jesus taught in Israel.
28 Frisians revolted against Roman soldiers. Rome
c. 30 Jesus crucified by Romans at Jerusalem.
30-61 Peter, John, and James led new church in Jerusalem.
31 Sejanus consul and executed as traitor. Rome
32-38 Flaccus governed Egypt for Rome.
34-62 Poet Persius wrote Satires. Roman Literature
37-41 Caligula ruled Roman empire.
38 Historian Josephus born in Jerusalem. Judean and Roman Wars
38 Caligula's wife Drusilla died.
39 Caligula campaigned in Germany.
39-65 Lucan wrote epic poem Civil War. Roman Literature
c. 40-c. 120 Dio Chrysostom presented Discourses.
41 Seneca went into exile to Corsica.
41-44 Mauretanian revolt put down by Roman forces. Claudius
41-54 Claudius ruled Roman empire.
42 Revolt led by Annius Vinicianus quelled. Claudius
43 Claudius made Lycia a province.
43 Claudius invaded Britain with four legions.
43-47 Aulus Plautius governed Britain for Rome. Claudius
44 Herod Agrippa died of illness. Claudius
c. 45 Philo Judaeus died in Alexandria.
c. 46 Barnabas and Saul in Antioch called Christians. Paul
46 Thrace annexed as a Roman province. Claudius
c. 46-c. 120 Plutarch wrote biographies and essays.
47 Claudius revived office of censor.
47-52 Ostorius Scapula governed Britain for Rome. Claudius
48 Ventidius Cumanus procurator of Judea and Samaria. Claudius
48 Rome counted 5,984,072 citizens. Claudius
48 Empress Messalina married Silius; both executed. Claudius
48 Claudius married his niece Agrippina.
49 Claudius expelled Jews from Rome.
49-62 Seneca tutored and advised Nero.
50 Claudius adopted Nero.
c. 50-51 Paul preached in Corinth.
c. 50-c. 135 Epictetus taught Stoic philosophy.
51 War began between Armenia's Mithridates and Iberians. Claudius
52 Gallio began governing Achaea for Rome. Claudius
52-57 A. Didius governed Britain for Rome. Claudius
53 Taejo founded Koguryo state. Korea
53 Nero married Octavia, daughter of Claudius.
54-68 Nero ruled Roman empire.
57 Paul wrote letter to Romans.
57 Nero forbade killing in circus contests.
58 Suillius banished by Nero.
59 Romans burned Artaxata, drove Tiridates from Armenia. Nero
59 Suetonius Paulinus attacked Druids at Mona. Nero
c. 60 Mark wrote Good Message about Jesus.
61 James, brother of Jesus, killed by high priest Ananus.
61 Nero had a gymnasium and baths built.
62 Consul Caesennius Paetus surrendered to Parthians. Nero
63 Writer Petronius governed Bithynia for Rome. Roman Literature
64 Florus became Roman governor of Judea. Judean and Roman Wars
64 Josephus raised an army in Galilee. Judean and Roman Wars
64 Nero blamed Christians for fire in Rome.
64 Peter and Paul probably executed in Rome.
65 Plot to enthrone Calpurnius Piso squelched in Rome. Nero
65 Seneca ordered to commit suicide. Nero
66 Tiridates crowned king of Armenia by Nero in Rome.
66 Nero ordered his general Corbulo to commit suicide.
66 Nero ordered Petronius to commit suicide.
66-70 Judean revolt suppressed by Roman War.
67 Nero traveled in Greece to compete.
68 Tarraconensis governor Galba replaced Nero as emperor.
69.1.15 Otho proclaimed emperor as Galba was beheaded. Roman Wars
69 Vitellius replaced Otho as Roman emperor. Roman Wars
69 Vespasian replaced Vitellius as Roman emperor.
70 Eight Roman legions drove the Batavians back. Vespasian
71 Philosophers and astrologers expelled from Rome. Vespasian
71-74 Cerialis governed Britain for Rome. Vespasian
73 960 Jews committed suicide at Masada. Judean and Roman War
74-78 Frontinus governed Britain for Rome. Vespasian
78-84 Agricola governed Britain for Rome. Domitian
79-81 Titus ruled Roman empire.
81-96 Domitian ruled Roman empire.
82 Dio Chrysostom banished from Rome.
c. 85 Martial published his first book of Epigrams. Roman Literature
85-88 Dacian war led by Decebalus in Moesia. Domitian
89 German governor crushed revolt of Saturninus. Domitian
89 Domitian banished philosophers and astrologers.
92-101 Clement was third bishop of Rome. Christian Fathers
96 Poet Statius, author of epic Thebaid, died. Roman Literature
96-98 Nerva ruled the Roman empire.
c. 97 Quintilian published his Institutio Oratoria.
c. 97 Pythagorean philosopher Apollonius of Tyana died.
98-117 Trajan ruled the Roman empire.
101-06 Roman army fought two wars in Dacia. Trajan
107 Simeon, second bishop of Jerusalem, crucified. Christian Martyrs
c. 110-30 Juvenal published Sixteen Satires. Literature
110-72 Tatian studied with Justin and taught. Christian Fathers
112 Younger Pliny wrote to Trajan about Christians.
114 Trajan invaded Armenia, capturing Arsamosata.
c.115-c.85 Lucian wrote essays and comic dialogs.
115-16 Jewish rebellions against Roman imperial rule. Trajan
117-38 Hadrian ruled Roman empire.
118 Hadrian burned debt records.
c. 120 "Teaching of the Twelve Apostles" written. Christian Fathers
122 Hadrian visits Britain, orders wall built.
c. 130 "Disciple of apostles" wrote letter to Diognetus. Christian Fathers
c. 130-200 Galen studied and practiced medicine. Commodus
132-35 Rome defeated Jewish revolt led by Bar-Kochba. Hadrian
c. 135-225 Patriarch Judah compiled the Mishnah.
138-61 Antoninus Pius ruled Roman empire.
c. 150 Indonesian traders settled on Madagascar. Java
c. 150 Pastor of Hermas written and read in churches. Christian Fathers
c. 155 Smyrna bishop Polycarp killed in a stadium. Christian Martyrs
161-180 Marcus Aurelius ruled Roman empire.
162 Parthians invaded Armenia. Marcus Aurelius
163 Roman forces captured Artaxata in Armenia. Marcus Aurelius
165 Roman forces occupied Edessa and Nisibis. Marcus Aurelius
165 Justin and six other Christians executed in Rome. Christian Martyrs
165-67 Plague spread from Parthia to Rome. Marcus Aurelius
166 Roman army destroyed Seleucia and Ctesiphon. Marcus Aurelius
167 Marcomanni and Quadi crossed the Danube. Marcus Aurelius
168-75 Rome fought war against Marcomanni and Quadi. Marcus Aurelius
168-81 Theophilus was sixth bishop of Antioch. Christian Fathers
172 Egyptians revolted against Roman rule in Alexandria. Marcus Aurelius
174-80 Marcus Aurelius wrote Meditations.
175 Avidius Cassius rebelled against Rome in the east. Marcus Aurelius
177 Churches in Lyons and Vienne persecuted. Christian Martyrs
c. 177 Athenagoras sent defense of Christianity to emperor. Christian Fathers
178 Marcus Aurelius canceled 45 years of debt. Marcus Aurelius
c. 170 Montanist movement grew in Asia Minor. Irenaeus
177-90 Eleutherus was bishop of Rome.Irenaeus
177-202 Irenaeus was bishop in Lyons.
180 Commodus made peace with Marcomanni and Quadi.
180 Twelve Christians martyred at Carthage. Irenaeus
180-192 Commodus ruled the Roman empire.
182 Conspiracy of Pompeianus failed. Commodus
182 Commodus limited forced labor in Africa to six days.
185 Roman forces abandoned Antonine wall in Britain. Commodus
190 25 consuls helped govern Rome. Commodus
190 Famine leads to execution of prefect Cleandar. Commodus
190-202 Clement headed catechetical school in Alexandria.
193 Pertinax ruled the Roman empire for 86 days.
193-211 Septimius Severus ruled the Roman empire.
194 Niger defeated and killed in Syria. Severus
195 Severus conquered Parthians and Adiabenians.
197 Severus defeated Albinus in Gaul.
c. 197 Tertullian wrote a defense of Christianity.
198 Roman army plundered Ctesiphon. Severus
199-217 Zephyrinus was bishop of Rome. Tertullian
c. 200 Patriarch Judah unified oral traditions as the Mishnah.
c. 200 Longus wrote Daphnis and Chloe. Literature
202 Christians martyred for religious belief in Carthage. Tertullian
203-04 Severus visited Africa.
203-12 Eminent lawyer Papinian was praetorian prefect. Severus
204 Tertullian wrote "The Crown."
205-70 Plotinus founded Neo-Platonist philosophy.
208 Severus invaded Britain; 50,000 Romans killed.
211-17 Caracalla ruled the Roman empire. Severus

212 Roman citizenship extended to all free men. Severus
215-26 Artaban IV rules as the last Parthian king. Severus
216 Caracalla subdued the Osroene. Severus
216 Jews no longer exempt from Roman taxes. Severus
216-77 Mani founded Manichaean religion in Persia.
217 Callistus accused Hippolytus of heresy.
217-18 Macrinus succeeded assassinated Caracalla. Severus
217-22 Callistus was bishop of Rome. Hippolytus
218-22 Elagabalus ruled the Roman empire. Severus
219 Abba-Areka opened Sidra school. Mishnah
c. 220 Philostratus wrote biography of Apollonius of Tyana.
222-26 Maesa and Mamaea regents of Roman empire. Severus
222-30 Urban I was bishop of Rome. Hippolytus
222-35 Severus Alexander ruled the Roman empire.
223-62 Xi Kang taught transcendence. China
224 Artabanus V of Arsacid dynasty overthrown in Parthia. Severus
226 Persian Ardashir founded Sassanian dynasty. Severus
226-42 Ardashir ruled the Persian empire. Roman Wars
228 Praetorians murdered jurist prefect Ulpian. Severus
229 Origen was ordained a presbyter in Caesarea.
229 Dio Cassius retired to write history. Severus
230 Persians besieged Nisibis. Severus
230-35 Pontian was bishop of Rome. Hippolytus
231 Alexandrian bishop Demetrius excommunicated Origen.
231-33 Severus Alexander fought war against Persia.
234 Pannonian troops proclaimed Maxininus emperor. Severus
235 Severus Alexander and his mother killed.
235 Hippolytus and Pontian exiled to Sardinia in persecution.
236-37 Maxininus fought Sarmatians and Dacians. Roman Wars
238 Africa proconsul Gordian proclaimed emperor. Roman Wars
238 Roman Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus emperors. Roman Wars
238 Gregory went as a missionary to Neo-Caesarea. Origen
238-44 Gordian III and Prefect Timesitheus ruled Roman empire. Roman Wars
240 Rebellion led by Sabinianus in Carthage failed. Roman Wars
240 Mani proclaimed himself a prophet.
c. 240 Commodianus wrote poetic Christian discipline. Tertullian
c. 240 Alexander Romance written. Literature
242-72 Shapur I ruled Persian empire. Roman Wars
243 Romans drove the Persians out of Syria. Roman Wars
244-49 Philip ruled the Roman empire. Roman Wars
246 Cyprian converted to Christianity.
248 Rome celebrated its millennium. Roman Wars
249-51 Decius ruled Roman empire, persecuted Christians. Roman Wars
250 Bishop Fabius of Rome died a martyr. Hippolytus
250 Paul of Thebes retired into a distant cave. Antony
251 60 bishops at Rome excommunicated Novatian. Hippolytus
251-356 Antony lived as a hermit in Egypt.
c. 251 Cyprian wrote On the Unity of the Church.
251-53 Gallus ruled the Roman empire. Roman Wars
251 Bishops restored Cyprian's authority at Carthage.
253 Aemilianus proclaimed emperor and murdered. Roman Wars
253-59 Valerian and his son Gallienus ruled the Roman empire. Roman Wars
254 Influential theologian Origen died.
255 Persian king Shapur banished Mani.
256 Franks invaded most of Gaul. Roman Wars
257-59 Emperor Valerian persecuted Christians. Roman Wars
258 Cyprian suffered a martyr's death.
259 Persians defeated and captured Emperor Valerian. Roman Wars
259 Palmyran king Odenathus destroyed Nahardea. Roman Wars
259-68 Gallienus ruled the Roman empire. Roman Wars
261-303 Lu Ji wrote "Poetic Exposition on Literature."
262 Syrian and Roman forces defeated the Persians. Roman Wars
263 Dionysius described how Christians nursed the sick. Origen
263 Porphyry became a disciple of Plotinus.
268-70 Claudius ruled the Roman empire. Roman Wars
270 Quintillus proclaimed emperor and killed. Roman Wars
270-75 Aurelian ruled the Roman empire. Roman Wars
271 Aurelian destroyed Gothic invaders. Roman Wars
274 Aurellian drove Franks and Batavians north. Roman Wars
275 Roman Senate elected Tacitus emperor. Roman Wars
276-82 Probus ruled the Roman empire. Roman Wars
276-93 Vahram II ruled the Persian empire. Roman Wars
278 Probus drove invading Vandals from Illyricum. Roman Wars
279 Palestinian Talmud contributor Jochanan died.
280-300 Judah III was Jewish patriarch. Talmud
282 Persia lost Ctesiphon and Seleucia to the Romans. Roman Wars
282-83 Carus ruled the Roman empire. Roman Wars
283-84 Carinus ruled the Western Roman empire. Roman Wars
283-85 Numerian ruled the Eastern Roman empire. Roman Wars
284-305 Diocletian ruled the Roman empire.
287-330 Christian convert Tiridates III reigned over Armenia. Diocletian
289, 292 Diocletian defeated Sarmatians in the Danube.
291 Persian king Vahram II killed Manichaean leader Sisin.
291-371 Hilarion lived as a Christian hermit. Antony
293 Constantius took Gesoriacum away from Carausius. Diocletian
293-303 Narses ruled the Persian empire. Diocletian
293-305 Maximian ruled the Western Roman empire. Diocletian
295 Maximilian executed for refusing to serve in the army. Diocletian
295 Constantius regained Britain by defeating Allectus. Diocletian
296 Persians defeated the army of Galerius near Carrhae. Diocletian
296 Diocletian besieged Alexandria.
296 Diocletian persecuted Manichaeans in Egypt and Africa.
296 Wild inflation caused Diocletian to revise taxes.
296-303 Narsi ruled Persian empire. Diocletian
297 Galerius' army of 25,000 destroyed the army of Narses. Diocletian
298 Maximian suppressed an uprising of Moors. Diocletian
c. 300 Heliodorus wrote Ethiopian Story. Literature
301 Diocletian set maximum prices and wages.
303 Hormizd II executed Manichaean leader Innai.
303 Diocletian began persecuting Christians.
c. 303 Lactantius wrote Against the Gentiles.
305-06 Constantius ruled the Western Roman empire. Constantine
305-11 Galerius ruled the Eastern Roman empire. Constantine
306-24 Constantine ruled the Western Roman empire.
309-79 Shapur II ruled the Persian empire. Constantine
311 Antony ministered to martyrs in Alexandria.
311 Donatist controversy arose in Africa. Constantine
311-24 Licinius ruled Eastern Roman empire. Constantine
312 Constantine's army took the imperial palace at Milan.
313 Constantine and Licinius proclaimed religious freedom.
c. 319 Arius began teaching the oneness of God.
320 Chandra-gupta I inaugurated Gupta empire.
320 Talmud interpreter Abbahu died.
320 Licinius banned church meetings. Constantine
321 Constantine granted women right to control property.
321 Constantine granted toleration to Donatists.
321 Alexandrian council of 100 bishops condemned Arius.
323 Constantine's army defeated Licinius at Adrianople.
324-37 Constantine ruled the Roman empire.
325 255 bishops attended Christian council at Nicaea. Constantine
325 Pachomius founded a monastery on the Nile. Antony
c. 327 Lactantius, who wrote Divine Institutes, died.
328 Athanasius became bishop of Alexandria.
329 Hilarion established a Palestinian monastery. Antony
330 Rabba died in flight from Pumbedita. Talmud
330 Constantinople was officially dedicated. Constantine
331 Goths defeated Sarmatians and Vandals. Constantine
331-38 King Khosrov II reigned over Armenia. Constantine
335 Church council at Tyre deposed Athanasius.
336 Arius died in his eighties of cholera at Constantinople.
337-40 Constantine II ruled Gaul, Spain, and Britain. Constantine's Sons
337-40 Constans ruled Roman Europe and Africa. Constantine's Sons
337-50 Constantius ruled the Eastern Roman empire. Constantine's Sons
338 Constantine II recalled Athanasius from exile.
339 Constantius enacted laws against Jews. Constantine's Sons
339 Ambrose was born at Trier.
c. 341 Eustathians condemned by a council at Gangra. Constantine's Sons
340-50 Constans ruled the Western Roman empire. Constantine's Sons
343 Nicene doctrine was confirmed at Sardica council. Athanasius
c. 344 Army of Constantius defeated the Persians. Constantine's Sons
346 Banished Athanasius was restored again.
347 John Chrysostom was born at Antioch.
348 Christian monk Pachomius died. Antony
350 Armenian king Tigranes V was blinded by Shapur. Constantine's Sons
350-61 Constantius ruled the Roman empire. Constantine's Sons
350-413 Kumarajiva translated Buddhist texts into Chinese. China
351 Ursicinus made Jews supply the Roman army. Constantine's Sons
351-56 Basil studied at Athens, met Gregory of Nazianzus.
352-427 Rabbana Ashi compiled Babylonian Talmud.
354 Constantius made a peace treaty with the Alamanni. Constantine's Sons
354.11.13 Augustine was born at Tagaste.
355 Constantius made Julian Caesar and governor of Gaul.
355 Hilary of Poitiers was banished to Phrygia by Constantius. Constantine's Sons
355 Martin became a hermit at Milan.
356 Athanasius was forcibly replaced by Arian George.
357 Constantius burdened Jews with heavy taxes. Constantine's Sons
357 Jerusalem bishop Cyril was deposed by a local council. Constantine's Sons
357 Julian's army defeated the Alamanni.
359 Hillel II published the Jewish calendar. Talmud
360 Hilary returned to Gaul. Martin
360 Martin established the first monastery in Gaul.
361 Julian captured Vadomar by treachery.
361 Emperor Julian allowed all exiled prelates to return.
361-63 Julian ruled the Roman empire.
362 Julian ordered temples opened and public sacrifices.
362 Julian wrote Beard-hater at Antioch.
363-64 Jovian ruled the Roman empire. Valentinian
364 Hilary debated Arian bishop Auxentius at Milan. Martin
364-75 Valentinian I ruled the Western Roman empire.
364-78 Valens ruled the Eastern Roman empire.
365 Athanasius was banished a fifth time.
366-69 Valens fought rebelling Goths led by Athanaric.
367 Cyril was deposed again by Emperor Valens.
367 Epiphanius was elected bishop of Salamis on Cyprus. Valens
367-68 Sassanian king Shapur II defeated by Kushanas. Valens
368 Valentinian defeated the Alamanni at Solicinium.
370 John Chrysostom avoided being appointed bishop.
370-79 Basil was archbishop of Caesarea.
c. 371 Martin was elected bishop at Tours.
372 Basil appointed his brother Gregory bishop of Nyssa.
373 Athanasius died in Alexandria.
373 Jerome traveled to Antioch.
374 Valentinian made peace with Macrianus on the Rhine.
374 Ambrose was elected bishop of Milan.
374-80 John Chrysostom lived as a monk in the hills.
375-83 Gratian ruled the Western Roman empire.
378 Gratian's forces defeated the tribe Lentienses.
378 Goths defeated Valens at Adrianople.
378 Jerome was ordained a presbyter at Antioch.
378-92 Theodosius I ruled the Eastern Roman empire.
379 Theodosius allowed Cyril to return to his Jerusalem See.
380 Theodosius campaigned against the Goths.
381 Second ecumenical council met at Constantinople. Theodosius
381-83 Theodosius I enacted laws against Manichaeans.
382 Visigoth king Athanaric died. Theodosius
382 Symmachus urged restoration of the Victory statue. Theodosius
382-85 Jerome served as a secretary to Pope Damasus.
383 Maximus and his followers invaded Gaul. Theodosius
383-92 Valentinian II ruled Italy, Africa, and Illyricum. Theodosius
383-88 Shapur III ruled Persian empire. Theodosius
384 Valentinian II refused to restore Victory statue in Rome. Theodosius
384 Martin appealed to Emperor Maximus for Priscillian.
385 Gregory of Nyssa wrote The Great Catechism.
c. 385-461 Patrick converted Irish.
386 John Chrysostom was ordained a presbyter.
386 Ambrose was besieged in his church at Milan.
386-419 Jerome lived in a Bethlehem monastery.
386-87 Augustine wrote his Soliloquies.
387 Theodosius made a treaty with Persian king Shapur III.
387 Maximus invaded Italy. Theodosius
387 John Chrysostom preached Homilies on the Statues.
389 Manichaean property was confiscated in Rome. Theodosius
389 Paula founded three cloisters for women at Bethlehem. Jerome
390 Roman soldiers massacred 7,000 Thessalonicans. Theodosius
390 Ambrose made Theodosius do public penance.
391 Augustine was ordained.
391-92 Theodosius issued edicts against paganism.
392 Theodosius made a treaty with the Goths.
392 Frankish general Arbogast had Valentinian II murdered. Theodosius
392-95 Theodosius I ruled the Roman empire.
393 Last ancient Olympic games celebrated. Theodosius
393 Hellenist rhetorician Libanius died. Theodosius
394 Eugenius slain and Arbogast committed suicide. Theodosius
395 Huns invaded Armenia, Cappadocia, and northern Syria. Theodosius
395 Augustine completed On Free Choice of the Will.
395-408 Arcadius ruled the Eastern Roman empire.
395-423 Honorius reigned over Western Roman empire.
396 Visigoths led by Alaric invaded Greece. Roman Empire Invaded
397 Arcadius enacted a strict treason law. Roman Empire Invaded
397 Martin and Ambrose died.
397 Gildo stopped African grain shipments to Italy. Roman Empire Invaded
397 Augustine became bishop of Hippo.
397 Augustine wrote most of On Christian Doctrine.
c. 397 Claudian wrote the poem The Rape of Proserpine. Roman Empire Invaded
397-401 Augustine wrote his Confessions.
398 John Chrysostom became archbishop of Constantinople.
399 Eutropius became consul in the Eastern empire. Roman Empire Invaded
399 Ostrogoths led invaded Galatia, Pisidia, and Bithynia. Roman Empire Invaded
399-421 Yazdgard I ruled Persia. Roman Empire Invaded
400 Origen's ideas were condemned by a council. Roman Empire Invaded
400 Gainas marched his army into Constantinople. Roman Empire Invaded
c. 400 Palestinian Talmud was written down.
401 Vandals led by Radagaisus invaded Noricum and Raetia. Roman Empire Invaded
401 John Chrysostom deposed six bishops for simony.
401 Augustine wrote On Baptism.
401-07 Patrick was sold into slavery.
402 Stilicho's forces captured Alaric's camp at Pollentia. Roman Empire Invaded
402 Epiphanius went to Constantinople. Roman Empire Invaded
403 Alaric attacked Verona and was defeated by Stilicho. Roman Empire Invaded
403 Synod of the Oak banished John Chrysostom.
404 Arcadius banished John Chrysostom.
404 Empress Eudoxia died of a miscarriage. Roman Empire Invaded
405 Honorius closed the Colosseum. Roman Empire Invaded
405 Germans invaded northern Italy. Roman Empire Invaded
405 Prudentius published his Christian poetry.
406 King Gunderic led the Vandals into Spain. Roman Empire Invaded
406 Germans invaded Gaul. Roman Empire Invaded
406 Jerome completed his Latin translation of the Bible.
407 John Chrysostom died in Pontus.
407 Britain's emperor Marcus was replaced by Gratian. Roman Empire Invaded
407 Constantine replaced Gratian and crossed over to Gaul. Roman Empire Invaded
408 Anthemius re-organized the Egyptian grain supply. Roman Empire Invaded
408 Alaric's Visigoths besieged Rome. Roman Empire Invaded
408-14 Prefect of the East Anthemius governed for Theodosius. Roman Empire Invaded
408-50 Theodosius II reigned over the Eastern empire. Roman Empire Invaded
409 Honorius recognized Constantine as an emperor. Roman Empire Invaded
409 Diviners and sorcerers were banned in Italy. Roman Empire Invaded
410 Alaric's Visigoths plundered Rome. Alaric died. Roman Empire Invaded
410 Roman empire had six emperors. Roman Empire Invaded
c. 410 Saxons invaded Britain. Roman Empire Invaded
c. 410-85 Proclus systematized Neo-Platonist philosophy. Macrobius
411 Marcellinus held a conference on Donatism at Carthage. Roman Empire Invaded
412 King Athaulf led the Visigoths across the Alps. Roman Empire Invaded
412 Alexandria patriarch Theophilus was succeeded by Cyril. Roman Empire Invaded
412 Coelestius was condemned by bishops in Africa. Roman Empire Invaded
413 Anthemius had a wall erected around Constantinople. Roman Empire Invaded
413 Heraclian of Africa was defeated and beheaded. Roman Empire Invaded
413-26 Augustine wrote The City of God.
414 16-year-old Pulcheria became Augusta. Roman Empire Invaded
414 Aurelian succeeded Anthemius as Prefect of the East. Roman Empire Invaded
414-58 Drust, son of Erp, ruled the Picts. Roman Empire Invaded
415 Theodosius II revoked powers of Gamaliel VI. Roman Empire Invaded
415 Athaulf wasted Aquitane and burned Bordeaux. Roman Empire Invaded
415 Pelagius was accused by a Palestinian council. Roman Empire Invaded
415 Alexandria bishop Cyril gave Jewish property to a mob. Roman Empire Invaded
415 Philosopher Hypatia was killed by monks at Alexandria. Roman Empire Invaded
415 Cassian founded a nunnery and monastery at Marseilles. Cassian
416 Pelagius was well received in Palestine. Augustine
416 Honorius proclaimed a general amnesty for banditry. Roman Empire Invaded
416 Orosius communicated between Jerome and Augustine.
417 Constantius married Placidia. Roman Empire Invaded
418 Theodoric was elected Visigoth king. Roman Empire Invaded
418 Seven Gaul governors began meeting at Arles. Roman Empire Invaded
418 Orosius completed his History Against the Pagans.
419 Pelagian Julian was deposed and banished. Augustine
c. 420 Donatists led by Gaudentius fortified Timgad cathedral. Roman Empire Invaded
c. 420 Cassian wrote The Institutes.
421 Theodosius married Athenian-educated Eudocia. Roman Empire Invaded
421 Constantius was crowned Augustus and died. Roman Empire Invaded
421 Augustine wrote Against Julian.
421-38 Vahram V ruled Persia. Roman Empire Invaded
423 John was proclaimed emperor at Ravenna. Roman Empire Invaded
423-32 Celestine was bishop of Rome. Augustine
425 John was captured and publicly executed at Ravenna. Roman Empire Invaded
425 A new university was founded in Constantinople. Roman Empire Reduced
425-55 Valentinian III reigned over the western Roman empire.
c. 425-55 Vortigern ruled Britain. Roman Empire Reduced
427 King Theodoric led the Goths to besiege Arles. Roman Empire Reduced
428 Count Sigisvult's army seized Hippo and Carthage. Roman Empire Reduced
428 Vandal king Gunderic died. Roman Empire Reduced
428 Cassian completed Conferences.
428 Picts invaded Britain. Roman Empire Reduced
428-63 Laoghaire ruled Ireland. Patrick
428-77 Gaiseric ruled the Vandals. Roman Empire Reduced
429 Aetius replaced Felix as Rome's military leader. Roman Empire Reduced
429 80,000 Vandals crossed over to Mauretania. Roman Empire Reduced
429 Jewish taxes owed directly to imperial treasury. Roman Empire Reduced
429 Auxerre bishop Germanus traveled to Britain. Roman Empire Reduced
430 Arsaces died in Armenia, ending Arsacid dynasty. Roman Empire Reduced
430 Rome made peace with the Goths. Roman Empire Reduced
430 Gaiseric invaded Numidia and besieged Hippo. Roman Empire Reduced
430 Alexandria Bishop Cyril accused Nestorius of anathemas. Roman Empire Reduced
430.8.28 Augustine died during the siege of Hippo.
431 Council of Ephesus deposed Nestorius. Roman Empire Reduced
431 Pope Celestine sent Palladius and Patrick to Ireland.
432-40 Sixtus III was bishop of Rome. Roman Empire Reduced
433 Attila and Bleda succeeded Rugila as Hun rulers. Roman Empire Reduced
434 Aetius was made Patrician at Ravenna. Roman Empire Reduced
434 Vincent, a monk of Lerins, wrote A Commonitory. Leo
436 Aetius led Huns who killed 20,000 Burgundians. Roman Empire Reduced
437 Valentinian III married Licinia Eudoxia at Constantinople. Roman Empire Reduced
437 Ambrosius made war on Vortigern in Britain. Roman Empire Reduced
438 Theodosius II's commission issued legal code. Roman Empire Reduced
438-59 Yazdgard II ruled Persian empire. Roman Empire Reduced
439 Gaiseric's Vandals captured Carthage. Roman Empire Reduced
439 Bishops Secundinus, Auxilius and Iserninus joined Patrick.
440-61 Leo was bishop of Rome.
441 Huns besieged, captured and plundered Ratiaria. Roman Empire Reduced
442 Vandals made a treaty with Rome. Roman Empire Reduced
442 Alans under King Goar settled near Orleans. Roman Empire Reduced
c. 442 Saxons led by Hengest took control of Britain. Roman Empire Reduced
443 Theodosius II paid 6,000 pounds of gold to Attila. Roman Empire Reduced
443 Burgundians settled in Savoy. Roman Empire Reduced
443 Pope Leo banished Manichaeans and Pelagians from Italy.
444 Theodosius II put to death Paulinus. Roman Empire Reduced
444 Patrick founded Armagh bishopric.
c. 445 Salvian wrote On the Present Judgment.
c. 446 Roman troops departed from Britain. Roman Empire Reduced
447 Huns devastated Lower Moesia and Scythia. Roman Empire Reduced
448 Roman emperors ordered Porphyry's book burned. Roman Empire Reduced
448 Historian Priscus described the court of Attila. Roman Empire Reduced
448 Eutyches was condemned by a local synod. Rom Roman Empire Reducedan Empire Reduced
449 Eugenius was put to death for treason. Roman Empire Reduced
449 Suevian king Rechiar devastated Tarraconensis. Roman Empire Reduced
449 Pope Leo wrote his Tome on the heresy of Eutyches.
c. 450 Prosper wrote The Call of All Nations. Augustine
450-57 Marcian ruled the Eastern Roman empire.
451 Roman army led by Aetius defeated Attila's Huns. Roman Empire Reduced
451 4th ecumenical council at Chalcedon deposed Dioscorus. Leo
452 Pope Leo persuaded Attila not to attack Rome.
453 Visigothic king Thorismud was assassinated. Roman Empire Reduced
453 Attila died, and Germans revolted against the Huns. Roman Empire Reduced
453-466 Theodoric II ruled the Visigoths. Roman Empire Reduced
454 Emperor Valentinian III killed Aetius. Roman Empire Reduced
454 Rechiar restored Carthaginiensia to the empire. Roman Empire Reduced
455 Emperor Valentinian III was assassinated. Roman Empire Reduced
455 Emperor Maximus was killed by a Roman mob. Roman Empire Reduced
455 Pope Leo met Vandal king Gaiseric at Rome's gate.
455 Vandals plundered Rome. Roman Empire Reduced
455-56 Avitus ruled the Western Roman empire.
456 Jews were forbidden to celebrate Sabbath in Persia. Roman Empire Reduced
456 Ricimer's army defeated Vandals near Corsica. Roman Empire Reduced
457 Alexandria bishop Proterius was murdered. Roman Empire Reduced
457-61 Majorian ruled the Western Roman empire.
457-74 Leo ruled the Eastern Roman empire.
c. 458 Hengest and Saxons massacred Vortigern's elders. Roman Empire Reduced
459-84 Peroz ruled Persian empire. Roman Empire Reduced
460 Majorian's forces were defeated by the Vandal navy. Roman Empire Reduced
461-65 Ricimer ruled the West, while Severus was emperor. Roman Empire Reduced
463 Aegidius and Salian Franks defeated Frederic's Goths. Roman Empire Reduced
466-86 Euric ruled the Visigoths. Roman Empire Reduced
467-72 Anthemius ruled the Western Roman empire.
468 Basiliscus scattered the Vandal fleet near Sicily. Roman Empire Reduced
471 Ardaburius' rebellion failed at Constantinople. Roman Empire Reduced
473-80 Nepos claimed to rule the Western Roman empire.
474-91 Zeno ruled the Eastern Roman empire.
475 Zeno fled to Isauria while Basiliscus was emperor. Roman Empire Reduced
475-76 Romulus was last emperor of the West. Roman Empire Reduced
475 Nepos recognized Euric's conquests in Spain and Gaul. Roman Empire Reduced
475 Euric's legal code segregated Germans and Romans. Roman Empire Reduced
476 Basiliscus and his family were beheaded. Roman Empire Reduced
476-93 Odovacar ruled Italy as king. Theodoric
477 Saxon chief Aelle from Germany established Sussex.
477-84 Vandal king Huneric ruled North Africa. Zeno
479 Marcian tried to overthrow Emperor Zeno.
480 Exiled Western Emperor Nepos was murdered. Theodoric
481 Illus went to Antioch as Master of Soldiers. Zeno
481 Strabo's army was turned away from Constantinople. Zeno
481-511 Clovis ruled the Franks.
482 Talaia was elected bishop of Alexandria. Zeno
482 Severin, who founded monasteries in Noricum, died.
483 Roman empire's 120-year truce with Persia ended. Zeno
484 Zeno instigated Theodoric to murder Recitach.
484 Pope Felix excommunicated Acacius. Theodoric
484-88 Balash ruled Persia. Zeno
484-88 Emperor Zeno fought Marcian in civil war.
484-96 Vandal king Gunthamund ruled North Africa. Zeno
485 Saxons defeated the Britons at Meareredsburn.
486 Theodoric's Ostrogoths ravaged Thrace.
486-507 Visigoth king Alaric II ruled Spain. Theodoric
488-512 Aesc ruled Kent. Saxon Kingdoms
488-531 Kavadh ruled Persia. Anastasius
489 Theodoric's Ostrogoths invaded Italy.
c. 490 Mazdak taught socialist sharing in Persia. Zeno
490-526 Theodoric ruled Italy as king.
491 Saxons massacred the British garrison Anderida.
491-518 Anastasius ruled the Eastern Roman empire.
493 Rebellion of 100,000 in Isauria was defeated in Phrygia. Anastasius
493 Theodoric married the sister of Clovis, Audafleda.
495 Western Saxons led by Cerdic and Cynric landed in Britain.
495-534 Cerdic ruled Wessex. Saxon Kingdoms
496 Constantinople patriarch Euthemius was deposed. Anastasius
496 Clovis and 3,000 of his warriors became Christians.
496-523 Vandal king Thrasamund ruled North Africa. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
497 Epiphanius got Theodoric to reduce taxes on Liguria.
497 Anastasius recognized Theodoric as Governor of Italy.
498 Anastasius abolished the Chrysargyron tax.
498 Saracen invasion of Syria was defeated. Anastasius
498 Symmachus and Laurentius both elected pope in Rome. Theodoric
498 Clovis and Alaric II swore eternal friendship.
499 Kavadh took the throne back from his brother Zamasp. Anastasius
499 Anastasius abolished contests with wild beasts.
499 Babylonian Talmud completed by Rabina's death.
499, 502 Bulgarians invaded Roman empire. Anastasius
500 Theodoric's sister Amalfrida wed Vandal king Thrasamud.
c. 500 Julianus Pomerius wrote The Contemplative Life. Benedict
502 Kavadh invaded Armenia. Anastasius
502-42 Caesarius was archbishop of Arles. Benedict
505 Kavadh agreed to a truce with Celer. Anastasius
505 Gothic army held Sirmium. Anastasius
506 Alaric II promulgated Roman law for Spain. Anastasius
507 Theodoric settled Alamannic people in Pannonia.
508 Cynric's Saxons killed 5,000 Britons.
c. 510 Clovis proclaimed the Lex Salica.
511 Constantinople patriarch Macedonius abdicated. Anastasius
511-24 Chlodomer was king of Orleans. Frank Kingdom
511-26 Theodoric ruled Spain for his grandson Amalaric.
511-34 Theodoric I was king of Metz. Frank Kingdom
511-58 Childebert was king of Paris. Frank Kingdom
511-61 Chlotar was king of Soissons. Frank Kingdom
512 Monophysite Pisidian Severus became Antioch patriarch. Anastasius
512 Vitalian marched on Constantinople with 50,000 men. Anastasius
512-34 Octa ruled Kent. Saxon Kingdoms
513 Imperial army lost 60,000 men. Anastasius
513 Caesarius was arrested and released by Theodoric. Benedict
518 Justinian gained reconciliation with the western church.
518 Justinian expelled Monophysite bishops.
518-27 Justin reigned in Constantinople. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
519 Marinus was made Praetorian Prefect of the East. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
519 Cassiodorus wrote a History of the Goths. Ostrogoths
520 Consul Vitalian was murdered. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
520 Arthur raised siege of Britons on Mount Badon. Saxon Kingdoms
522 Two sons of Boethius were appointed Consuls of Rome.
523 Burgundian army was defeated, Sigismund captured. Frank Kingdom
523-24 Boethius wrote The Consolation of Philosophy in prison.
523-26 Cassiodorus served Theodoric as Master of Offices.
523-30 Vandal king Hilderic ruled North Africa. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
524 Justin executed many while Justinian was ill.
524 Boethius was executed by Theodoric.
524 Burgundians beheaded Chlodomer. Frank Kingdom
526 Antioch was devastated by an earthquake. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
526-34 Amalasuntha ruled Italy as regent for Athalaric. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
527-65 Justinian ruled the Roman empire.
528 Persian Xerxes led an army of 30,000 into Mesopotamia. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
528 Hun king Grod converted to Christianity and was killed. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
528 Franks took over Thuringian territory.
529 Belisarius was appointed Master of Soldiers in the East. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
529 Codex Justinianus laws were published. Roman Law
529 20,000 Samaritans were killed in a revolt. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
529 Bulgarians invaded Lower Moesia, Scythia, and Thrace. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
529 Justinian prohibited teaching philosophy at Athens.
529 Caesarius organized the second council of Orange. Benedict
530 25,000 Roman troops met a Persian army of 40,000. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
530 Montanists had been forbidden to assemble. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
530 Illyricum Master of Soldiers Mundus stopped Bulgarians. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
530 Gelimer deposed Hilderic in North Africa. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
c. 530 Benedict founded a monastery at Monte Cassino.
530-33 Thrace's general Chilbudius raided across the Danube. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
530-34 Gelimer ruled the Vandals in North Africa. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
531 John become praetorian prefect in Constantinople. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
531 Chlotar married captured Thuringian princess Radegund. Frank Kingdom
531-48 Theudis was king of Visigothic Spain. Frank Kingdom
531-79 Khusrau ruled the Persian empire. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
532 Khusrau made peace with the Roman empire. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
532 30,000 people were killed in a Constantinople revolt. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
533 Justinian's Digest of laws was published. Roman Law
533 Vandal governor of Sardinia revolted. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
533 Romans led by Belisarius defeated Vandals at Carthage. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
534 Chlotar and Childebert attacked Burgundy. Frank Kingdom
534-36 Theodahad ruled Italy. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
534-36 Solomon governed North Africa for Justinian's empire. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
534-48 Theudebert I was king of Metz. Frank Kingdom
534-60 Cynric ruled Wessex. Saxon Kingdoms
534-67 Hermenric ruled Kent. Saxon Kingdoms
535 Mundus defeated Goth forces and occupied Salona. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
535 Monophysite Anthimus elected Constantinople patriarch. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
536-39 Germanus governed North Africa. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
536 Imperial army of Belisarius took Rome from Goths. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
536-40 Witigis ruled Italy for Goths. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
537 Justinian appointed Paul patriarch of Alexandria.
537 Stotzas attacked Carthage but was defeated. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
537 Cassiodorus published twelve books of Variae. Boethius
537-38 Witigis besieged the army of Belisarius at Rome. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
539 Ostrogoth king Witigis appealed to Persian Khusrau. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
539 Theudebert's army of Franks invaded Italy.
539-44 Solomon governed North Africa. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
540 Khusrau led an army that attacked Sura. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
540 Bulgarians invaded Thessaly and northern Greece. Justinian's Imperial Wars to 540
c. 540 Cassiodorus founded the Vivarium monastery. Boethius
540-41 Visigoth Ildibad was king of Îtaly. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
541 John of Cappadocia was banished to Cyzicus. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
541 Basilius was the last Roman consul. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
541-52 Totila ruled Italy for the Goths. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
542 Persians demolished Callinicum. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
542 John of Ephesus evangelized eastern provinces. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
542 Peter Barsymes made silk an imperial monopoly. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
542-43 Bubonic plague spread from Egypt to Asia Minor. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
543 Funan king Rudravarman raided Dongking. Vietnam
543 Conon and Naples garrison surrendered to Totila. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
544 Persians besieged Edessa. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
544 Emperor Justinian enforced the old prices and wages.
544 Totila besieged Otranto and marched on Rome. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
544 Justinian transfered Belisarius from Persia to Italy.
545 Belisarius wrote to Justinian for men and money.
545 Areobindus and Sergius were defeated at Carthage. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
545-50 Justinian agreed to a truce with Persia.
546 Justinian promulgated the Three Chapters.
546 Totila's Goths captured Rome. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
546 Numidian Guntarith assassinated Areobindus at Carthage. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
547 Totila deserted Rome. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
547 John Troglita defeated Moors of Antalas in Africa. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
c. 547 Benedict died and left behind his Rule.
547-54 Pope Vigilius visited Constantinople. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
548-55 Theudebald was king of Metz. Frank Kingdom
549 Dagistheus was sent to Lazica with 7,000 Romans. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
549 Marauding Sclavenes ravaged Illyricum and Thrace. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
549 Belisarius provisioned Rome and Italy. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
549 Theudigisel, king of Visigothic Spain, was assassinated. Frank Kingdom
550 Germanus died of a sudden illness. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
550 Totila's Goths took Rome again. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
550 Procopius wrote his Secret History. Justinian
c. 550 Gildas wrote a history of Britain. Saxon Kingdoms
551 Justinian's general Bessas besieged Petra.
551 Beirut was destroyed by earthquake, tidal wave, and fire. Roman Law
551 Gothic navy was defeated by imperial fleet of John. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
551-56 Persian truce with Roman empire was renewed. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
552 Narses invaded Italy with an imperial army of 25,000. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
552 Emperor Justinian cancelled arrears of taxation.
552 Two monks smuggled silk worm eggs from China. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
552, 556 Saxons led by Cynric defeated Britons.
553 Fifth Ecumenical Council met at Constantinople. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
553-72 Mo-Kan ruled the western Turks. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
554 Narses' army defeated Goths at Capua. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
554 Justinian promulgated Pragmatic Sanction in Italy.
554 Agila, king of Visigothic Spain, was assassinated. Frank Kingdom
554-68 Visigoth king Athanagild ruled Spain from Toledo. Frank Civil Wars
555 Justinian helped Pelagius become Pope.
556-79 Martin of Braga was bishop at Dumium. Frank Civil Wars
558 Kotrigurs led by chief Zabergan invaded Thrace. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
558-61 Chlotar ruled over a united Francia. Frank Kingdom
558-62 Avars invaded the Kotrigurs and over-ran central Europe. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
559 Pagan books were publicly burned in Constantinople. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
559-70 Theodomir ruled the Suevi kingdom in northwest Spain. Frank Civil Wars
c. 560 Persians and western Turks destroyed the Ephthalites. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
561 Frank kingdom was divided by Lothair's four sons. Frank Civil Wars
561-67 King Charibert ruled at Paris.Frank Civil Wars
561-75 King Sigibert at Metz ruled Austrasia. Frank Civil Wars
561-84 King Chilperic I at Soissons ruled Neustria. Frank Civil Wars
561-92 King Guntram at Orleans ruled Burgundy. Frank Civil Wars
562 Khusrau and Justinian signed a 50-year treaty.
562 Chilperic attacked Rheims. Frank Civil Wars
563 John Rogathinus ordered Numidian Cutsina assassinated. Justinian's Imperial Wars after 540
565-78 Justin II reigned over the Roman empire. Roman Empire Disintegration
566 Senators Aetherius and Addaeus were executed. Roman Empire Disintegration
566 Sigibert married Visigothic princess Brunhild.
567-616 Aethelbert ruled Kent. Saxon Kingdoms
568 Turks offered Justin II an alliance. Roman Empire Disintegration
568 Lombard king Alboin invaded Italy with a large army. Roman Empire Disintegration
568 Wessex king Ceawlin defeated Kent king Aethelbert. Saxon Kingdoms
568-73 Liuwa and Leovigild ruled Spain. Frank Civil Wars
568-75 Lombards raided Gaul five times. Roman Empire Disintegration
569-71 Narses administered Rome.Roman Empire Disintegration
570 Avars defeated imperial army led by Tiberius. Roman Empire Disintegration
570 Martin of Braga wrote "Rules for an Honest Life." Frank Civil Wars
571 Armenians defeated 15,000 Persians. Roman Empire Disintegration
571, 577 Saxons defeated Britons.
572 Justin II appointed Gregory prefect of Rome.
572 Helmechis and Peredeo murdered Alboin. Frank Civil Wars
573 Chilperic's son Theudebert invaded Sigibert's territory. Frank Civil Wars
573 Roman army invaded Arzanene and besieged Nisibis. Roman Empire Disintegration
574 Persians captured Antioch and 292,000 prisoners. Roman Empire Disintegration
574 Lombard king Cleph was murdered. Roman Empire Disintegration
574 Leovigild quelled insurgencies in Toledo and Evora. Frank Civil Wars
574-78 Tiberius governed Roman empire as Caesar. Roman Empire Disintegration
575 Queen Fredegund sent two men to assassinate Sigibert. Frank Civil Wars
575 Uffa became king of the East Angles. Saxon Kingdoms
575-613 Brunhild ruled Austrasia as regent.
575-95 Childebert II was king of Austrasia. Frank Civil Wars
576 Roman forces were defeated in Armenia. Roman Empire Disintegration
577 Burgundy king Guntram's two sons died of dysentery. Frank Civil Wars
578-82 Tiberius ruled the Roman empire. Roman Empire Disintegration
579-90 Hormizd IV ruled the Persian empire. Roman Empire Disintegration
580 Fredegund's two little sons died in the plague. Frank Civil Wars
580 Arian bishops met at Toledo. Frank Civil Wars
582-602 Maurice ruled the Roman empire. Roman Empire Disintegration
583 7,000 were killed in battle at Bourges. Frank Civil Wars
583-85 Leovigild's army besieged Seville. Frank Civil Wars
584 Neustria king Chilperic was assassinated. Frank Civil Wars
584 Maurice sent Childebert 50,000 solidi to invade Lombards. Frank Civil Wars
584 Aethelbert married Bertha, daughter of Charibert. Saxon Kingdoms
584-90 Authari was king of the Lombards. Roman Empire Disintegration
584-613 Chlotar II was king of Neustria; Fredegund was regent. Frank Civil Wars
585 War caused famine in Gaul. Frank Civil Wars
585 Hermenegild was killed by Duke Sigebert in Tarragona. Frank Civil Wars
585, 589 Guntram's army invaded Septimania. Frank Civil Wars
586 Mercians led by Crida settled in central Britain. Saxon Kingdoms
586-603 Recared ruled Spain. Frank Civil Wars
587, 589 Breton invasions of Nantes thwarted by Guntram's army. Frank Civil Wars
588 King Aethelric formed Northumberland kingdom. Saxon Kingdoms
589 Monte Cassino monastery was destroyed by Lombards. Benedict
589 Authari married Bavarian princess Theodelinda. Frank Civil Wars
589 Recared made Spain a Catholic state at a Toledo council. Frank Civil Wars
590 Twenty Frank dukes crossed the Alps and ravaged Italy. Frank Civil Wars
590 Irish monk Columban arrived at Burgundy court. Frank Civil Wars
590-604 Gregory was Pope.
590-628 Khusrau II ruled the Persian empire. Roman Empire Disintegration
591 Pope Gregory wrote Pastoral Rules.
591-616 Agilulf was king of the Lombards. Roman Empire Disintegration
592 Roman imperial army invaded Slavs and Avars. Roman Empire Disintegration
592 Ariulf broke communication between Rome and Ravenna. Roman Empire Disintegration
593 Pope Gregory paid Lombards 500 pounds of gold.
593 Pope Gregory wrote his Dialogs.
593-611 Ceolric ruled Sussex. Saxon Kingdoms
593-616 Aethelfrith ruled Northumberland. Saxon Kingdoms
595-612 Theudebert II was king of Austrasia. Frank Civil Wars
595-613 Theodoric II was king of Burgundy. Frank Civil Wars
595-613 Brunhild was regent in Austrasia and Burgundy.
596 Pope Gregory sent Augustine and 40 monks to England.
597 Augustine came as a missionary to Aethelbert. Saxon Kingdoms
598-601 Lombards observed treaty with exarch Callinicus. Roman Empire Disintegration
599 Theudebert II banished his grandmother Brunhild.
600 Isidore succeeded Leander as bishop of Seville. Frank Civil Wars
602-10 Phocas reigned over disintegrating Roman empire. Roman Empire Disintegration
603 Columban refused to attend an episcopal synod. Frank Civil Wars
603 Aethelfrith defeated Scots' King Aidan at Degsastan. Saxon Kingdoms
603-10 Witteric ruled Spain. Frank Civil Wars
605 Persian army over-ran Syria, Palestine, and Phoenicia. Roman Empire Disintegration
605-16 Armistice observed between Romans and Lombards. Roman Empire Disintegration
606 Examinations based on Confucian classics instituted. Sui Dynasty
608 Persian army invaded Cappadocia.Roman Empire Disintegration
610 Heraclius overthrew Phocas in Constantinople. Roman Empire Disintegration
610 Columban and his Irish monks were expelled by Theodoric. Frank Civil Wars
610-41 Heraclius ruled the Byzantine empire.
611-42 Cynegils ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
612 Heraclius married his niece Martina.
612 Burgundy king Theodoric attacked Austrasia. Frank Civil Wars
613 1200 monks were killed at the battle of Chester. Saxon Kingdoms
614 Persians captured Jerusalem. Heraclius
615-24 Adaloald was the first Lombard king to be baptized.
616 Raedwald defeated Northumbria, killing Aethelfrith. Anglo-Saxons
616-33 Edwin ruled Northumbria. Anglo-Saxons
616-40 Eadbald ruled Kent. Anglo-Saxons
619 Persians invaded Egypt and conquered Alexandria. Heraclius
619 Isidore presided over the second council at Seville.
621-31 Suinthila ruled Spain.
622 Heraclius marched east.
626 Constantinople was attacked by Persians and Avars. Heraclius
627 Bishop Paulinus converted Edwin to Christianity. Anglo-Saxons
628 Khusrau II was deposed and murdered by his son. Heraclius
628 Penda won at Cirencester and annexed West Saxons. Anglo-Saxons
629-39 Dagobert I ruled Austrasia. Franks
629-56 Sigebert II reigned in Austrasia. Franks
633 Slavs attacked Thuringia. Franks
633 Toledo council decreed Canon 75. Spain
633-55 Penda ruled Mercia. Anglo-Saxons
634-42 Oswald reunited Northumbria and restored Christianity. Anglo-Saxons
635 Oswald granted Lindisfarne as Aidan's episcopal see. Anglo-Saxons
635 Wessex king Cynegils accepted Christianity. Anglo-Saxons
636 Toledo council restricted kings. Spain
636 Isidore, who wrote Etymologies, died.
636-43 Lombard king Rothari published edicts in Latin.
640 Thuringians became independent. Franks
640 Pippin, mayor of the palace in Austrasia, died. Franks
641-68 Constans II reigned over the Byzantine empire.
642 Syria's Muslim governor Mu'awiya invaded Armenia. Byzantine Wars
642 Mercia's Penda defeated and killed Northumbria's Oswald. Anglo-Saxons
642-53 Khindaswinth ruled Spain.
645 Maximus debated Pyrrhus in debate at Carthage.
646 North Africa synod condemned monotheletism. Byzantine Wars
648 Constans II promulgated his Type of Faith. Byzantine Wars
652 Rebellion led by Olympius ended at Sicily. Franks
652-59 Gertrude ruled a double monastery at Nivelles. Franks
653 Martin and Maximus were tried at Constantinople.
653-61 Lombard king Aripert I renounced Arianism.
653-72 Reccesvinth ruled Spain.
655-70 Oswiu ruled Northumbria. Anglo-Saxons
658-75 Wulfhere ruled Mercia. Anglo-Saxons
661-750 Umayyad Caliphate spread Islam.
662 Maximus the Confessor was tried and mutilated.
662-71 Beneventum duke Grimwald ruled the Lombards.
664 Synod of Whitby accepted Roman Catholic doctrine. Anglo-Saxons
664-73 Ecgberht ruled Kent. Anglo-Saxons
668-85 Constantine IV ruled the Byzantine empire.
670-85 Ecgfrith ruled Northumbria. Anglo-Saxons
671-86 Perctarit ruled the Lombards.
672 Bishops at Hertford agreed on canon laws. Anglo-Saxons
672-80 Wamba ruled Spain.
672-93 Buide mac Beli ruled the Picts. Anglo-Saxons
673-85 Hlothere ruled Kent. Anglo-Saxons
675-704 Aethelred ruled Mercia. Anglo-Saxons
676 Mercia's Aethelred invaded Kent. Anglo-Saxons
676-85 Centwine ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
678 Mercia's Aethelred regained Lindsey from Ecgfrith. Anglo-Saxons
680 Byzantine navy attacked the Bulgars.
681 Irish king Finnachta abolished Leinster's cow-tribute.
682 Ecgfrith sponsored a monastery at Jarrow. Anglo-Saxons
682 Centwine drove the Britons to the sea. Anglo-Saxons
685-95 Justinian II ruled the Byzantine empire.
686-700 Cuninebert ruled the Lombards.
686-705 Aldfrith ruled Northumbria. Anglo-Saxons
687-714 Pippin II governed Austrasia. Franks
688 Justinian II launched a campaign against the Slavs. Byzantine Wars
689 Mardaite marauders were moved to Anatolia. Byzantine Wars
689-726 Ine ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
690-725 Wihtred re-united and ruled Kent. Anglo-Saxons
691 Bishops at Constantinople forbade pagan festivals. Byzantine Wars
694 Ine and his father Cenred promulgated a code of laws. Anglo-Saxons
695 Wihtred issued a revised code of Kent laws. Anglo-Saxons
697 Iona abbot Adaman got women exempt from military. Anglo-Saxons
698-705 Tiberius II ruled the Byzantine empire.
700-10 Wittiza ruled Spain.
700-12 Aripert II ruled the Lombards.
705-11 Justinian II ruled the Byzantine empire.
709 Roderick usurped the Spanish crown. Spain
709 Wessex led by Ine defeated Welsh king Gerent. Anglo-Saxons
712-44 Liutprand ruled the Lombards.
716-57 Aethelbald ruled Mercia. Anglo-Saxons
717-41 Leo III ruled the Byzantine empire.
718-37 Pelayo ruled the Asturian kingdom. Franks
719 Pope Gregory II sent Boniface into Germany. Franks
721 Wessex's Ine killed Cynewulf. Anglo-Saxons
725 Ui Briuin controlled Connacht. Irish Legends
726 Leo III issued an edict against images.
726 Ine abdicated so that he could die at Rome. Anglo-Saxons
726-40 Aethelheard ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
730 Constantinople patriarch Germanus was deposed. Byzantine
731 Roman synod excommunicated iconoclasts. Byzantine Iconoclasm
732 Frank Charles Martel led victory over invading Muslims. Franks
732-66 York archbishop Egbert founded a library. Anglo-Saxons
737 Charles Martel drove Muslims out of Septimania. Franks
737-58 Eadbhert ruled Northumbria. Anglo-Saxons
739 Charles Martel drove Muslims out of Provence. Franks
739-57 Alfonso I ruled Asturia. Spain
740-56 Cuthred ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
741-75 Constantine V ruled the Byzantine empire.
742 Carloman convened a Germanic Council of priests. Franks
c. 743 John of Damascus wrote The Fount of Knowledge.
744 Boniface founded the monastery of Fulda in Hesse. Franks
744 Bishops of Seir and Lusk were murdered. Franks
744-49 Friuli duke Ratchis ruled the Lombards.
745-47 Bubonic plague devastated Constantinople. Byzantine
746 Constantine V invaded Syria. Byzantine
746 Carloman defeated the Alemanni at Canstatt. Franks
749-56 Aistulf ruled the Lombards.
c. 750 Old English epic Beowulf was composed.
751 Byzantines lost Ravenna to the Lombards.
751 Pippin was anointed king of the Franks by bishops. Franks
753, 758 Pippin fought the Saxons. Franks
754 Boniface was killed by marauding Frisians. Franks
754 Pope Stephen II anointed King Pippin. Franks
756 Bulgarians invaded Byzantine territory.
756 Eadberht and Picts captured Briton capital Alcluith. Anglo-Saxons
756-65 Byzantines fought annual campaigns against Bulgarians.
756-74 Desiderius was the last independent Lombard king.
757-68 Fruela I ruled in Leon. Spain
757-86 Cynewulf ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
757-96 Offa ruled Mercia. Anglo-Saxons
758 Slav uprisings in Thrace and Macedonia were put down. Byzantine
758-810 Northumbria suffered revolts and changing rulers. Anglo-Saxons
759 Franks took Narbonne back from the Muslims. Franks
760 Monasteries Clonmacnoise and Birr battled each other. Franks
760-68 Pippin led annual campaigns against Aquitane. Franks
768-814 Charlemagne ruled the Frank empire.
771 Charlemagne became sole Frank king.
772-805 Charlemagne's Franks waged war against the Saxons.
775-80 Leo IV ruled the Byzantine empire.
778 Charlemagne failed at Zaragoza but razed Pamplona.
779 Mercia's Offa conquered Wessex at Bensington. Anglo-Saxons
780 Tara king Donnchadh Midi defeated the Ui Chennselaig. Irish Legends
780-97 Constantine VI reigned over the Byzantine empire.
781 Pope Adrian crowned Pippin and Louis kings. Charlemagne
c. 781 Alcuin wrote The Bishops, Kings, and Saints of York.
782 Charlemagne appointed Saxon nobles as counts.
782-94 Alcuin traveled with Charlemagne's itinerant court.
784-806 Tarasius was Constantinople patriarch. Byzantine Iconoclasm
786 Thuringian counts rebelled. Charlemagne
786-802 Brihtric ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
787 Bavaria's Tassilo capitulated to the Franks. Charlemagne
787 Franks invaded southern Italy. Charlemagne
789, 800 Charlemagne ordered oaths of allegiance.
789-804 Willihad was bishop of Bremen. Charlemagne
791 Franks invaded the Avars in the Danube region. Charlemagne
791-842 Alfonso II ruled Leon. Spain
793 Vikings raided and slaughtered monks at Lindisfarne. Anglo-Saxons
c. 794 Alcuin wrote a book on rhetoric for Charlemagne.
794 Mercia's Offa had East Anglia's Aethelberht beheaded. Anglo-Saxons
794, 798 Franks deported Saxons. Charlemagne
795-835 Norsemen raided the coasts of Ireland. Anglo-Saxons
796 Franks seized Avar treasures in their Ring capital. Charlemagne
796 Offa had a long dyke built and invaded Dyfed. Anglo-Saxons
796-804 Alcuin was abbot of St. Martin's at Tours.
796-821 Cenwulf ruled Mercia. Anglo-Saxons
796-822 Al-Hakam I ruled Muslim Spain.
797-802 Irene ruled the Byzantine empire.
797, 807 Frank ambassadors went to Harun al-Rashid at Baghdad. Charlemagne
799 Pope Leo III was mutilated. Charlemagne
799 Alcuin debated Felix, who recanted on Adoptionism.
799-801 Franks blockaded Barcelona. Charlemagne
800.12.25 Charlemagne was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III.
802 Charlemagne promulgated Christianized laws.
802-11 Nicephorus I ruled the Byzantine empire.
802-39 Ecgberht ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
804 Franks deported 10,000 Saxon families. Charlemagne
804-05 Tara king Aed Oirnide attacked Leinster. Irish Legends
805 Avar khagan was baptized and pledged fealty. Charlemagne
805 Frank prince Charles invaded Bohemia. Charlemagne
807 Kent returned to being a Mercian province. Anglo-Saxons
808 Last date was recorded in Mayan Yaxchilan.
808-10 Franks made war against the Danes. Charlemagne
809 Bulgarians led by Krum destroyed Sardica. Byzantine
809 Ecgberht conquered Cornwall for Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
810-40 Eanred ruled Northumbria. Anglo-Saxons
812 Byzantines recognized Charlemagne as western emperor.
813-20 Leo V ruled the Byzantine empire.
814-31 Omurtag ruled the Bulgarian kingdom. Byzantine
814-40 Louis the Pious ruled the Frank Empire.
820-29 Michael II ruled the Byzantine empire.
822 Mercia's Ceolwulf conquered the kingdom of Powys. Anglo-Saxons
825 Ecgberht's Wessex army defeated Mercia at Ellendum. Anglo-Saxons
826 Danes were baptized and pledged fealty to the Franks. Frank Empire
827-40 Wiglaf regained and ruled Mercia. Anglo-Saxons
829 Anskar visited Swedish king Bjorn at Birka. Frank Empire
829-42 Theophilus ruled the Byzantine empire.
831 Anskar was consecrated archbishop at Hamburg. Frank Empire
833 Emperor Louis gave Pippin's kingdom to Charles. Frank Empire
834 Viking raids of Frisia became frequent.
836 Vikings sacked Clonmore and sold prisoners.
838 Dane king Horic claimed Dorestad. Vikings
839 Charles, Lothar, and Louis divided the Frank Empire.
839-56 Aethelwulf ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
841 Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated Lothar. Frank Empire
841 Vikings stayed the winter at Dublin.
842 Dane army killed many at Canterbury and London. Anglo-Saxons
842-67 Michael III reigned over the Byzantine empire.
843 Treaty of Verdun divided Frank Empire in three.
843-55 Lothar I ruled the Frank kingdom of Lotharingia. Frank Empire
843-75 Louis the German ruled the eastern Frank kingdom. Frank Empire
843-77 Charles the Bald ruled the western Frank kingdom. Frank Empire
845 Vikings raided Paris and Hamburg. Frank Empire
845 Charles the Bald paid Ragnar 7,000 pounds of silver. Frank Empire
845 Turgeis was captured by Meath king Mael Seachlainn. Irish Legends
c. 845 Charles the Bald made Erigena head of his palace school. Frank Empire
845-82 Rheims archbishop Hincmar led clergy. Frank Empire
846 Moravian Christian Rastislav overthrew pagan Mojmir. Frank Empire
847 Kings Lothar, Louis, and Charles issued Edict of Mersen. Franks
850-66 Ordoño ruled Leon. Spain
851 John Scotus Erigena challenged the views of monk Gottschalk.
851 Danes took over Dublin. Vikings
852 Norwegians attacked the Danish fleet at Carlingford. Vikings
852-89 Boris I Michael ruled Bulgaria.
853 Byzantine fleet burned Damietta in Egypt. Byzantine Empire
853-71 Norwegian Prince Olaf ruled Dublin. Vikings
855 Lothar's kingdom was divided for his three sons. Frank Empire
855-69 Lothar II ruled Lotharingia. Frank Empire
857 Salomon replaced Brittany duke Erispoe by assassination. Frank Empire
858 Gandersheim monastery was founded. Frank Empire
860 Russians attacked Constantinople. Byzantine Empire
c. 860 Alsatian monk Otfrid wrote a poetic life of Christ. Frank Empire
860-62 Pope Nicholas refused to grant Lothar a divorce. Frank Empire
860-65 Aethelberht ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
862 Judith eloped with Count Baldwin of Flanders. Frank Empire
862-66 John Scotus Erigena wrote On the Division of Nature.
862-79 Count Baldwin I ruled Flanders. Frank Empire
863 Cyril and Methodius began preaching to Slavs. Byzantine Empire
863 Young Charles died, and Louis II took Provence. Frank Empire
863 Pope Nicholas deposed two archbishops. Frank Empire
864 Bulgarian prince Boris was baptized Michael.
865 A large army of Danes landed in East Anglia. Anglo-Saxons
865-71 Aethelred ruled Wessex. Anglo-Saxons
866 Louis II conscripted an army. Frank Empire
866-911 Alfonso III ruled Castile. Spain
867 Constantinople synod excommunicated Pope Nicholas. Byzantine Empire
867-86 Basil I ruled the Byzantine empire.
868 Pope Adrian II approved a Slavic church. Frank Empire
870-73 Carloman was a robber baron. Frank Empire
871-99 Alfred ruled Wessex.
872 Byzantines attacked Paulicians in Asia Minor. Byzantine Empire
873-98 Barcelona count Wifred was independent of Franks. Spain
874-79 Ceolwulf II ruled Mercia for the Danes.
875 Pope John VIII crowned Charles the Bald emperor. Frank Empire
877 Danes from neighboring Deira attacked Ivar at Dublin.
878 Dane army led by Guthrum occupied Chippenham.
879-918 Count Baldwin II ruled Flanders. Frank Empire
881 Charles the Fat was crowned emperor. Frank Empire
881 Louis III defeated Vikings at Saucourt. Frank Empire
884, 892 Danes returned to attack Kent.
885-99 Alfred sponsored translation of books into English.
886 Alfred occupied London and made a treaty with Guthrum.
886-912 Leo VI ruled the Byzantine empire.
887 Charles the Fat abdicated. Frank Empire
889-93 Vladimir tried to return Bulgaria to paganism.
892 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was compiled. England
892-96 Alfred's forces fought the Danes.
892-914 Smbat ruled Armenia. Byzantine Empire
893 Dane army raided Hampshire and Berkshire.
893 Welsh bishop Asser wrote a biography of Alfred.
893-927 Symeon ruled Bulgaria.
898 Berengar I was made king of Italy.
898-922 Charles the Simple ruled western Francia. Franks
899-924 Edward ruled Wessex. England
900 Count Baldwin II had Rheims archbishop Fulk murdered. Franks
900-11 Louis the Child reigned in Germany.
902-14 Cearbhall, Irish king of Leinster, ruled Dublin. England
902-24 Berengar I was king of Italy.
904-11 Marozia was the mistress of Pope Sergius.
905-26 Sancho I ruled Navarre. Spain
909 Rheims archbishop Herveus convened a reform synod. Franks
909 Edward's army attacked Danes in Northumbria. England
910 Aquitane's William the Pious founded Cluny monastery. Franks
910 Danes invaded Mercia and were defeated.
911 Russia's Oleg made a trade treaty with Constantinople.
911 Normans led by Rolf settled in Normandy. Western Europe
911 Lotharingia led by Reginar went over to Charles. Franks
911-18 Conrad ruled Germany.
911-19 Aethelflaed, Edward's sister, ruled Mercia. England
912-61 'Abd al-Rahman III ruled from flourishing Cordoba. Spain
913-45 Igor ruled Russia.
914-24 Ordoño II ruled Leon and Gallicia. Spain
914-28 John X was Pope.
915 Italians defeated marauding Saracens near the Garigliano. Italy
915-28 Ashot II ruled Armenia. Byzantine Empire
918 Vikings invaded Brittany.
918 Vikings led by Raegnald attacked the Scots.
918-65 Count Arnulf ruled Flanders. Western Europe
919 Vikings took over York. Danes
919-36 Heinrich the Fowler ruled Germany.
920 Vikings led by Sihtric invaded Mercia with a Dublin army. Danes
920-44 Romanus ruled the Byzantine empire. Byzantine Expansion
922 Francia duke Robert was crowned king at Rheims. Franks
923-36 Raoul ruled France. Franks
924 Normans took Bessin and Maine. Western Europe
924-33 Heinrich's Germans and the Magyars observed a truce.
925-39 Athelstan ruled much of England.
926-41 Cluny abbot Odo secured free elections. Franks
926-47 Hugh of Arles was king of Italy.
927 Scotland and Strathclyde recognized English authority. England
927-69 Peter ruled Bulgaria. Germans
928 Guido and Marozia imprisoned and killed Pope John X.
928-32 Heinrich's German army fought the Slavic Wends.
928-51 Abas ruled Armenia. Byzantine Expansion
929-67 Boleslav ruled Bohemia. Germans
930 Raoul's Franks defeated the Normans at Limoges.
930 36 chieftains adopted Gulathing Law in Iceland. Vikings
931-50 Ramiro II ruled Leon. Spain
932 Agrarian revolt occurred in Bithynia. Byzantine Expansion
932-39 Doge Pietro Candiano II ruled Venice. Italy
932-54 Alberic II governed Rome. Italy
933 Venice boycotted Istria to get a peace treaty. Italy
933 Heinrich's forces defeated the Magyar invasion of Saxony. Germans
933 Normans took Cotentin and Avranchin. Western Europe
934 Sweden king Gnupa attacked Frisia. Vikings
934 Denmark king Gorm the Old accepted peace with Germany. Vikings
934 Athelstan invaded Scotland by land and sea. England
935 Germany's Heinrich reconciled Herbert and Raoul. Franks
935-1000 Hrotsvitha wrote six plays at Gandersheim abbey. Germans
936-50 Gorm the Old ruled at Jelling in Jutland. Vikings
936-54 Louis IV ruled France. Franks
936-73 Otto I ruled Germany.
937 Magyars crossed Franconia and invaded Saxony. Germans
937 Scots and Vikings invading England were defeated.
939 Vietnam became independent.
939 Germans made civil war against Otto.
939-46 Edmund ruled England.
940 Otto's army drove Frank king Louis out of Lotharingia. Franks
941 Russians raided the Bithynian coast.
942 William I of Normandy was murdered in Flanders. Western Europe
942-52 Malcolm ruled Scotland. England
942-59 Doge Pietro Candiano III ruled Venice. Italy
942-96 Richard I ruled Normandy. Franks
944 Venice boycotted Aquileia to get a peace treaty. Italy
944-59 Constantine VII ruled the Byzantine empire. Byzantine Expansion
945-62 Olga ruled Russia.
946 Constantine VII and Saif ad-Daula exchanged prisoners. Byzantine Expansion
946 Otto I helped Louis IV recapture Rheims. Franks
946-55 Eadred ruled England.
947 Constantine VII ordered land restored to peasants. Byzantine Expansion
947 Magyars led by Taxis ravaged Apulia. Germans
947-92 Count Borrell ruled Barcelona. Spain
948 Otto founded five bishoprics in Mainz and Bremen.
948, 952-54 Erik Bloodaxe was king in York. England
949 Magyars made peace and were baptized. Germans
950 Otto's army ended the rebellion of Bohemia's Boleslav. Germans
c950-61 Berengar II and his son Adalbert were co-kings of Italy.
951 Otto with his brothers Heinrich and Bruno invaded Italy.
952 Council of Augsburg forbade marriage to ecclesiastics. Germans
952-77 Ashot III ruled Armenia. Byzantine Expansion
953-55 Franconia, Swabia, Saxony, and Bavaria revolted. Germans
953-69 Mahendra IV ruled Lanka and restored monasteries. Hindu Kingdoms
954 Magyars pillaged Vermandois and Burgundy. Germans
954-86 Lothair ruled France. Franks
955 Otto's army slaughtered Obodrites. Germans
956 Otto's son Liutprand drove out Italy's kings.
957 Olga of Russia visited Constantinople.
959 Jain Somadeva wrote Sanskrit romance Yashastilaka. Literature of Medieval India
959-75 Edgar ruled England in relative peace.
959-76 Doge Pietro Candiano IV ruled Venice. Italy
960-1028 Gershom ben Jehuda taught the Talmud in Mainz. Germans
961 Otto sent Adalbert to Kiev as a missionary.
962 Otto was crowned Emperor at Rome. Italy
962 Otto proclaimed John XII's possession of papal lands. Italy
962-72 Sviatoslav ruled Russia.
963-69 Nicephorus Phocas ruled the Byzantine empire. Byzantine Expansion
964 Russians led by Sviatoslav subjugated the Viatichi.
965 Poland's Duke Mieszko married Bohemian Dubravka. Germans
965 Lothair invaded Flanders. Franks
965 Iceland was divided into quarters. Vikings
966-84 Ramiro III ruled Leon. Spain
967-81 Pandulf Ironhead was duke of Spoleto. Italy
968 Byzantines and Russians captured the Bulgarian capital.
969-76 John Tzimisces ruled the Byzantine empire. Byzantine Expansion
970 Bardas Sclerus defeated Russians at Arcadiopolis. Byzantine Expansion
970-94 Sancho II ruled Navarre. Spain
970-95 Count Garcia Fernandez ruled Castile. Spain
970-97 Geza ruled the Magyars. Germans
971 Russians retreated from Constantinople
971 John Tzimisces attacked the Bulgarian capital. Byzantine Expansion
972 Otto II married Byzantine princess Theaphano at Rome.
973 Harald Bluetooth paid homage to German emperor Otto I. Vikings
973 Otto I met various envoys at Quedlinburg.
973-83 Otto II ruled Germany.
974 Harald Bluetooth raided Holstein. Vikings
974 Otto II fought wars with Danes, Lotharingia and Bohemia.
976-1025 Basil II ruled the Byzantine empire. Byzantine Expansion
977 Otto II defeated the three Heinrichs.
978 Lothair's forces drove Otto II out of Aachen. Franks
978-1015 Aethelred ruled England.
980 Otto II's German army occupied Paris.
980 Lothar agreed to let Otto have Lotharingia. Franks
980-82 Vikings raided the English coastline.
980-1015 Vladimir ruled Russia.
982 Germans were defeated by Saracens near Cotrone.
982 Greenland was explored and named by Erik the Red. Vikings
982-97 Prague bishop Adalbert was killed converting Prussians. Germans
983 Svein Forkbeard led Danes in an attack on Slesvig. Vikings
983-91 Empress Theaphano was regent in Germany.
983-1002 Otto III was king of Germany.
985 Muslims led by al-Mansur burned Barcelona. Spain
c. 985 Svein Forkbeard overthrew Harald Bluetooth. Vikings
986 Erik the Red began a colony on Greenland. Vikings
987-96 Hugh Capet ruled France. Franks
987-1040 Count Fulk the Black ruled Anjou. Franks
988 Muslims led by al-Mansur destroyed Leon. Spain
988 Vladimir and Russians adopted Christianity.
989 Russians helped Basil II defeat Bardas Phocas. Byzantine Expansion
989 Church council at Charroux declared the Peace of God. Franks
c. 990 Svein Forkbeard attacked Norway. Vikings
990-1020 Gagik I ruled Armenia. Byzantine Expansion
994-1049 Odilo was abbot of Cluny. Franks
991 Basil II invaded Macedonia. Byzantine Expansion
991 King Aethelred paid Olaf's Vikings to leave England.
991 England and Normandy signed a treaty.
991 Aelfric published Catholic Homilies in English. England
991-95 Empress Adelaide was regent in Germany.
991-1008 Doge Peter Orseolo II ruled Venice. Italy
991-1018 English paid 228,500 pounds of silver to Vikings. England
992 Venice gained a commercial treaty with Byzantines. Italy
992-1018 Count Ramon Borrell ruled Barcelona. Spain
992-1025 Duke Boleslav I ruled Poland. Germans
994 Olaf Tryggvason and Svein Forkbeard attacked London. England
995-1000 Olaf Tryggvason ruled Norway. Vikings
996 Basil II issued a new law on land reform. Byzantine Expansion
996-99 Bruno as Gregory V was the first German Pope.
996-1026 Duke Richard II ruled Normandy. Western Europe
996-1031 Robert II ruled France. Franks
996-1037 Count Odo II ruled Blois. Franks
997-1002 Viking raiders harried the Wessex coast. England
997-1038 King Stephen ordered all Magyars to be baptized. Eastern Europe
999-1003 Gerbert as Sylvester II was the first French Pope.
999-1028 Alfonso V ruled Leon. Spain
1000 Venice conquered the Dalmatians. Italy
1000 Denmark and Sweden defeated Norway's Olaf. Vikings
1000 Thorgeir adopted Christianity in Iceland. Vikings
c. 1000 Leif Erikson explored the North American continent. Vikings
1000-35 Sancho Garcés III ruled Navarre. Spain
1001 Basil II launched a campaign to regain the Balkans. Byzantine Expansion
1001-31 William of Dijon ran the monastery at Féchamp. Franks
1002 Aethelred ordered Danish men in England killed.
1002-24 Heinrich II ruled Germany.
1003 Rebellion by Ernest and Bruno against Heinrich II failed. Germans
1003-04 Svein's fleet invaded England and pillaged Norwich.
1004 Heinrich II was crowned king of the Lombards at Pavia. Italy
1004-07 Thorvald Erikson explored northeastern America.
1005 Heinrich II suppressed an uprising of Frisians. Germans
1005 Germans were defeated near Posen.
1005 Heinrich II appointed ascetic Godehard abbot of Hersfeld. Germans
1005 Skapti Thoroddsson established Iceland's appeals court. Vikings
1006-88 'Abdullah Ansari taught Sufis in Herat.
1006 Heinrich II's German forces invaded Burgundy.
1007 Heinrich II's German army ravaged Flanders.
1007 Heinrich II established the see of Bamberg. Germans
1007-72 Peter Damian wrote about monastic reforms. Italy
1008-26 Doge Otto Orseolo ruled Venice. Italy
1009 Boleslav's Polish army invaded the march east of Saxony. Eastern Europe
1009-15 Danes conquered the English.
1010 Barcelona count Ramon Borrell sacked Cordoba. Spain
c. 1010 Thorfinn Karlsefni traded in North America. Vikings
1010-12 Poland's Boleslav gained Lausitz from Heinrich II. Eastern Europe
1012 Heinrich II expelled Jews from Mainz. Germans
1012 Simon ben Isaac bribed officials for Jews in Mainz. Germans
1013 Svein Forkbeard led the Danish conquest of England.
1014 Byzantines defeated the Macedonian army. Byzantine Expansion
1014 Heinrich II was crowned Emperor by Pope Benedict VIII.
1015 Saracens led by Mujahid from Spain conquered Sardinia.
1015-19 Heinrich's Germans waged war against Poland and Burgundy.
1016 Normans helped Salerno prince Guaimar fight Saracens. Italy
1016 Anjou count Fulk the Black defeated Blois count Odo II. Franks
1016-28 Olaf Haraldsson ruled Norway. Vikings
1016-35 Knut ruled England.
1017 Heinrich II restored Christian Mistislav over pagan Obodrites. Eastern Europe
1018 Boleslav's Polish forces occupied Kiev. Eastern Europe
1019 Heinrich II confirmed relatives of serfs were not free. Germans
1019-54 Yaroslav ruled Russia.
1020 Heinrich's German forces captured Ghent.
1028-35 Count Berenguer Ramon I ruled Barcelona. Spain
1019 Knut claimed the Danish throne. Danes
1022 Pavia synod denounced clerical marriage. Italy
1024-39 Conrad II ruled Germany.
1025 Poland's Mieszko II drove out his brother Otto Bezprim. Eastern Europe
1025 Conrad II's German army occupied Basle.
1025-39 Poland suffered civil wars. Eastern Europe
1026 Rebellion by Welf and Ernest against Conrad II failed. Germans
1027 Conrad was crowned Emperor by Pope John XIX.
1027 Knut went to Scandinavia and Rome. Vikings
1028 Knut attacked Norway. Vikings
1028-34 Romanus III ruled the Byzantine empire.
1030 Conrad II's German forces attacked Hungary. Eastern Europe
1030 Flemish knights swore to uphold the Peace of God. Western Europe
1030 Norway's Olaf was defeated and killed at Stiklestad. Vikings
1031-60 Henri I ruled France. Franks
1032 Conrad II inherited the kingdom of Burgundy. Germans
1032-43 Doge Domenico Flabanico reformed Venice. Italy
1032-76 Duke Robert I ruled Burgundy. Franks
1033 Aelfgifu and her son Svein retreated to southern Norway. Vikings
1034-41 Michael IV ruled the Byzantine empire.
1034-55 Duke Bretislav ruled Bohemia. Eastern Europe
1035-47 Magnus ruled Norway with the Gragas law code. Vikings
1035-65 Ferdinand I ruled Castile. Spain
1035-63 Ramiro I ruled Aragon. Spain
1035-76 Count Ramon Berenguer I ruled Barcelona. Spain
1036 German campaigns subdued the Lyutitzi. Eastern Europe
1037 Conrad besieged Milan and issued Constitutio de Feudis. Italy
1037 Blois Count Odo II was killed invading Lorraine. Franks
1039 Welsh king Gruffydd ap Llywelyn invaded Mercia. England
1039-56 Heinrich III ruled Germany.
1039-58 Casimir ruled Poland. Eastern Europe
1040 Peter Deljan was proclaimed czar in Belgrade. Byzantine Decline
1040 German army was defeated by Bretislav's Bohemians. Eastern Europe
1040 Macbeth attacked and killed Scot king Duncan. England
1040-57 Macbeth ruled Scotland. England
1040-60 Count Geoffrey Martel ruled Anjou. Franks
1040-1105 Solomon Yizchaki (Rashi) taught Talmud at Troyes. Franks
1041 Normans helped Lombards defeat the Greeks. Italy
1041 Heinrich III's German army captured Prague. Eastern Europe
1041 Synod at Montriond extended the Truce of God. Franks
1042 Civil war broke out in Milan between nobles and pataria. Italy
1042-55 Constantine IX ruled the Byzantine empire.
1042-66 Edward (the Confessor) ruled England.
1043 100,000 Russians invaded the Byzantine empire.
1043 Heinrich III's German army invaded Hungary. Eastern Europe
1043 Heinrich III proclaimed the Day of Pardon. Germans
1043 Danish forces killed 15,000 Wends in Jomsborg. Vikings
1043 Edward's mother Emma lost her lands for treason. England
1043 Leofric and Godgifu endowed Coventry monastery. England
1044 Heinrich III redivided Lorraine. Germans
1044 Heinrich III and Peter invaded Hungary and defeated Obo. Eastern Europe
1045 Constantine IX revived Constantinople's university. Byzantine Decline
1045-46 Gregory VI bought the papacy to reform it. Popes
1046 Godwin's son Swegn helped Gruffydd attack South Wales. England
1047 Leo Tornicius led a Macedonian revolt. Byzantine Decline
1047 Truce of God was proclaimed at Caen for Normandy. Western Europe
1047-66 Harald Hardrada ruled Norway. Vikings
1047-75 Svein Estridsson ruled Denmark. Vikings
1048 Patzinaks crossed the Danube. Byzantine Decline
1048 Barlaam and Ioasaph was translated into Latin.
1048 France's Henri and William of Normandy invaded Anjou. Franks
1049 Swegn murdered his Danish cousin, Earl Beorn. England
1049-54 Pope Leo IX criticized simony and clerical marriage.
1049-1109 Hugh was abbot of Cluny. Franks
1050 Edward made Robert of Jumiéges Canterbury archbishop. England
1051 Frank king Henri married princess Anne of Kiev. Franks
1051 England's Edward abolished the heregeld.
1051 Edward made a treaty with Normandy duke William. England
1051 Godwin and his sons Swegn and Tostig fled England.
1052 Godwin returned to claim his estates in England.
1053 Pope Leo IX marched against Normans and was captured.
1054 Eastern and Western churches split. Byzantine Decline
1054 Siward helped Malcolm defeat King Macbeth at Dunsinane. England
1054, 1058 France's Henri and Geoffrey of Anjou invaded Normandy. Franks
1055 Florence synod confirmed laws against simony. Italy
1055 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn conquered all of Wales. England
1056 Frank Henri I challenged German Heinrich III to combat. Germans
1056 Compostella council forbade priests contact with women. Spain
1056-65 Agnes, Anno, and Adalbert ruled Germany as regents.
1056-80 Isleif was Iceland's first bishop. Vikings
1056-1106 Heinrich IV was king of Germany.
1057 Godiva rode naked through Coventry's marketplace. England
1058-93 Malcolm III ruled Scotland. England
1058-74 Croat king Peter Cresimir expanded his realm. Byzantine Decline
1058-79 Boleslav II ruled Poland. Eastern Europe
1059 Lateran council established electoral power of cardinals. Popes
1059-61 Pope Nicholas II issued a decree against simony.
1059-67 Constantine X Ducas ruled the Byzantine empire.
1060 Guiscard's Normans took Taranto, Brindisi, and Reggio.
1060-1108 Philip I was king of France. Franks
1061 Scots raided Northumbria. England
1061-73 Pope Alexander II continued church reforms.
1061-92 Vratislav II ruled Bohemia. Eastern Europe
1062 Mercia earl Aelfgar was outlawed for treason and died. England
1063 Northumbrians invaded Gwynedd, killing Gruffydd. England
1065 Northumbrian rebels replaced Tostig with Morcar. England
1065-1109 Alfonso VI ruled Leon. Spain
1066.1.6 Harold was crowned king of England.
1066.5 Harold's brother Tostig was defeated by Earl Edwin. England
1066.9.20 Norway's Harald defeated Edwin and Morcar at Fulford. England
1066.9.25 Harold's army defeated Norwegians at Stamford Bridge. England
1066.9.28 William's Normans in about 500 ships landed at Pevensey. England
1066.10.14 William's Normans defeated King Harold's English army. England
1066.12.25 William was anointed king of England by York archbishop.
1066 Normans led by Richard ravaged the Papal State.
1066 Popular Milan preacher Ariald was murdered. Italy
1066-70 William's Normans conquered England.
1066-87 William ruled England.
1067-1109 Fulk Rechin ruled Anjou. Franks
1068-71 Guiscard's Normans besieged and took Bari.
1070-89 Lanfranc was archbishop of Canterbury. England
1071 Seljuks defeated the Byzantine army at Manzikert.
1071-78 Michael VII ruled the Byzantine empire.
1071-84 Doge Domenico Selvo ruled Venice. Italy
1071-93 Robert the Frisian ruled Flanders. Western Europe
1071-1127 Count Guillaume IX of Poitiers was the first troubadour. Romantic Love
1072 Heinrich IV opposed Atto as archbishop of Milan. Italy
1072 Naval blockade helped Normans capture Palermo.
1073 Pope Alexander excommunicated counselors of Heinrich IV.
1073 Guiscard defeated Abelard and Richard, taking Amalfi. Normans
1073-85 Hildebrand as Pope Gregory VII opposed Heinrich IV.
1074 Pope Gregory VII began enforcing bans on simony and marriage.
1074 Heinrich IV's German forces attacked Hungary. Eastern Europe
c. 1075 Adam of Bremen described Scandinavian countries. Vikings
1075 Rome synods forbade investiture by laity. Italy
1075 Pope Gregory VII proclaimed his "Papal Dictates."
1075 Pope Gregory VII was abducted but was rescued by Romans.
1075 Hereford earl Roger rebelled with Waltheof and Ralf. England
1075-88 Saxons frought civil war against Heinrich IV. Germans
1076 Worms council deposed Gregory VII for treason. Germans
1076 Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Heinrich IV.
1076 Ecclesiastical courts were established in England.
1077.1 Heinrich IV did penance at Canossa before Pope Gregory VII.
1077 Forchheim diet elected Swabia duke Rudolf king. Germans
1077 Cambrai insurrection led by Ramihrdus was crushed. Germans
1077-95 Ladislas ruled Hungary. Eastern Europe
1078-93 Vsevolod ruled Russia.
1079 Poland's Boleslav II killed Stanislaw and fled to Hungary. Eastern Europe
1079-1102 Wladyslaw I Herman ruled Poland. Eastern Europe
1079-1142 Peter Abelard taught theology in Paris.
1080 Desiderius got Guiscard to swear fealty to Pope Gregory.
1080 Heinrich IV was defeated in Thuringia by Rudolph. Germans
1080 Bourgos council banned marriage of priests. Franks
1080 Normandy duke Robert invaded Scotland. England
1081 Guiscard's Normans took Corfu and beseiged Dyrrhachium.
1081 Heinrich IV invaded Italy and was crowned emperor.
1081-1118 Alexius Comnenus ruled the Byzantine empire.
1082 Normans defeated Byzantine Alexius and took Dyrrhachium.
1082-1118 Gizur Isleifsson was Bishop of Iceland. Vikings
1083 Alexius' Byzantines defeated Normans near Larissa.
1083 Heinrich IV's German army occupied Rome. Italy
1084 Pope Clement III crowned Heinrich IV Emperor.
1084 Guiscard's army forced Heinrich IV to retreat from Rome. Italy
1084 Normans pillaged Rome and sold thousands into slavery.
c. 1085 Sefawa king Dunama b. Hummay converted to Islam. Africa
1085 Robert Guiscard died of typhoid. Normans
1085 Bishop Otto blocked peace efforts at Gerstungen. Germans
1085 Heinrich IV proclaimed the Peace of God. Germans
1085 Toledo was besieged and surrendered to Christians. Spain
1085-1111 Duke Roger Borsa ruled Apulia. Italy
1085 Normans captured Syracuse.
1086 Mt. Cassino abbot Desiderius was elected Pope Victor III.
1086 King William ordered the Domesday Survey in England.
1087-1100 William Rufus ruled England.
1087-1134 Robert Curthose ruled Normandy. Western Europe
1088 Ostia bishop Odo was elected Pope Urban II at Tarracina.
1088 The Cid attacked Valencia for Mostain. Spain
1088 Rebellion by Kent earl Odo and his brother Robert failed. England
1088-95 Welsh fought the Normans. England
1089-1125 David ruled Georgia. Eastern Europe
1090 William Rufus invaded eastern Normandy. Western Europe
1091 Alexius and Cumans defeated the Patzinaks. Byzantine Decline
1091 Normans expelled Saracens from Sicily.
1091 William and Robert defeated Henri and divided his lands. Western Europe
1091-1153 Bernard of Clairvaux developed the Cistercian monks.
1092 William II attacked Cumberland and Westmorland. England
1093 Conrad's revolt against his father Heinrich IV failed. Germans
1093 William II appointed Anselm archbishop of Canterbury. England
1093-1103 Magnus III Bareleg ruled Norway. Scandinavia
1093-1111 Count Robert II ruled Flanders.
1094 The Cid's forces took Valencia from the Muslims. Spain
1094 Philip I of France was excommunicated for adultery. Franks
1094-99 The Cid ruled Valencia. Spain
1095 Pope Urban's synod at Piacenza was attended by 34,000.
1095 Countess Matilda and Guelph of Bavaria were divorced. Germans
1095 Heinrich IV decreed the rights of Jews. Germans
1095 Pope Urban II called for a crusade to take Jerusalem.
1095 Earl Robert's Northumbrian tax rebellion was defeated. England
1095-1103 Erik Ejegod ruled Denmark. Scandinavia
1095-1116 Coloman ruled Hungary.Eastern Europe
1096 Guelf made peace with Heinrich IV. German Empire
1096 Crusaders arrived at Constantinople.
1096 Crusaders killed Jews in Germany.
1096 Turks slaughtered 17,000 crusaders. Crusade
1097 Russian princes agreed on succession reform.Eastern Europe
1097 Normans destroyed Paulicians in Greece. Crusade
1097 About 67,000 crusaders have entered Asia. Crusade
1097 Heinrich IV granted Jews their rights in Germany. German Empire
1097 Iceland introduced tithing. Scandinavia
1097-1107 Edgar ruled Scotland. England
1098 Crusaders led by Bohemond captured Antioch.
1098 Egyptians occupied Palestine. Crusade
1098-1179 Hildegard of Bingen wrote mystical works.
1099 Crusaders besiege and pillage Jerusalem, killing 40,000.
1099-1118 Pope Paschal II encouraged crusaders. Jerusalem Kingdom
c. 1100 Song of Roland reached its final written form.
1100-18 Baldwin was king of Jerusalem.
1100-35 Henry I ruled England.
1101 Lombard army arrives in Constantinople. Jerusalem Kingdom
1102-38 Boleslav III ruled Poland.Eastern Europe
1103 Norman Roger II became Count of Sicily.
1103-30 Sigurd I ruled Norway. Scandinavia
1104 Muhammad overthrew his brother Berkyaruk in Iraq. Jerusalem Kingdom
1104 Edessa count Baldwins is captured.
1104 Byzantine army recaptured Cilician cities. Jerusalem Kingdom
1104 King Baldwin captured Acre.
1104 German prince Heinrich revolted against his father Heinrich IV. German Empire
1104-10 Pisa and Lucca were at war. Italian Republics
1104-34 Alfonso I ruled Aragon. Spanish Peninsula
1104-34 Niels ruled Denmark. Scandinavia
1105 Antioch's Tancred defeated Aleppo's Ridvan. Jerusalem Kingdom
1106-25 Heinrich V ruled Germany. German Empire
1107-08 Bohemond's 34,000 crusaders besieged Dyrrhachium. Jerusalem Kingdom
1107-24 Alexander I ruled Scotland. England
1108-37 Louis VI ruled France.
1109 Crusaders led by King Baldwin took Tripoli.
1109-26 Queen Urraca ruled Castille. Spanish Peninsula
1110 Bertram's forces helped Baldwins take Beirut.
1110 Muhammad succeeded his brother Berkyaruk in Persia. Jerusalem Kingdom
1110 Germany's Heinrich V invaded Italy. German Empire
1111 Emperor Alexius gave Pisans trading in Constantinople. Jerusalem Kingdom
1112 Count Ramon Berenguer III annexed Provence. France
1113 Jerusalem king Baldwin invaded Damascus.
1113 Edessa count Baldwin expelled the Armenians.
1113 Heinrich V suppressed a revolt and married Matilda. German Empire
1113-25 Vladimir Monomakh ruled Kiev. Eastern Europe
1114 Scot king Alexander and Henry invaded Wales. England
1115 Count Baldwin conquered Armenians in eastern Cilicia.
1116 Flanders count Baldwin VII abolished judicial duels.
1116-31 Stephen II ruled Hungary.Eastern Europe
1116-55 Mas'ud was Seljuk sultan of Rum. Jerusalem Kingdom
1117-18 Althing of Iceland had a commission revise its laws. Scandinavia
1118-31 Baldwin II was king of Jerusalem.
1118-43 John Comnenus ruled the Byzantine empire. Jerusalem Kingdom
1119 Pope Calixtus II recognized Hospitallers of St. John. Jerusalem Kingdom
1119 Cistercian Order was based on the Charter of Love. Bernard of Clairvaux
1119 Castrated Abelard became a monk, Heloise a nun.
1119-24 Pope Calixtus II opposed Emperor Heinrich V. Italian Republics
1119-27 Flanders count Charles protected the weak.
1119-56 Khurasan king Sanjar ruled as Seljuk sultan. Jerusalem Kingdom
1120 Ibn Tumart at Marrakesh founded Muwahhidun (Almohad). Spanish Peninsula
1120-32 Genoa and Pisa were at war. Italian Republics
1121 Abelard's Theologia was condemned for heresy.
1122 Venetian fleet attacked Byzantine Corfu and Egyptians. Jerusalem Kingdom
1122 Diet at Worms settled investiture controversy. German Empire
1123 First Lateran Council condemned marriage of priests. Italian Republics
1124 Starved Tyre submitted to crusaders. Jerusalem Kingdom
1124-53 David ruled Scotland. England
1125 John Comnenus made a treaty with the Pisans. Jerusalem Kingdom
1125 Florence destroyed Fiesole. Italian Republics
1126-57 Alfonso VII ruled Castile. Spanish Peninsula
1127 Borsiard and the Erembald clan murdered Count Charles. Flanders
1127 Conrad III became king of Germany. German Empire
1127-46 Zengi ruled Mosul. Jerusalem Kingdom
1128 Pope Honorius II authorized the Templars. Jerusalem Kingdom
1128 Hungarian troops invaded the Greek empire.Eastern Europe
1128-85 Afonso Henriques ruled Portugal. Spanish Peninsula
1129 Heloise and nuns were expelled from Argenteuil. Abelard
1130 Bohemond II invaded Cilicia, was defeated and killed. Jerusalem Kingdom
1130 Popes Innocent II and Anacletus were elected. Italian Republics
1130-54 Roger II was king of Sicily.
1131 Pope Innocent II exempted Cistercians from paying tithes. Italian Republics
1131-43 Fulk was king of Jerusalem. Crusaders
1132 Abelard wrote his "Story of Troubles."
1133 Pope Innocent II crowned Lothar emperor. German Empire
1134-50 Navarre under King Garcia IV became independent. Spanish Peninsula
1135 Lothar settled disputes between Denmark and Hungary. German Empire
1136 David of Scotland invaded northern England.
1136 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote History of Kings of Britain.
1137 Byzantine army of John Comnenus campaigned in Cilicia. Crusaders
1137 Lothar III died in the Alps. German Empire
1137 Mahmud of Damascus invaded Tripoli. Crusaders
1137-80 Louis VII ruled France.
1139 Byzantine army regained Bithynia and Paphlagonia.Crusaders
1139 Second Lateran Council banished Arnold of Brescia. Italian Republics
1140 Bernard of Clairvaux charged Abelard with heresy.
c. 1140 Poem of the Cid was written.
1140-73 Vladislav II ruled Bohemia.Eastern Europe
1141 Hildegard of Bingen had a vision of light.
1141-61 Geza II ruled Hungary.Eastern Europe
1142 Aelred of Rievaulx wrote The Mirror of Charity.
1143 Insurgents declared Rome a republic. Italian Republics
1143-63 Baldwin III was king of Jerusalem. Crusaders
1143-80 Manuel ruled the Byzantine empire.
1144 Geoffrey Plantagenet of Anjou became duke of Normandy. France
1145-53 Pope Eugenius III relied on Bernard of Clairvaux.
1146 Almohads from North Africa invaded Spain. Spanish Peninsula
1146-47 Bernard of Clairvaux preached the second crusade.
1146-73 Boleslav IV ruled Poland.Eastern Europe
1146-74 Nur-ad-Din ruled Aleppo and became sultan.
1147 Emperor Manuel made a treaty with Seljuk sultan Mas'ud.
1147 Conrad's crusaders were massacred by a Seljuk army.
1147 Crusaders drove Moors from Portugal. Spanish Peninsula
1147 Denmark's king Erik the Lamb retired to a monastery. Scandinavia
1148 Crusaders' attack on Damascus failed.
1149 Nur-ad-Din's forces defeated Raymond of Antioch.
1149-54 Fatamid al-Zafir was Caliph of Egypt. Nur-ad-Din
1152 German king Conrad III died. German Empire
1152 Nicholas Breakspear reformed the Norwegian church. Scandinavia
1152-90 Frederick I Barbarossa ruled Germany.
1153 Oghuz tribes captured Seljuk sultan Sanjar. Crusaders
1153-65 Malcolm IV ruled Scotland. England
1154-62 Becket was chancellor of England.
1154-66 William I ruled Sicily.
1154-89 Henry II ruled England.
1155 Germany's Frederick Barbarossa invaded Italy. Italian Republics
c. 1155 Thomas wrote the poem Tristran. Tristan
1155-92 Kilij Arslan II ruled as Seljuk sultan.Crusaders
1157 Baldwin III broke his treaty with Nur-ad-Din.
1157-82 Valdemar ruled Denmark. Scandinavia
1157-88 Fernando II ruled Leon. Spanish Peninsula
1158 Baldwin III allied with Emperor Manuel.
1158 Pope Adrian mediated treaty between William and Manuel.
1158 Emperor Frederick besieged and captured Milan. Italian Republics
1158 German historian Otto of Freising died. Germany
1158-1214 Alfonso VIII ruled Castile. Spanish Peninsula
1159 Popes Victor IV and Alexander III were elected. Italian Republics
1159 John of Salisbury wrote Policraticus.
1159-81 Alexander III was the anti-imperialist Pope. Italian Republics
1160 Normans were driven out of North Africa.
1162-70 Becket was Archbishop of Canterbury. England
1162-96 Alfonso II united Catalonia with his kingdom of Aragon. Spanish Peninsula
1163-74 Amalric was king of Jerusalem. Crusaders
1163-84 Abu Ya'qub Yusuf ruled Almohad empire. Spanish Peninsula
1165 Cathars were condemned as heretics.
1165-1214 William the Lion ruled Scotland. England
1166-89 William II ruled Sicily.
1167 Shirkuh and his nephew Saladin invaded Egypt. Crusaders
1167 Cathars were burned at Vézelay.
1167 Frederick invaded Italy again and marched on Rome. Italian Republics
1169 Saladin became the master of Egypt. Crusaders
1169, 1170 Genoa and Pisa allied with Byzantines. Italian Republics
1171 Byzantine emperor Manuel ordered Venetians arrested.
1171-1211 Florence and Pisa had a defensive and commercial treaty. Italian Republics
1171 England's Henry II invaded Ireland.
1173 Amalric's army campaigned for Byzantines in Cilicia. Crusaders
1173-96 Bela III ruled Hungary.Eastern Europe
1174 Frederick invaded Italy for the fifth time. Italian Republics
1174-85 Leper Baldwin IV ruled Jerusalem. Crusading Kings
1176 Byzantines led by Manuel defeated by Turks at Konya.
1176 Lombards defeated Germans' imperial army at Legnano. Italian Republics
1176 Chrétien de Troyes wrote his second romance Cliges.
1176-1212 Vsévolod III was Russia's Grand Prince.Eastern Europe
1177 Emperor Frederick and Pope Alexander III made a treaty. Italian Republics
1177 England's Henry II and France's Louis VII made a treaty.
1177-80 Florence suffered a civil war. Italian Republics
1177-94 Casimir II ruled Poland.Eastern Europe
1178-1241 Snorri Sturluson influenced Iceland.
1179 Third Lateran Council prohibited abuses, damned Cathars.
1180-82 Jerusalem's Baldwin IV and Saladin agreed on a truce.
1180-1185 Minamoto defeated Taira clan in Gempei civil war. Japan
1180-1223 Philip II ruled France.
1181-1226 Francis of Assisi helped the poor.
1182 Waldensians were excommunicated in Lyons. Albigensian Crusade
1183 Saladin captured Aleppo.
1184-1202 Sverrir ruled Norway. Scandinavia
1185 Philip II doubled the royal domain of France.
1185 Russian prince Igor was defeated by the Kumans.Eastern Europe
c. 1185 Andreas Capellanus wrote On Love (De Amore). Romantic Love
1185-1211 Sancho I ruled Portugal. Spanish Peninsula
1187 Muslims led by Saladin captured Jerusalem.
1187-1219 Leon II ruled Armenia. Crusading Kings
1187-1233 Bohemond IV ruled Antioch. Crusading Kings
1188-1230 Alfonso IX ruled Leon. Spanish Peninsula
1189 Third crusade arrives in Syria. Crusading Kings
1189-99 Richard I was king of England.
1190 Order of Teutonic Knights was founded at Acre. Crusading Kings
1190 Genoa replaced their commune with a podesta. Italian Republics
1190-97 Heinrich VI ruled Germany.
1191 Richard I married Berengaria and captured Cyprus.
1191 Besieged Acre capitulated to crusaders. Crusading Kings
1191 Dominic sold all his possessions to help the starving.
1191-98 Pope Celestine III persuaded Tancred to free Constance. Italian Republics
1192 Richard I and Saladin signed a truce.
1192 120,000 Muslims demolished Ajmer temples. Crusading Kings
1192 Civil war followed Saladin's death.
1193 Austria's Leopold imprisoned Richard I.
1194 Khorezm-Shah Tokush replaced Seljuk sultan Tughrul III. Crusading Kings
1194 Emperor Heinrich VI was crowned king of Sicily.
1194 Richard I fought Philip for Normandy and Aquitane.
1194-1206 Count Baldwin IX united Flanders and Hainault.
1194-1234 Sancho VII ruled Navarre. Spanish Peninsula
1195 Alexius III blinded Byzantine emperor Isaac II. Crusading Kings
1196 Al-Mansur won a victory over Christians at Alarcos. Spanish Peninsula
1196-1210 Sverker II ruled Sweden. Scandinavia
1196-1213 Pedro II ruled Aragon. Spanish Peninsula
1197 Italian communes formed the Tuscan League. Italian Republics
1197-1230 Ottokar I ruled Bohemia. Eastern Europe
1198-1216 Innocent III was Pope and urged the fourth crusade. Italy
c. 1200 Nibelungenlied was written for performance in Austria.
1200 Pope Innocent III put France under interdict.
1200 Philip II granted University of Paris a charter. France
1200 Jean Bodel wrote The Play of Saint Nicholas. Theater
1200 England's John made a truce at Le Goulet with France.
1200 English church required marriage banns be announced. England
1201 England's John protected Jewish rights in a charter.
1202 Venetian navy with crusaders assaulted Zara. Crusades
1202 Francis fighting for Assisi against Perugia was captured.
1202-04 England's John made war and lost Normandy to France.
1202-27 Leszek I ruled Poland. Eastern Europe
1202-41 Valdemar II ruled Denmark. Scandinavia
1203 Crusaders conquered Constantinople. Crusades
1204 Baldwin IX was elected Emperor in Constantinople. Crusades
1205 Bulgarian czar Kalojan invaded Thrace, captured Baldwin. Crusades
1205 Francis of Assisi had a vision to serve God.
1205-35 Andrew II ruled Hungary. Eastern Europe
1205-64 Daniel governed Volhynia. Eastern Europe
1206 Jurchens Jin army defeated fleeing Song forces. Song Dynasty
1206 600 Cathar perfecti met at Mirepoix.
1206 Dominic began preaching.
1207 Florence went to war with Siena. Italy
1207-13 Stephen Langton was Archbishop of Canterbury in exile. England
1208 Waldensian Durand of Huesca founded Poor Catholics. Albigensian Crusade
1208 Pope Innocent III imposed an interdict on England.
1208-13 Norwich bishop John de Grey was justiciar of Ireland. England
1209 Francis wrote his first rule for his eleven companions. Albigensian Crusade
1209-49 Albigensian crusade attacked Cathars.
1210 Otto IV invaded Frederick II's Sicilian kingdom.
c. 1210 Wolfram von Eschenbach completed his poem Parzival.
c. 1210 Gottfried von Strassburg wrote German poem Tristan.
1210 140 Cathar perfecti were burned at Minerve.
1210 King John and William Marshall invaded Ireland. England
1211-18 Simon de Montfort attacked Cathars in Toulouse.
1211-22 Toulouse count Raymond VI defended Cathars.
1211-23 Afonso II ruled Portugal. Spanish Peninsula
1212 French and German children went on a crusade. Crusades
1212 Friedrich II was elected king of Germany at Frankfurt.
1213 France's Philip II invaded Flanders.
1213 French fleet was destroyed at Damme. France
1213-76 Jaime ruled Aragon.
1214 England's John invaded Aquitane.
1214 Philip II defeated England's John and Germany's Otto IV. France
1214-92 Roger Bacon wrote on science and morals.
1215 Fourth Lateran Council was attended by 412 bishops. Italy
1215.6.15 King John put his seal on the Magna Carta.
1215-18 Snorri Sturluson was law-speaker for Iceland.
1216 England's king John died; his son Henry was 9.
1216-27 Pope Honorius III proclaimed another Albigensian Crusade.
1217 Dominican charter was confirmed in Rome.
1217 France's prince Louis agreed to peace with England.
1217-52 Fernando III ruled Castile. Spanish Peninsula
1217-63 Haakon IV ruled Norway.
1218 Crusaders from Acre invaded Egypt.
1218 Legate Ugolino mediated peace between Genoa and Pisa. Italy
1218-37 Yuri governed Kiev. Eastern Europe
1218-41 John Asen II ruled Bulgarian empire. Crusades
1219 Crusaders conquered starving Damietta.
1219 Rule for Poor Ladies was confirmed by Pope Honorius. Francis of Assisi
1219 Francis of Assisi went on crusade and preached against war.
1219 Danish Brothers of the Sword invaded Estonia. Scandinavia
1220 Pope Honorius crowned Frederick II Emperor.
1220 Dominican preachers renounced property.
1220 Alfonso IX of Leon founded the University of Salamanca. Spanish Peninsula
1221 Robert of Courtenay became Emperor at Constantinople.
1221 Dominic died, and Dominicans had sixty friaries.
1222 Andrew II's Golden Bull acknowledged Hungarians' rights. Eastern Europe
c. 1222 Snorri Sturluson wrote his Prose Edda.
1222-31 Snorri Sturluson was law-speaker for Iceland.
1222-50 Erik III was king of Sweden. Scandinavia
1222-54 John Vatatzes was emperor of Nicaea. Crusades
1223 Earl William Marshal of Pembroke invaded Wales. England
1223-26 Louis VIII ruled France.
1223-46 Sancho II ruled Portugal. Spanish Peninsula
1224 Friedrich II founded a university at Naples for lawyers.
1224 France's Louis VIII invaded Poitou.
1224 Franciscans first arrived in England. Francis of Assisi
1225-74 Thomas Aquinas wrote on theology.
1226 Frederick II gave Teutonic Knights special privileges.
1226 Second Lombard League was formed. Italy
1226-34 Blanche of Castile ruled France as regent.
1227-41 Gregory IX was Pope. Italy
1227-72 Henry III ruled England. Henry III 1227-1250
1228 Muslims drove the Almohads out of Cordoba. Spanish Peninsula
1229 Frederick II made a treaty with al-Kamil for Jerusalem.
1230 Teutonic knights crusade into Prussia began. German Empire
1230 San Germano treaty lifted Frederick II's excommunication.
c. 1230 Snorri Sturluson wrote Egil's Saga.
1230-53 Wenceslas ruled Bohemia. Eastern Europe
1231 Elizabeth of Hungary died and was heralded as a saint. Eastern Europe
1231 Frederick II's Constitutions of Melfi dominated Sicily.
1232-33 Dominicans were given leading role in the Inquisition. Albigensian Crusade
1232-45 Maurice fitz Gerald was Justiciar of Ireland. England
1233 German Inquisitor Conrad of Marburg was killed. German Empire
1233 Two Inquisitors were murdered in Cordes. Dominicans
1234 Pope Gregory IX granted Teutonic knights Prussian state. German Empire
1234 Five Books of the Decretals were promulgated. Italy
1234 Louis IX married Margaret of Provence and began to rule. France
1234-53 Count Theobald IV of Champagne was king of Navarre. Spanish Peninsula
1235 Sturla Sighvatsson was Norwegian king's envoy to Iceland. Scandinavia
c. 1235 Guillaume de Lorris wrote Romance of the Rose.
1235-53 Robert Grosseteste was bishop of Lincoln. England
1235-70 Bela IV ruled Hungary.
1236 Friedrich II invaded Italy and burned Vicenza.
1236 Folkwin and fifty Sword-Brothers died attacking Lithuania. Eastern Europe
1237 Friedrich II's imperial army defeated the Lombard League.
1237 Birger Magnusson led the Swedish invasion of Finland. Scandinavia
1237-71 Michael II Angelus ruled Epirus in Albania. Crusades
1237-73 Muhammad I ruled Granada.
1238 Inquisition was authorized in Castille, Leon, and Navarre. Spanish Peninsula
1239 Pope Gregory IX excommunicated Friedrich II.
1239 Pope Gregory IX ordered the Talmud confiscated. Italy
1239 16 bishops burned 183 Cathars at Montwimer.
1240 Alexander led Novgorod in victory over invading Swedes. Eastern Europe
1240 Siena established a ruling council. Italy
1240 Excommunicated Raymond Trencavel invaded Languedoc. Cathars
1240-42 Teutonic Order crusade against Russia ended in defeat. Eastern Europe
1241 Mongols invaded and devastated Poland. Eastern Europe
1241, 1245 Henry III's armies attacked the north Welsh coast.
1241-53 Svantopelk of Pomerania waged war against Germans. German Empire
1242 Louis IX had the Talmud burned at Paris. France
1242-50 Erik Plow-penny ruled Denmark.Scandinavia
1243 Mongol army defeated Seljuk sultan Kai-Khusrau. Crusades
1243 Jews of Belitz near Berlin were burned to death. German Empire
1243 Louis IX and Henry III agreed on a truce for five years. France
1243-54 Innocent IV was Pope. Italy
1243-79 Boleslaw V ruled much of Poland.
1244 Besieged Cathars at Montségur surrendered.
1244-78 Countess Margaretha II ruled Flanders.
1245 Albertus Magnus began teaching Thomas Aquinas.
c. 1245 Laxdaela Saga was written.
1246 Inquisitors began imprisoning heretics for life. Dominicans
1248 Almohad caliph al-Sa'id was killed. Spanish Peninsula
1248 Friedrich II's imperial army was defeated at Parma.
1248 Fernando III forced 300,000 Muslims to leave Seville. Spanish Peninsula
1248 Henry III appointed Simon de Montfort seneschal of Gascony.
1248-79 Afonso III ruled Portugal.
1249 Crusade led by Louis IX captured Damietta.
1250 Frederick II died of dysentery.
1250-75 Birger’s son Valdemar I ruled Sweden.
1252 Florence issued its gold florin.
1252 Pope Innocent IV authorized the use of torture. Catholic
1252-58 Ghibelline Brancaleone was podesta of Rome.
1252-63 Alexander Nevsky was Grand Prince of Russia.
1252-63 Mindaugus was the first king of Lithuania.
1252-84 Alfonso X the Learned ruled Castile.
1253 Clare died; the Poor Ladies had 111 nunneries. Franciscans
1253-63 Mindaugus was the first king of Lithuania.
1253-78 Ottokar II ruled Bohemia.
1254 60,000 crusaders advanced in Prussia. Teutonic Knights
1254 Introduction to the Everlasting Gospel published. Spirituals
1254 Florence defeated Pisa and reformed its state.
1254 Pope Innocent IV made Sicily and Calabria fiefs. Papal
1254 Louis IX began reforming France.
1254 Henry III gave Gascony to his son Edward.
1254-58 Theodore II Lascaris governed Nicaea. Byzantine
1254-70 Louis IX ruled France.
1255 Egypt’s Aybek made 10-year truce with Franks. Crusaders
1255 Pope Alexander IV revived the Inquisition. Catholic
1255 Civil war broke out in Wales. Henry III
1256 Mongols led by Hulagu invaded Turkestan and Persia.
1256 War began between Venetians and Genoese. Italian City States
1257 Earl Richard of Cornwall was elected emperor. Empire
1257 Denmark allied with Sweden and Norway.
1257 Sorbonne founded college for poor students. Louis IX
1257-74 Bonaventure led the Franciscans.
1257-77 Constantine Tich ruled Bulgaria. Byzantine
1258 Mongol army sacked Baghdad. Middle East
1258 War began between Venetians and Genoese. Venice
1258 Louis IX banned weapons and war in France.
1258-66 Manfred was king of Sicily.
1259 Mongols raided Poland again.
1259 Bonaventure wrote Journey of the Mind to God.
1259 Louis IX abolished judicial duels in France.
1259 Louis IX made a treaty with Henry III.
1259 Bracton wrote On the Laws and Customs. Henry III
1259-82 Michael Paleologus ruled the Byzantine empire.
1259-86 Erik V ruled Denmark.
1260 Mongols captured Damascus. Crusaders
1260 Flagellation became a popular trend in Europe. Italian City States
1260 Flagellant movement began in Italy. Florence
1260.9.3 Siena’s army defeated Florence.
1261 Byzantine empire replaced Latin rule.
1261 Louis IX prohibited festivals and tournaments.
1261 Muslims of Murcia revolted against Castilian rule. Castile
1261 Louis IX prohibited festivals and tournaments.
1261 Henry III opposed Parliament’s Provisions.
1261-64 Pope Urban IV financed war. Papal
1261-77 Baybars ruled Egypt and raided Palestine. Egyptian Invasions
1263 Earl Simon de Montfort took over London. Henry III
1263 Iceland lost its independence to Norway.
1263-80 Magnus VI ruled Norway.
1264 Thomas Aquinas wrote Summa contra Gentiles.
1264 Simon’s barons defeated Henry III and Edward.
1264 Ireland held its first parliament.
1264-86 Erik V ruled Denmark and debased coins.
1265 Alfonso X invaded the Vega of Granada.
1265.8.4 Simon de Montfort was defeated and killed. Henry III
c. 1265 Jacobus de Voragine wrote The Golden Legend. Saints
1265-82 Mongol Il-khan Abagha ruled Persia.
1266.2.26 Charles of Anjou took Sicily from Manfred.
1266-96 Floris V ruled Holland and Zeeland.
1267 Vienna confirmed canonical laws against Jews. Austria
1267 Assembly promulgated Statute of Marlborough. Henry III
1267-80 Mangu Temir ruled Russia.
1267-94 Jan I ruled Brabant.
1268.10.29 Konradin was beheaded as a traitor. Naples
1269 Bohemia’s Ottokar II annexed Carinthia, Carniola.
1270 Louis IX was killed in disastrous crusade to Tunis.
1270 Henry III taxed property for a crusade.
1270-85 Philippe III ruled France.
1271-76 Gregory X mediated Guelf-Ghibelline conflict. Rome
1272-90 Ladislas IV was king of Hungary.
1272-91 Rudolf of Hapsburg was king of Germany.
1272-1307 Edward I ruled England.
1273-91 Rudolf of Hapsburg ruled Germany. Austria
1273-1302 Muhammad II ruled Granada.
1274 Magnus VI established national law in Norway.
1274 Council of Lyons failed to unify Christians. Crusaders
1274 Bonaventure and Aquinas died.
1274 French armies occupied Navarre. Philippe III
1274 Ramon Llull had a vision of what to write.
1275 Jean de Meun extended Romance of the Rose.
1275, 1285 Westminster statutes improved common law. Edward I
1275-90 Magnus Ladulas ruled Sweden.
1276.11.26 Rudolf of Hapsburg and Ottokar II made peace. Bohemia Austria
1276-85 Pedro III ruled Aragon.
1277-80 Pope Nicholas III tried to control northern Italy. Milan
1277-90 Ladislaus IV was king of Hungary.
1278 200 Cathars were burned in Verona. Catholic
1278 Edward I had Jews arrested in England.
1278.8.26 Rudolf defeated and killed Ottokar II. Bohemia Austria
1278-92 John Pecham was Archbishop of Canterbury. Edward I
1278-92 Roger Bacon was imprisoned.
1278-1305 Wenceslaus II was king of Bohemia.
1278-1305 Count Guy of Dampierre ruled Flanders.
1279-88 Leszek II ruled Poland.
1279-90 Kalavun was sultan of Egypt. Egyptian Invasions
1279-96 Premysl II ruled Greater Poland.
1279-1325 Dinis ruled Portugal.
1280 Swedish law established hereditary nobility. Sweden
c. 1280 Jewish Kabbalist Moses de Leon wrote the Zohar.
c. 1280 Njal’s Saga was written.
1280-92 George I Terter ruled Bulgaria. Byzantine
1280-99 Erik II reigned over Norway.
1281 Philippe III began tallages on the Jews.
1281-85 Pope Martin IV crusaded against Aragon. Papal Sicily
1282 Merchant guilds seized power in Florence.
1282.4 2,000 French were killed during Sicilian vespers.
1282 Aragon’s Pedro III conquered Sicily.
1282-1321 Stephen Milutin ruled Serbia. Balkan
1282-1328 Andronicus II ruled the Byzantine empire.
1283 Philippe de Beaumanoir wrote on law. Edward I
c. 1283 Adam de la Halle wrote Robin and Marion. French Theater
1284 Genoa’s navy destroyed Pisa’s fleet.
1284-95 Sancho IV ruled Castile.
1285 Iran Mongols invaded southern Tibet.
1285 London suffered from air pollution. Edward I
1285-91 Alfonso III ruled Aragon.
1285-1314 Philippe IV ruled France.
1286 Rudolf ordered persecution of Jews. Austria
1286-1319 Erik VI Menved ruled Denmark.
1287 Aragon subjugated Majorca and Minorca.
1288 Genoese took over Tripoli. Egyptian Invasions
1288 Ramon Llull wrote his novel Felix.
1289 Kalavun's Egyptian army destroyed Tripoli. Egyptian Invasions
1289 Egyptian Muslims murdered all Poor Clares in Tripoli. Egyptian Invasions
1289, 1293 Denmark and Norway fought.
1289-1311 Doge Gradenigo governed Venice.
1290 King Dinis founded the University of Lisbon. Portugal
1290 Edward I expelled all Jews from England.
1290 English law ended the subinfeudation of land. Edward I
1290 Edward I proclaimed the end of private warfare.
1291 Mamluk army defeated Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, Haifa. Crusaders
1291-98 Adolf of Nassau was king of Germany.
1291-1308 Albrecht I ruled Austria.
1291-1313 Tokhta was the last shamanist to rule Russia.
1291-1327 Jaime II ruled Aragon.
1292-95 Third Finnish crusade converted Karelians. Sweden
1294-98 England’s Edward I spent £750,000 on war.
1294-99 Venice and Genoa were at war.
1294-1303 Pope Boniface tried to increase papal power.
1295 Swedish law banned selling slaves. Sweden
1295 Dante completed The New Life.
1295-1304 Ghazan founded Mongols' Il-khan dynasty. Crusades
1295-1316 Grand Duke Viten ruled Lithuania.
1296.2.24 Boniface VIII forbade taxing. Papal
1296-1333 Wladyslaw Lokietek tried to rule Poland.
1297 Guy issued the Great Charter of Ghent. Flanders
1297 French led by Charles of Valois invaded Flanders.
1297 William Wallace led a revolt in Scotland.
1298 Genoese navy defeated the Venetians. Venice
1298-1308 Albrecht I was king of Germany.
1298-1337 Frederic III ruled Sicily.
1299.5 Matteo Visconti mediated Venice-Genoa peace.
1299 Ghazan's Mongol army invaded Syria.
1299-1319 Haakon V ruled Norway.
1300 France had 20 million people. Philippe IV
1300 England had 5 million people. Edward I
1300 Jaime II founded the University of Lérida. Aragon
1300.5 France’s Philippe IV annexed Flanders.
1301 Giles of Rome wrote De ecclesiastica potestate. Duns Scotus
1302.7.11 Flemish army defeated French cavalry. Flanders
1302.11 Pope Boniface VIII issued Unam sanctum. Philippe IV
1303.9.7 French cavalry arrested Pope Boniface VIII. Philippe IV
1303-73 Birgitta became the patron saint of Sweden.
1304-37 Willem II ruled Hainault , Holland, and Zeeland.
1305.8.23 William Wallace was hanged and quartered. Scotland
1305-14 Pope Clement V appointed French cardinals.
Philippe IV1305-22 Robert of Béthune ruled Flanders for France.
1306 Dubois wrote Recovery of the Holy Land. Philippe IV
1306.7.22 Philippe IV expelled the Jews from France.
1306-29 Robert Bruce ruled Scotland.
1307-42 Charles I ruled Hungary.
1308 Pope Clement V moved to Avignon. Philippe IV
1308.11.8 Theologian Duns Scotus died at age 43.
1308-13 Heinrich VII was emperor. Empire
1309.3.16 Scotland’s first parliament met at St. Andrews.
1309.3.27 Pope Clement V excommunicated Venetians. Venice
1310.6.1 Marguerite Porete was burned in Paris.
1310.7.10 Venice formed Council of Ten.
1310 Philippe IV minted debased coins.
1310-13 Heinrich VII visited Italy. Rome
1310-46 Jan of Luxembourg reigned over Bohemia.
1311 Emperor Heinrich VII was crowned in Milan.
1311.9.30 English Parliament published Ordinances.
1311-12 Council of Vienne condemned new orders. Béguines
1312.4 Clement V ended the Order of Templars. Philippe IV
1312-28 Doge Soranzo governed Venice in peace.
1312-50 Alfonso XI was king of Castile.
1312-55 Jan III ruled Brabant.
1313-41 Uzbek Khan ruled Russia for the Golden Horde.
1314.6.14 Pisa led by Uguccione plundered Lucca.
1314.6.24 Bruce’s army defeated Edward II’s army.
1314-46 Ludwig of Bavaria was king of Germany.
1315.8 Thomas of Lancaster took power in England. Ordinances
1315.12.9 Three Swiss states formed a confederation.
1316 Prolific philosopher Ramon Llull died.
1316-18 Edward Bruce claimed to be king of Ireland.
1316-34 Pope John XXII fought against Ghibellines. Papal
1316-41 Gedymin ruled Lithuania.
1317-27 Robert of Anjou ruled over Rome.
1318.4 Lancaster and Middle Party agreed on reforms. Ordinances
1318 John XXII condemned Franciscan Spirituals.
1318.7.19 Austria made a truce with the Forest Cantons.
1320.4.6 Scots published Arbroath Declaration.
1320 Shepherds’ Crusade killed Jews in France. Sons
1321.9.13 Dante died of malaria.
1322.3.22 Thomas of Lancaster was beheaded. Ordinances
1322.9.28 Ludwig defeated Friedrich of Austria.
1323.10.8 John XXII claimed to judge imperial elections. Germany
1323-25 France started a war against England. Sons
1324.3.23 John XXII excommunicated Ludwig.
1324 Marsilius wrote The Defender of Peace.
1325.3 England’s queen Isabella went to France. Edward II
1325.9.21 Prince Edward did homage to Charles IV. Edward II
1325-40 Ivan Kalita governed Moscow. Russia
1325-57 Afonso IV ruled Portugal.
1326.9 Isabella and Mortimer returned to England. Edward II
1327.1 abdicated in favor of Edward III. Edward II
1327 Eckhart fought against charges of heresy.
1327 Western Europe agreed to a treaty on free trade. Sons
1327-36 Alfonso IV ruled Aragon.
1327-77 Edward III was king of England.
1328.6 Pope John XXII excommunicated Ockham.
1328.1.7 Emperor Ludwig was crowned in Rome.
1328.3.17 England accepted Scotland’s independence.
1328 Emperor Ludwig sold Milan to the Visconti.
1328 Philippe VI invaded Flanders.
1328-38 Doge Francesco Dandolo governed Venice.
1328-41 Andronicus III ruled the Byzantine empire.
1328-50 Philippe VI ruled France.
1330.11.29 Roger Mortimer was hanged for treason. Edward III
1330-58 Albrecht II ruled Austria.
1331-55 Stephen Dushan ruled Serbia. Balkan
1331-71 Ivan Alexander ruled Bulgaria.Byzantine
1332 Venice increased its army to 30,000.
1332.9.24 Edward Balliol was crowned in Scotland.
1332-64 Magnus IV ruled Sweden.
1333-70 Kazimierz (Casimir) III ruled Poland.
1334-42 Pope Benedict XII reversed previous policies. Papal
1335 Juan Manuel wrote El Conde Lucanor.
1336-87 Pedro IV ruled Aragon, Sicily and islands.
1337 England & France’s “100 Years War” began. Philippe VI Edward III
1339.1.24 Treaty of Venice was signed.
1339 England invaded France from Flanders. Philippe VI Edward III
1339 Ockham defended Edward III’s taxes.
1340 Jacob van Artevelde led Flemish revolt. Flanders
1340 England defeated French navy off Sluis. Philippe VI Edward III
1340.10.29 Christians defeated Muslims at Saledo. Granada
1340-75 Valdemar IV ruled Denmark.
1341.4.8 Petrarca was crowned with laurel in Rome.
1341-55 Civil war disrupted the Byzantine empire.
1341-76 John V reigned over the Byzantine empire.
1342 Pisa defeated Lucca.
1342-52 Pope Clement VI sent money to France. Papal State
1342-57 Jani Beg Khan ruled Russia for Mongols.
1342-82 Lajos I ruled Hungary.
1343 Bankruptcy led to reforms in Florence.
1343-54 Doge Andrea Dandolo governed Venice.
1345, 1356 Popes imprisoned John of Roquetaillade. Flanders
1345-77 Grand Prince Olgerd (Algirdas) ruled Lithuania.
1346.8 English defeated the French at Crecy. Philippe VI Edward III
1346-84 Count Louis of Male governed Flanders.
1347 Cola di Rienzo governed Rome.
1347-78 Karl IV was king of Bohemia.
1348 Edward III founded the Order of the Garter.
1348 Venetian & Genoese ships brought infected rats. Venice
1348 Black Death plague devastated Florence.
1348-52 Boccaccio wrote the Decameron.
1349.1.13 Count Louis of Male captured Ghent. Flanders
1349 Thousands of Jews were killed in Germany.
1349-50 Bubonic plague killed 25 million. Germany
1349-78 Karl IV was king of Germany.
1350.10 Petrarca and Boccaccio first met.
1350-55 Venice and Genoa were at war.
1350-64 Jean II ruled France.
1350-69 Pedro I the Cruel ruled Castile.
1350-1402 Oleg governed Ryazan. Russia
1351.1.16 Aragon made a treaty with Venice.
1351.5.1 Zurich joined the Swiss alliance.
1351-82 Grand Master Winrich led the Teutonic Order.
1352-62 Pope Innocent VI financed wars. Papal State
1353.10.8 A mob in Rome killed Cola di Rienzo.
1353-71 Fa Ngum founded and ruled Laos.
1353-82 Giovanna was queen of Naples.
1353-85 Binnya U ruled Mon. Burma
1353-91 Tvrtko I ruled Bosnia. Balkan
1354 Stephen Dushan gave Serbian empire new laws. Balkan
1355.4.5 Emperor Karl IV was crowned in Rome.
1355.6.1 Venice and Genoa signed a treaty.
1355-80 Haakon VI ruled Norway and married Margrete.
1355-1406 Johanna ruled Brabant.
1356 Diet of Metz codified imperial election. Karl IV
1356.9 English killed 11,000 French at Poitiers. Jean II
1358.2.18 Venice gave Dalmatia to Hungary in a treaty.
1358.5-8 Peasants plundered France. Jean II
1358-65 Rudolf IV improved Austria.
1358-1404 Albrecht governed Hainault, Holland, Zeeland.
1359 Peace treaty released Jean II.
1359-89 Dmitri Donskoi governed Moscow. Russia
1361.3.31 Karl IV confirmed Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden. Swiss
1361-80 Mamai ruled Russia for the Golden Horde. Russia
1362-91 Muhammad V ruled Granada.
1363.7 Pedro IV ceded half of Aragon to Castile.
1364 Turks defeated Serbians and Hungarians. Ottoman
1364 Kazimierz III founded Krakow University. Poland
1364 Luxembourgs, Hapsburgs, Hungary made peace. Germany
1364 Venice suppressed a revolt in Crete.
1364-80 Charles V the Wise ruled France.
1366.1.25 Heinrich Süs, the mystic, died at Ulm. Dominicans
1366 Ireland’s parliament codified its laws.
1366 Chaucer was sent as an envoy to Spain.
1367-70 Pope Urban V resided in Rome.
1367-83 Fernando I ruled Portugal.
1369.3 Enrique defeated and killed Castile’s Pedro I.
1368 Common people took over Siena.
c. 1370 Langland wrote Piers the Plowman.
1370.10.7 Six Swiss cantons signed the Priests’ Charter.
1370-78 Pope Gregory XI supported French war. Papal State
1370-88 Boromaraja I ruled Siam, took over Sukhothai.
1371.3.31 Castile’s Enrique II made peace with Portugal.
1371 Norway made peace with Hanseatic merchants.
1374.7.19 Petrarca died at Arqua.
1375-1406 Salutati was chancellor of Florence.
1376 Hongwu executed hundreds of officials in China.
1377.1 Pope Gregory XI moved papacy to Rome. Papal State
1377 Caterina founded a woman’s monastery in Siena.
1377 French poet Machaut died.
1377 Chaucer was sent to arrange royal marriages.
1377-99 Richard II was king of England.
1377-1416 Jogaila ruled Lithuania.
1378 Chaucer gave his power of attorney to Gower.
1378.4.8 Roman conclave elected Pope Urban VI. Papal State
1378.9.20 French cardinals elected Pope Clement VII. Papal State
1378-95 Tokhtamysh ruled Russia for Mongols.
1378-1419 Wenceslaus IV ruled Bohemia.
1378-1419 Wenceslaus IV ruled Bohemia. Jan Hus
1379-83 Ghent and Bruges fought a civil war. Flanders
1380 Wyclif began translating the Bible into English.
1380.9.8 Muscovites defeated Mamai’s Mongol army. Russia
1380-97 Margrete ruled Denmark and Norway as regent.
1380-1422 Charles VI the Mad was king of France.
1381.3 French revolted against heavy taxes. Charles the Mad
1381 English peasants rebelled against a poll tax.
1382 Wyclif’s writings were condemned.
1383 Chaucer wrote The Parliament of the Birds.
1384-1404 Philippe the Bold of Burgundy ruled Flanders.
1385 Chaucer became a judge in Kent.
1385.12 Ghent submitted to France. Charles the Mad
1385-1433 Joao I ruled Portugal.
1386.2 Lithuania’s Jagiello became king of Poland.
1387 Honoré Bouvet wrote The Tree of Battles. Charles the Mad
1387-96 Juan I ruled Aragon.
1386-1406 Wilhelm ruled Styria, Carinthia & Carniola. Germany
1386-1434 Wladyslaw II Jagiello ruled Poland.
1387-1412 Margrete ruled Denmark, Sweden & Norway. Kalmar Union
1387-1437 Sigismund ruled Hungary. Hungary
1389.5.3 Richard II began to rule England.
1389.6 Ottoman Turks defeated Serbs at Kosovo. Balkan
1389 Thousands of Jews were massacred in Prague. Bohemia
1389 Mezieres wrote Dream of the Old Pilgrim. Charles the Mad
1389-91 Chaucer supervised public buildings.
1389-1425 Vasily was grand prince of Moscow. Russia Russia
1390 Milan’s Galeazzo Visconti invaded Tuscany. Florence
1390 Gower wrote Confessio Amantis.
1390-1406 Enrique III ruled Castile.
1390-1406 Robert III ruled Scotland.
1391-1408 Muhammad VII ruled Granada.
1391-1425 Manuel II ruled Byzantine empire. Greece
1392 Joao I prohibited the persecution of Jews. Portugal
1392.8.5 Charles VI went mad and killed 5 men.
1392-1430 Vytautas ruled Lithuania.
1393 Eight cantons established laws of war. Swiss
1394 Crusade against Granada failed.
1394.7.16 Austria and Swiss Confederation made peace.
1394-5 Richard II subdued Ireland.
1395.1 Lollards gave Parliament “Twelve Conclusions.” Wyclif
1395 Venice expelled Jews.
1395-1404 Albrecht IV ruled Lower Austria. Germany
1396.3.12 Richard II was betrothed to Isabella.
1396 Sigismund led crusade against Turks. Byzantine
1396-1410 Marti the Humane ruled Aragon.
1397.6 Denmark-Sweden-Norway formed Kalmar Union.
1397-1412 Margrete ruled Denmark, Sweden and Norway.
1398 Pisa was sold to the Visconti.
1399 Teutonic Knights and Lithuanians attacked Golden Horde.
1399.9.29 Richard II was replaced by Henry IV.
1399-1413 Henry IV ruled England.
1399-1414 Ladislaus ruled Naples.
1400 Gower wrote “In Praise of Peace” for Henry IV.
1400.10.25 Chaucer died.
1400 England’s Henry IV invaded Scotland.
1400.7.7 Charles VI ceded Dreux to Louis of Orléans. France
1400.8.1 Johannes von Saaz’s wife Margaretha died. Germany
1400.8.20 Germany deposed King Wenceslaus. Germany
1400-10 Ruprecht ruled Germany.
1400-13 Doge Michele Steno governed Venice.

Copyright © 1998, 2010-2018 by Sanderson Beck

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1714
World Chronology 1715-1815
World Chronology 1816-1830

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950

Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830

Chronology of America to 1865


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