BECK index

Chronology of Europe


Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
World Chronology 1715-1815
World Chronology 1816-1830

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1716.1 Felipe V made Catalans citizens.
1716.1 Swedenborg began Daedalus Hyperboreus.
1716.2 British and Dutch allied. George I
1716.2 Tax on Old Ritualists was doubled in Russia. Petr
1716.3.9 Sweden’s army invaded Norway.
1716.4.13 Austrian Empire joined war against Turks. Venice
1716.5 British allied with Emperor Karl VI. George I
1716.5.26 Philippe authorized John Law to start a bank.
1716.6.5 Austrian Empire allied with Britain.
1716.6.29 Swedish army withdrew from Norway. Denmark
1716 Disarming Act compensated for weapons. George I
1716 Berlin Merchants Guild barred Jews & criminals. Germans
1716 Russian army of 30,000 occupied Warsaw. Poland-Lithuania
1716 Russia, France & Prussia made friendship treaty.
1716.7.8 Turks invaded the island of Corfu. Venice
1716.8.5 Austrian Imperial army beat Turks in Serbia. Clement XI Venice
1716.10.13 Austrian Imperial army took Temesvár in Hungary. Clement XI
1716-17 Pope Clement XI financed war against Turks.
1716-37 Austrians built the Karlskirche church.
1717.1 British, France and Dutch allied. George I
1717.2 Mute Sejm met at Warsaw. Poland-Lithuania
1717.6.4 Freemasons began a lodge in Covent Garden. George I
1717.6 Pope Clement XI suspended taxes in Spain.
1717.6 Spanish forces attacked Sicily. Clement XI
1717 Cervera University replaced Catalan universities. Spain
1717 London coffee house admitted women. George I
1717 John Law founded the Mississippi Company. France
1717 Prussia made elementary school compulsory. Germans
1717 Britain banned trade with Sweden.
1717.7.8 Danish navy defeated Sweden at Dynekilen. Norway
1717.7 Spain declared war on Austrian Empire.
1717.7.19 Portuguese defeated Turks at Cape Matapan. Portugal
1717.8.4 France and Russia signed a friendship treaty.
1717.8.17 Christians took Belgrade from Turks. Clement XI Venice Austrian
1717.8-11 Spain reconquered Sardinia. Sicily Clement XI
1717-18 Voltaire was in prison.
1717-33 Poland-Lithuania had a dark period.
1718.6.26 Prince Alexei died after being whipped. Petr
1718 Britain sent convicts to Maryland & Virginia. George I
1718 English bank notes were issued. George I
1718 Matthew Prior published Alma and poetry. George I
1718 Lady Montagu promoted smallpox inoculation. George I
1718 Saint-Pierre published Traite de la PolysynodieFrance
1718 France began transporting tramps to Louisiana.
1718 Russia’s government was reorganize. Petr
1718 Russia confiscated coins from merchants. Petr
1718.7.13 Spanish forces captured Palermo. Spain Sicily
1718.7.21 Treaty ended Turks’ war against VeniceAustrian Empire
1718.8.2 France allied with Austria and Savoy. Clement XI
1718.8.11 British beat Spaniards off Cape Passaro. Spain Sicily
1718.8 Austrians, British, French & Dutch allied. Spain Netherlands
1718.9-12 Swedes invaded Norway again. Denmark
1718.10.15 Spaniards defeated Austrian army at Milazzo.
1718.11 Governor Bienville founded New Orleans. France
1718.11.30 Karl XII was shot dead at Frederiksen. Denmark Norway
1718.12.4 French government took over bank issues. France
1718.12 Maine conspirators were arrested. France
1718.12 Quadruple Alliance declared war on SpainGeorge I
1718-20 Ulrika Eleonara governed Sweden as regent.
1719.1.9 France declared war against Spain.
1719.1 British & allies opposed Russia & Prussia.
1719.1 Whigs repealed Conformity Act. British
1719.3 Prussia abolished serfdom on crown land. Germans
1719.4 Defoe published Robinson Crusoe.
1719.4 Marquis de Pontcallec led Breton rebellion. France
1719.4.21 French army invaded northern Spain.
1719.6.18 Fuenterrabia surrendered to the French. Spain
1719.6.20 Spaniards defeated Austrians at Francavilla. Spain Sicily
1719 Law took over African & East Indies companies. France
1719 France devalued banknotes.
1719 France suppressed a tax rebellion in Brittany.
1719 Emperor Karl VI recognized Liechtenstein. Germans
1719.7 Denmark’s Navy captured Marstrand. Norway
1719.10.10 British captured Vigo in Galicia. Spain
1719.12.19 Felipe V expelled Cardinal Alberoni.
1719-20 South Sea stock rose and fell. British
1719-20 Louisiana suffered a famine and an epidemic. France

1720.1.5 John Law became Finances Controller-General. France
1720.1.21 Sweden ceded most of Pomerania to Prussia. Germans
1720.1.26 Spain joined the Quadruple Alliance. Felipe V
1720.2.17 Four Allies made peace with Spain. British Austria Netherlands
1720.3 Prince of Conti & Duke of Bourbon obtained gold. France
1720.3.24 French banks closed. France
1720.5 French prices doubled. France
1720.6 Defoe published “Wise Sayings.”
1720.6 France had 300 merchant ships.
1720 British Parliament authorized workhouses for offenders.
1720 Swift wrote Universal Use of Irish ManufactureIreland
1720 Defoe published Memoirs of a Cavalier.
1720 Defoe published Captain Singleton.
1720 Bubonic plague killed 100,000 in Marseilles. France
1720 Portugal founded its Royal Academy of History.
1720 Wolff published German Ethics.
1720 Greenland Company began. Denmark
1720.7.3 Denmark & Sweden made peace. Norway
1720.7 Russian Navy defeated a Swedish fleet off Åland. Petr
1720.7.16 A bank riot in Paris killed about 20 people. France
1720.11.1 John Law fled to Italy. France
1720-25 Spanish Inquisition executed Jewish conversosSpain
1720-35 Austrian Empire ruled Sicily.
1720-51 Fredrik I reigned but did not rule Sweden.
1721.3 Spain and the Pope were reconciled. Clement XI
1721.3.27 Spain allied with France.
1721.6 Britain allied with Spain and France.
1721 Bailey published Universal Etymological DictionaryBritain
1721 Montesquieu published Persian LettersFrance
1721 J. S. Bach performed his Brandenburg Concertos. German
1721 Petr decreed Ecclesiastical Regulation.
1721.8.30 Sweden & Russia made peace at Nystad. Petr
1721.10 Petr was proclaimed Emperor of Russia.
1721, 1726 Justices of the peace kept wages low. Britain
1721-35 Hans Egede led missionaries in Greenland. Denmark
1722.1 Defoe published Moll Flanders.
1722.2 Tsar Petr devised the Table of Ranks.
1722.6.30 Hungarian Diet accepted the Pragmatic Sanction. Austrian Empire
1722 Defoe published Col. Jack.
1722 Zinzendorf gave refuge to Moravian Brethren. Germans
1722 Friedrich Wilhelm warned about unjust wars. Germans
1722 Russian soldiers suffered ergotism at Astrakhan. Petr
1722.10 Petr led an army to the mouth of the Volga. Petr
1722.11.7 Steele’s The Conscious Lovers opened.
1722.12 Karl VI chartered Ostend East India Co. Austrian Empire Netherlands
1722-42 Robert Walpole was Britain’s first minister.
1723.2.16 Parlement declared Louis XV of age to rule at 13. France
1723.4.6 Marivaux’s comedy Double Infidelities opened.
1723 Defoe published the novel Rob RoyBritain
1723 Molesworth wrote about the poor in Ireland.
1723 Giannone published his History of NaplesNaples
1723 Sweden’s Riksdag increased lawmaking & taxing.
1723 Potatoes were planted in Sweden.
1723.7 Defoe wrote “Insufficient Causes of Great Wars.”
1723.8.10 Cardinal Dubois died of syphilis. France
1723.10.10 Prussia and Britain made a treaty. Germans
1723.10 Britain banned trade with the Ostend Company.
1723.12.2 Regent Philippe died of a stroke.
1723-37 Last Medici Grand Duke Gastone ruled Tuscany
1723-38 Caps party governed Sweden.
1724.1 Voltaire published La Henriade.
1724.1 Russian Academy of Science was founded. Petr
1724.2 Defoe published The Fortunate Mistress
1724.3.4 France imposed death for theft & preaching.
1724 Fontenelle published The Origin of FablesFrance
1724 Possochkov published Book on Poverty & WealthPetr
1724.7 Lutherans destroyed a Jesuit chapel at Torun. Poland-Lithuania
1724.12.7 Nine Lutherans were executed at Torun. Poland-Lithuania
1724-30 Pope Benedict XIII consecrated 360 churches.
1725.1.28 Emperor Petr died.
1725.4 Three men were hanged in London for sodomy. Britain
1725.4 Voltaire’s Hérode et Mariamne played.
1725.5 Spain allied with the Austrian Empire.
1725 Chancellor Macclesfield was fined for taking bribes. Britain
1725 Hutcheson published Ideas of Beauty and VirtueIreland
1725 Hutcheson wrote Inquiry on Moral Good and Evil.
1725 Famine caused food riots in Paris. France
1725 Vivaldi published his concertos at Amsterdam. Venice
1725.9.5 Louis XV married Marie Leszczynska. France Poland-Lithuania
1725-27 Ekaterina I ruled the Russian Empire.
1725-41 Maria Elizabeth governed Austrian Netherlands.
1725-45 Karl Albrecht ruled Bavaria. Germans
1726 Defoe wrote Political History of the Devil.
1726 Jonathan Swift published Gulliver’s Travels.
1726 French militia were revived. France
1726 Sweden enforced Lutheran dogma.
1726.8.6 Russia allied with the Austrian Empire.
1726.8.9 Dutch allied with Hanover. Netherlands
1726.10.8 Fleury repealed the tax on clergy.
1726.12 Bolingbroke & Pulteney began The CraftsmanBritain
1726-28 Voltaire was in England.
1726-36 Patiño was Spain’s chief minister.
1726-43 Cardinal Fleury was prime minister of France.
1727.2-6 Spanish siege of Gibraltar failed. Spain
1727.4 Denmark allied with Britain and France.
1727.5 British got Karl VI to suspend Ostend Company. Austrian Empire
1727.5.31 Ostend Company was suspended. Netherlands
1727 Stephen Hales published Vegetable StaticksBritain
1727 430 Whigs & 128 Tories were elected. George II
1727 Jansenist weekly Nouvelles ecclésiastiques began. France
1727 Orthodox bishops lost power in Austrian Empire.
1727-30 Petr II ruled the Russian Empire.
1727-33 Queen Isabel ruled Spain for her ill husband.
1727-34 Apostol was Hetman of the left-bank Ukraine.
1727-60 George II ruled Britain.
1728.1.29 John Gay’s The Beggar’s Opera opened.
1728 Chambers published CyclopaediaGeorge II
1728 Swift wrote Short View of the State of Ireland.
1728 Law wrote Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life.
1728 Hutcheson wrote Essay on the Moral Sense.
1728 Fire devastated Copenhagen. Denmark
1728 First Masonic lodge opened in Warsaw. Poland-Lithuania
1728.8 Bering discovered strait between Asia & America.Russia
1728-47 Denmark’s theaters were closed.
1729 Swift wrote the satire, A Modest ProposalIreland
1729 France allied with Britain and Spain.
1729 Le Sage revised Asmodeus: Devil on 2 Sticks.
1729 Franz Stefan became Duke of Lorraine. Austrian Empire
1729 Copenhagen investors bought Norway’s trade.
1729.11 Britain & Spain made peace at Seville.
1729.11 Dutch joined the Quadruple Alliance. Netherlands
1729-51 Willem IV tried to govern the Netherlands.
1729-74 Polish Courier newspaper was published.

1730.1.23 Marivaux’s Game of Love and Chance opened.
1730 Walpole reduced the army and taxes.Britain
1730 Lesage’s comedy Turcaret played.
1730 Anna exiled the Dolgorukys and the Golitsyns. Russia
1730.10.30 Louis XV banned Mariamberg’s MemoirFrance
1730.12 Voltaire’s Brutus opened.
1730-32 Corsicans revolted against Genoese rule. Lombardy
1730-40 Pope Clement XII restored papal finances.
1730-40 Anna Ivanovna ruled the Russian Empire.
1730-46 Kristian VI ruled Denmark and Norway.
1730-73 Charles Emmanuel III of Savoy ruled Sardinia. Lombardy
1731.3.16 British allied with Austrian Empire at Vienna.
1731.3 Vienna treaty ended France’s alliance with Britain.
1731.6 George Lillo’s The London Merchant opened.
1731 Jethro Tull published Horse-Hoeing HusbandryBritain
1731 Protestants founded the Dublin Society. Ireland
1731 France’s Royal Academy of Surgery began
1731 Fleury imprisoned a hundred dissenters.
1731 Voltaire published his History of Charles XII.
1731 Prévost published his novelManon Lescaut.
1731 A Spanish army occupied Tuscany.
1731 Swedish East India Company began. Sweden
1731.7 Austria let Spain garrison Parma and Tuscany.
1731, 1734 Karl VI restricted Protestants in Hungary. Austrian Empire
1731-38 Griffith Jones founded 37 schools in South Wales. Britain
1732.2 Dutch signed Vienna treaty of Austria & Britain. Netherlands
1732.3.12 Marivaux’s The Triumph of Love opened.
1732.3.9 Carlos entered Florence to govern Tuscany. Naples
1732.3 Britain’s tobacco & wine taxes lasted one week. George II
1732.4.23 Salzburg expelled 20,000 Protestants. Austrian Empire Germans
1732 Oglethorpe founded the colony of Georgia. George II
1732 Prussia began compulsory military service. Germans
1732 Dutch Willem IV made agreement with Prussia.
1732 Konarski published Polish legislation. Poland-Lithuania
1732 Canal from the Neva to the Volkhov was finished. Petr
1732.7 Louis XV banished 139 members of Parlement. France
1732.8.13 Voltaire’s Zaire was produced.
1732.11 Spaniards reconquered Oran. Spain
1732-34 Dalin published satires in The Swedish ArgusSweden
1733.2 French army escorted Stanislas to Poland. France
1733 Britain taxed molasses, sugar & rum.
1733 John Kay patented a wheeled shuttle for a loom. Britain
1733 Richardson printed House of Commons journals.
1733 Voltaire published his Letters on the English.
1733 Voltaire married Émilie du Châtelet.
1733 Denmark purchased St. Croix.
1733 Kristian VI visited Norway.
1733 Russian army invaded Poland.
1733.8.14 Karl VI recognized August III of Saxony. Austrian Empire
1733.9.12 13,000 Poles voted for Stanisław. Poland-Lithuania
1733.10.5 Russians urged 1,000 nobles to elect August III.Poland-Lithuania
1733.10.10 France declared war against Austrian Empire. Poland-Lithuania
1733.10.26 Felipe V put his son Carlos in command in Italy.
1733.11 Felipe V & Louis XV formed Family Compact. France
1733-34 Alexander Pope’sEssay on Manwas printed.
1733-36 Poland’s Sejm excluded Protestants. Poland-Lithuania
1733-38 War of the Polish Succession. Austrian EmpirePoland-Lithuania
1733-63 Saxon August III ruled Poland-Lithuania.
1734.1 August III was crowned at Krakow. Poland-Lithuania
1734.2 Austrian Empire’s Ostend Company stopped trading.
1734.2-6 Russian army besieged Stanisław at Danzig. Poland-Lithuania
1734.3 Willem IV married Anne of Hanover.
1734.4.9 Austrian Empire declared war against France.
1734.5.10 Carlos and Spaniards entered Naples. Spain
1734.5.25 Spanish army defeated Austrians at Bitonto. Naples
1734.5 French occupied Lorraine and Trèves. France
1734.6.30 Russian forces drove French from Danzig. France
1734 Montesquieu published a book on the Romans.
1734 Denmark allied with Sweden and Britain.
1734 Sweden got a new law code.
1734 Swedenborg wrote “Against War with Russia.”
1734.9.1 Palermo Senate recognized Carlos in Sicily. Spain
1734, 1737 Index banned books by Locke. Naples
1734-59 Carlo ruled Naples and Sicily.
1735.1.26 Stanisław renounced the Polish throne. Poland-Lithuania
1735.5 Russian army defeated Dzikow Confederation. Poland-Lithuania
1735 Le Sage completed his novel Gil Blas.
1735 Linnaeus published his Systema NaturaeSweden
1735 Russians fought the French on the Rhine.
1735.6 Britain passed the Engraving Copyright Act.
1735.10.5 French began negotiating secretly with Austria. France
1735.10.14 John Wesley began his public journal.
1735.10 Austrian Empire regained Parma and Piacenza. Naples
1735-37 Portugal & Spain fought over Plata Rio colonies.
1735-39 35,000 Ukrainians died in a Russo-Turkish War. Ukraine
1736.1 Voltaire’s Alzire was produced.
1736.2.14 Maria Theresa married Franz of Lorraine. Austrian Empire
1736.5.4 Karl VI made Franz governor of Belgium. Austrian Empire
1736.6 Russians sacked Tatar capital Bakhchisarai.
1736 Britain repealed the Witchcraft Act.
1736 Joseph Butler published The Analogy of Religion.
1736 Voltaire’s La Mort de César flopped.
1736 Voltaire published “The Worldly Man.”
1736 Rousseau wrote Dissertation on Modern Music.
1736 Denmark made confirmation a law.
1736 Poland’s Sejm confirmed King August III. Poland-Lithuania
1736 Russia withdrew troops from Poland.
1736 Russia declared war on the Turks.
1736.7 Irish building workers rioted in East London. Britain
1736-48 Historian Giannone was in prison for heresy. Naples
1737.1 Carlo of Naples ceded Parma & Piacenza. Spain
1737.1 Austrian Empire took over Tuscany.
1737.2 Militaristic minister Chauvelin was exiled. France
1737 Licensing Act began censoring plays. Britain
1737 Saint-Pierre wrote books on universal peace. France
1737 Pope Clement XII recognized Spain’s rights.
1737 Felipe V ceded Tuscany to Francis of Lorraine. Naples
1737 Carlo had an opera house built in Naples.
1737 Algarotti published Newton’s PhilosophyVenice
1737 Swedish Playhouse opened. Sweden
1737 Anna made Biron the Duke of Courland. Russia
1737 Russians made Okhotsk a Pacific port.
1737 Russians captured Ochakov.
1737.7.9 Last Medici ruler Gastone died. Tuscany
1737.7 Franz became Grand Duke of Tuscany. Austrian Empire
1737.7 Austrian Empire allied with Russia against the Turks.
1737.8.4 Turks defeated Christian allies at Banja Luka. Austrian Empire
1737-66 Stanisław was Duke of Lorraine. Poland-Lithuania
1738.2.4 Württemberg executed banker Oppenheimer. Germans
1738 France compelled labor to repair roads.
1738 Voltaire published his book on Newton.
1738 Spain began its Royal Academy of History.
1738 Daniel Bernoulli published HydrodynamicsSwiss
1738 Denmark banned comedy and gambling.
1738.11.18 Vienna treaty ended Polish War. Austrian Empire
1738-41 One-sixth of the French died of hunger. France
1738-47 Satirist Weyerman was in prison. Netherlands
1738-65 Hats party governed Sweden.
1738-1803 Karl Friedrich ruled Baden. German States
1739.4.1 John Wesley preached to 3,000 at Bristol.
1739 Scotland began growing potatoes. Britain
1739 Feijóo completed his Teatro critico universalSpain
1739 Denmark financed elementary schools.
1739 Norwegian Company began. Norway
1739 Linnaeus began Sweden’s Academy of Science. Sweden
1739 Moldavian nobles joined the Russian Empire.
1739.7-9 Ottoman siege captured Belgrade. Austrian Empire
1739.9.18 Austrian Empire ceded Serbia to Ottoman Empire.
1739.10.3 Russia and the Turks made a treaty at Niš.
1739.10.8  Britain declared war against Spain.
1739.11.22 British ships captured Porto Bello in Panama. 
1739-43 British and Spain fought a war.
1739-40 Friedrich II & Voltaire wrote on Machiavelli.
1739-42 Norway suffered famine and disease.
1739-48 British spent £6.6 million on wars.

1740 Samuel Richardson publishedPamela.
1740 2 Sicilies and Ottoman Empire made a treaty. Naples
1740.10-11 Biron was Regent of Russia for 25 days.
1740.12 August III allied with Austria’s Maria Theresa. Poland-Lithuania
1740.12.16 Prussia’s Friedrich II invaded Silesia. Austrian Empire
1740.12.25 Moravians celebrated Christmas in Bethlehem. Germans
1740-41 Ivan’s mother Anna was Regent of Russia.
1740-44 418 mosques were destroyed in Kazan. Russia
1740-48 War of the Austrian Succession.
1740-58 Pope Benedict XIV was a reformer & scholar.
1740-86 Friedrich II ruled Prussia.
1741.3-5 10,000 British died at the Cartagena siege.
1741.4.10 Prussians fought Austrians at Mollwitz. Austrian Empire Friedrich II
1741.5 France entered the Austrian War.
1741.5.28 Spain & France allied with Bavaria. Austrian Empire
1741.6.5 France allied with Prussia. Austrian Empire Germany
1741.6.25 Maria Theresa was crowned Queen of Hungary. Austrian Empire
1741 Spain imposed a 10% tax on income.
1741 Danes fought Russians in Finland. Norway
1741 Uppsala Astronomical Observatory was built. Sweden
1741.2 Henry Fielding published Joseph Andrews.
1741.3-5 Spaniards defeated the British at Cartagena. Spain
1741.4.25 Voltaire’s Mahomet opened at Lille.
1741.7 Britain gave Austrian Empire a subsidy of £300,000.
1741.8.15 A French army crossed the Rhine. France
1741.9.14 French and Bavarians captured Linz. France Austrian Empire
1741.9 Franz became co-regent of Hungary. Austrian Empire
1741.9.19 Saxony allied with France against Britain.
1741.10.9 Austrian Empire ceded Lower Silesia to Prussia. Germany
1741.11.25 French and Bavarians captured Prague. France Austrian Empire
1741.12.19 Karl Albrecht was crowned King of Bohemia. Austrian Empire Germany
1741-42 Hume wrote Essays, Moral and Political.
1741-43 Sweden and Russia fought a war.
1741-61 Elizaveta ruled the Russian Empire.
1742.2.12 Emperor Karl VII was crowned in Frankfurt. France Austrian Empire
1742.2.12 Austrian imperial army captured Munich. Friedrich II
1742.4.13 Handel’s Messiah premiered in Dublin. Ireland
1742.5.17 Austrian army fought Prussians at Chotusitz. Friedrich II
1742.6.11 British mediated a truce in Silesia. Austrian Empire Friedrich II
1742 Handel composed “Joy to the World.” George II
1742 Denmark allied with France and got a subsidy.
1742 Horkraemmer Company got Iceland trade.
1742 Celsius invented the centigrade thermometer. Sweden
1742 Elizaveta expelled Jews from Russia.
1742.6-12 Austrian siege drove French allies from Prague.
1742.7.28 Austrian Empire signed a treaty at Berlin. Friedrich II
1742.9.17 Saxony withdrew from the Austrian War.
1742.11 Britain allied with Prussia against France.
1742.12.12 French forces retreated from Prague. France
1742-45 Karl VII was Holy Roman Emperor. Austrian Empire
1742.46 Lengnich wrote Public Law of the Polish RealmPoland-Lithuania
1743.2.18 Last Medici Anna Maria died in Florence. Tuscany
1743.2.20 Voltaire’s Mérope opened.
1743.3-6 Dalecarlian peasants rebelled. Sweden
1743.5.12 Maria Theresa was crowned Queen of Bohemia. Austrian Empire
1743.5 France declared war on Austria and Britain. Austrian Empire
1743.6.27 British & allies beat French at Dettingen. Louis XV Austrian Empire
1743 John Wesley published Methodist Rules.
1743 Fielding wrote Journey from this World.
1743 Henry Fielding published Jonathan Wild.
1743 Rousseau wrote the opera Les Muses Galantes.
1743 30,000 people died of typhus in Messina. Sicily
1743 Russia & Prussia made a defensive alliance.
1743.8 Russia & Sweden made peace at Åbo.
1743.10.25 Felipe V & Louis XV renewed the Compact.
1743.12 Austrian Empire allied with Saxony.
1743-44 Austrian imperial army invaded Naples.
1744.3.15 France’s Louis XV declared war on Britain.
1744.4.26 France declared war on Austrian EmpireLouis XV
1744.5 France invaded southern Netherlands. Louis XV Germany
1744.6 France allied with Prussia & Frankfurt Union. Louis XV Friedrich II
1744 Vico finished his Principles of a New Science.
1744 Austrian imperial army invaded Naples.
1744 Ukraine’s new laws went into effect.
1744 Orenburg became a Russian province.
1744 Russian population reached 18,250,000.
1744.8.15 Prussia’s Friedrich II invaded Bohemia. Austrian Empire
1744.12 Friedrich II retreated to Silesia.
1744-80 Charles Alexander ruled Austrian Netherlands.
1745.1.8 Britain, Austrian Empire, Saxony & Dutch allied. Netherlands
1745.1.20 Emperor Karl VII died. Austrian Empire Friedrich II
1745.2.25 The ballet La Princesse de Navarre opened.
1745.3 Spain allied with Genoa against Savoy.
1745.4.1 Voltaire became France’s historiographer.
1745.4.15 Austrian Empire beat Bavarians at Pfaffenhofen. Friedrich II
1745.4.22 Bavaria & Austrian Empire agreed to end the war. Germany
1745.5.11 French beat four allies at Fontenoy. Austrian Empire BritainLouis XV Netherlands
1745.6 Maria Theresa expelled Jews from Bohemia. Austrian Empire
1745.6.24 Louis XV made Jeanne Marquise of Pompadour.
1745.6.28 1,400 French surrendered at Louisbourg. Louis XV
1745 Pompadour got Voltaire into French Academy. Louis XV
1745 French army conquered Austrian Netherlands. Louis XV
1745 Prussian army defeated Austrian Empire 3 times.
1745 Sweden & Russia made a defensive treaty.
1745 Atlas of the Russian Empire was published.
1745.8 British allied with Prussia against France.
1745.8 Ekaterina married Petr of Holstein-Gottorp. Russia
1745.9.17 Jacobites took over Edinburgh for James VIII. Britain
1745.9.27 Spain defeated Savoy at Bassignano.
1745.9.30 Prussians defeated Austrians at Soor. Friedrich II
1745.11.18 Jacobites occupied Carlisle in England. Britain
1745.12 France’s Controller-General Orry resigned.Louis XV
1745.12.15 Prussians defeated Saxons at Kesselsdorf. Friedrich II
1745.12.19 Spanish troops entered Milan. Spain
1745.12.25 Austrian Empire made peace with Prussia. Friedrich II
1745.12.30 Jacobites surrendered Carlisle to the British.
1745-46 Chmielowski published an encyclopedia. Poland-Lithuania
1745-47 Genoese rebelled against Austrian rule. Lombardy
1745-65 Franz was Holy Roman Emperor. Austrian Empire Friedrich II
1746.1.17 4,000 were killed fighting at Falkirk, Scotland. Britain
1746.2.22 French army captured Brussels. Austrian Empire Louis XV Netherlands
1746.4.3 British defeated Jacobite rebellion at Culloden.
1746.4  Spaniards withdrew from Parma. Spain
1746.6.2 Austrian Empire allied with Russia.
1746.6.16 Austrians beat Spanish and French at Piacenza. Spain
1746 Diderot wrote Philosophic Thoughts.
1746 King Carlo kept the Inquisition out of Naples.
1746 Maria Theresa expelled Jews from Buda.
1746 Swiss Natural Science Society began.
1746 Berliners acclaimed “Friedrich the Great.”
1746 Plauer canal joined the Elbe to the Havel. Friedrich II
1746 Denmark allied with Russia.
1746.7.9 After long mental decline Felipe V died.
1746.9 French forces took Madras from the English Company. Louis XV
1746.10.11 French defeated Austrians at Rocoux. Louis XV
1746-59 Fernando VI ruled Spain.
1746-66 Frederik V ruled Denmark and Norway.
1747.4 French army invaded Flanders. Netherlands
1747.4.28 Zeeland declared Willem IV stadholder.
1747.5 Dutch provinces accepted Willem IV.
1747.5 Sweden allied with France and Prussia.
1747 Tobias Smollett published Roderick Random.
1747 French defeated invading Sardinians in Provence. Louis XV
1747 Voltaire published his novel Zadig.
1747 Goldoni’s Servant of Two Masters opened.
1747 First public library was founded in Warsaw. Poland-Lithuania
1747.7.2 French defeated British allies at Lauffeld. Louis XV
1747.9.18 French army sacked Bergen-op-Zoom. Netherlands
1747-48 Samuel Richardson published Clarissa.
1747-48 French army invaded Brabant and Flanders. Netherlands
1747, 1753 James Lind noted that citrus cures scurvy. Britain
1748.1-11 Dutch rioted and protested. Netherlands
1748.5.7 French army captured Maastricht fortress. Louis XV
1748 John Wesley wrote Plain Account of Methodists.
1748 Samuel Johnson wrote “The Vanity of Human Wishes.”
1748 La Mettrie published L’homme MachineLouis XV
1748 Montesquieu published The Spirit of Laws.
1748 Diderot published The Indiscreet Jewels.
1748 Russian army marched to Germany and back. Poland-Lithuania
1748 A decree ordered books printed in Russian.
1748.8.29 Voltaire’s Sémiramis was produced.
1748.10.18 Europeans made peace at Aachen. Britain Louis XV Spain Austria
1748.12 Willem IV agreed to new rules.
1748-49 Henry Fielding publishedTom Jones.
1749 Bolingbroke published Spirit of PatriotismBritain
1749 France imposed a 5% income tax. Louis XV
1749 French scientists published Natural HistoryDiderot
1749 Wolff published The Law of Nations.
1749 Codex Fredericianus simplified rules. Friedrich II
1749 Stanisław wrote A Free Voice Ensuring FreedomPoland-Lithuania
1749.7 Bern punished conspirators. Swiss
1749.7-11 Diderot was in prison at Vincennes.
1749.8 Denmark & Sweden agreed on Gottorp.
1449-50 Paris police arrested vagrants and veterans. Louis XV
1749-68 Skúli Magnusson worked for reform in Iceland.

1750.1 Spain and Portugal agreed on boundaries.
1750.1 Burgomasters lost control of Haarlem. Netherlands
1750.4.25 Adolf Friedrich gave up Schleswig. Denmark
1750 Voltaire estimated population of European states. Britain
1750 Voltaire wrote La Voix du sage et du peuple.
1750 J. S. Bach completed his Art of the FugueLessing
1750 Lessing began translating Voltaire’s work.
1750.7 Rousseau wrote Discourse on Science and Arts.
1750.9.13 Britain joined Austria & Russia against Prussia.
1750.11 Diderot published his Prospectus
1750-52 Johnson wrote 208 articles for The Rambler.
1750-52 Kaunitz was Austria’s ambassador to France.
1750-53 Voltaire lived in Prussia.
1750-64 Rozumovsky was Ukrainian Hetman. Ukraine
1750-70 J. Bernstorff was Denmark’s foreign minister.
1750-77 José I ruled Portugal as enlightened despot.
1751.6 Diderot & d’Alembert began the Encyclopédie.
1751 John Wesley married and lost his fellowship.
1751 Hume wrote Enquiry on Principles of Morals.
1751 Tobias Smollett published Peregrine Pickle.
1751 Louis XV financed a military school for nobles.
1751 Voltaire published his Age of Louis XIV.
1751 Portugal restricted the Inquisition.
1751 Naples built a house for the poor and ill.
1751 Hungarian Diet refused to pass a war tax. Austrian Empire
1751.12 Henry Fielding publishedAmelia.
1751.12 Louis XV granted clergy immunity from taxes.
1751, 1759 Peasants revolted in Transylvania. Austrian Empire
1751-59 Anne of Hanover was Dutch regent. Netherlands
1751-71 Adolf Fredrik was King of Sweden.
1752.3 Austria outlawed Protestant books.
1752.6 Spain, Austria & Sardinia made Aranjuez treaty.
1752.6 Upper Austria expelled 2,664 Protestants.
1752 Pringle published Diseases of the ArmyBritain
1752 William Law published The Spirit of Love.
1752 Persecuted Protestants emigrated from France. Louis XV
1752 Spain began its Academy of Fine Arts.
1752.9.14 Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar (NS).
1753.1 Pope Benedict XIV granted Spain a concordat.
1753.3.1 Sweden adopted the Gregorian calendar (NS).
1753.3 Rousseau’s Le Devin du village made money.
1753.5 Paris Parlement was suspended and exiled. Louis XV
1753 Marriage Act required parental consent for minors. Britain
1753 Britain claimed Ireland’s surplus.
1753 Le Paige published a history of Parlement. Louis XV
1753 Portugal set up Company for Trade with Asia.
1753 Goldoni’s Mistress of the Inn played.
1753 Peasants revolted in southern Hungary. Maria Theresa
1753 Maria Theresa set up a Chastity Commission.
1753 Lessing wrote “Christianity of Reason.”
1753.11 Carlo banned gambling in Naples.
1753-54 Richardson published Sir Charles Grandison.
1753-92 Kaunitz was Chancellor of the Austrian Empire.
1754 Lessing wrote the comedy The Jews.
1754 Russia ended internal customs & tripled tariffs.
1754.9.17 Quesnay persuaded Louis XV to abolish tolls.
1754.11 Rousseau published On Political Economy.
1754.12 Parlement banished Archbishop Beaumont. Louis XV
1754, 1756 Spain suppressed the Guarani revolt.
1755.4 Samuel Johnson published his English Dictionary.
1755.5 Uri forces punished rebels in Levinental. Swiss
1755 Hutcheson’s System of Moral Philosophy published.
1755 Morelly published his Code of NatureLouis XV
1755 Rousseau wrote his Discourse on Inequality.
1755 Corsica declared a republic. Lombardy
1755 Algarotti published Essay on the OperaVenice
1755 Estates in Mecklenburg-Schwerin gained rights. Germany
1755 Lessing and Mendelssohn collaborated.
1755 Moscow University was founded. Russia
1755.7.8 Britain broke diplomatic relations with France.
1755.7.10 Lessing’s tragedy Miss Sara Sampson opened.
1755.9 Britain began subsidizing Russian troops.
1755.11.1 Lisbon was devastated by an earthquake. Portugal
1755-58 Poniatowski was Ekaterina’s lover. Poland-Lithuania
1755-93 Karl Eugen ruled Württemberg. Germans
1756.1 Britain made defensive alliance with Prussia. Friedrich II
1756.2 Dutch Republic declared neutrality. Netherlands
1756.5.1 France & Austrian Empire allied defensively. Louis XV
1756.5.17 Britain declared war against France.
1756.5.20 French squadron captured a Minorca fort. Louis XV
1756.6 Queen Louisa Ulrika’s coup in Sweden failed.
1756 Elder Mirabeau wrote The Friend of MankindLouis XV
1756 Voltaire published 7-volume Spirit of Nations.
1756 Swedenborg completed his Arcana Coelestia.
1756.8 Friedrich II detained August III at Pirna. Poland-Lithuania
1756.8.21 Parlement raised income tax to 10%. Louis XV
1756.8.29 Prussia began war by invading Saxony. Friedrich II
1756.9.9 Prussian army occupied Dresden. Friedrich II
1756.10.14 Prussians defeated Saxons at Pirna. Friedrich II
1756.10.16 Pope Benedict XIV issued Ex omnibus encyclical. Louis XV
1756.12.13 French Edict of Discipline caused controversy. Louis XV
1756-77 Carvalho (Pombal) governed Portugal.
1756-85 Duke Friedrich II ruled Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
1757.1.5 The servant Damiens stabbed Louis XV.
1757.3.14 Britain executed Admiral Byng for losing Minorca.
1757.5.1 France & Austrian Empiree allied offensively. Louis XV
1757.5.6 Prussians defeated Austrians near Prague. Friedrich II
1757.6.18 Austrians defeated Prussians in Bohemia. Friedrich II
1757 Denmark began an agriculture commission.
1757 Sweden’s Enclosure Act helped peasants.
1757.7.26 French defeated British at Hastenbeck.
1757.10.16 Hungarian cavalry raided Berlin. Austrian Empire
1757.11.5 Prussians defeated French & AustriansLouis XV Friedrich II
1757.11 Voltaire wrote “Geneva” for the Encyclopédie.
1757.12.5 Prussians defeated Austrians at Leuthen. Friedrich II
1757-62 Swedes fought Prussians. Russia
1757-63 Russian army occupied Poland-Lithuania.
1758.3 Nun Marguerite Delamarre sued. Diderot
1758.4.11 British & Prussians made a deal. Friedrich II
1758.5 Prussian army invaded Moravia. Austrian Empire
1758.6 British began seizing Dutch ships. Netherlands
1758.6.23 Britain & Germans defeated French. Louis XV
1758 Johnson wrote “Of the Duty of a Journalist.”
1758 France subsidized Russia, Sweden & Austria. Louis XV
1758 Parlement burned De l’esprit by Helvetius. Louis XV
1758 Quesnay published his Economic TableFrance
1758 Voltaire criticized Rousseau in d’Alembert letter.
1758 Rousseau wrote to d’Alembert on theatre.
1758 Carlo Gozzi wrote The Comic Theatre.  Goldoni
1758 Balthasar advocated national Swiss education.
1758 Vattel published his Law of Nations.
1758 Swedenborg published Heaven and Hell.
1758 Russia let only nobles own serfs.
1758.7 Helvétius published De ll’espritDiderot
1758.7.26 British took Louisbourg from the French. Louis XV
1758.8.25 Prussians defeated Russians at Zorndorf. Friedrich II
1758.8.27 Queen Barbara left riches to Portugal’s Pedro III. Spain
1758.9.3 Men shot and wounded King José I. Portugal
1758.9.11 French defeated British near Saint Cast. Louis XV
1758.10.14 Austrians defeated Prussians at Hochkirch. Friedrich II
1758.11 Diderot published Discourse on Dramatic Poetry.
1759.1 Voltaire published Candide or Optimism.
1759.4.13 French defeated British allies at Bergen. Louis XV
1759.4 Samuel Johnson publishedRasselas.
1759.6 Portugal got free grammar-schools.
1759 Adam Smith published Theory of Moral Sentiments.
1759 Voltaire’sSocrateswas produced.
1759 Inquisition banned the EncyclopédieSpain Clement XIII
1759 Tschiffeli began Swiss Economic Association.
1759 Russians invaded Great Poland.
1759 Sumarokov’s Busy Bee literary journal began. Russia
1759.7.19 Swedenborg perceived the Stockholm fire.
1759.7.21 Paris Parlement condemned theEncyclopédie.
1759.7.23 Russians defeated Prussians in Brandenburg. Friedrich II
1759.8.1 British & allies beat French at Minden. Louis XV Friedrich II
1759.8.12 Russians defeated Prussia at Kundersdorf.  Austria Friedrich II
1759.9.3 Portugal outlawed Jesuits.
1759.9.13 British captured Quebec. Louis XV
1759.9 France raised income tax to 15%. Louis XV
1759.9.17 Jakub Frank was baptized. Poland-Lithuania
1759.11.20 Austrians defeated Prussians at Maxen.
1759-88 Carlos III ruled Spain with reforms.

1760.2 Goldoni’s comedy The Boors played.
1760.6.23 Austrian allies defeated Prussians at Landeshut.
1760 Le Paige’s book criticized Jesuits. France
1760 Elder Mirabeau published his Theory of TaxationFrance
1760 D’Alembert wrote on the republic of letters.
1760 Verri published his Elements of TradeTuscany
1760 Scientific Society of Trondheim was formed. Norway
1760  Zamoyski freed serfs on his estate. Poland-Lithuania
1760 Hasidism founder Baal Shem Tov died. Poland-Lithuania
1760.7.31 British allies defeated French at Warburg. Germany
1760.8.15 Prussians defeated Austrians at Liegnitz. Friedrich II
1760.9.3 Voltaire’s verse tragedy Tancrède opened.
1760.9.8 British captured Montreal. Louis XV
1760.10 Russians & Austrians attacked Berlin. Friedrich II
1760.10.25 George II died of a heart attack. Britain
1760.11.3 Prussians and Austrians fought at Torgau.Friedrich II
1760.11 Mauduit wrote on the cost of the German War. George III
1760.12 Goldoni’s comedy La Casa Nova played.
1760-73 Jakub Frank was imprisoned for heresy. Poland-Lithuania
1760-182 George III reigned in Britain.
1761.1 Rousseau published his novelJulie.
1761.2 Spain restored the Guarani missions.
1761.3.21 French captured Germans at Grünberg. Louis XV
1761.3.25 George III made Bute the Northern Secretary.
1761 Hume completed his History of England.
1761 Rousseau wrote “Perpetual Peace” in Geneva.
1761 Diderot began writing Rameau’s Nephew.
1761 Portugal banned slaves in its cities.
1761 St. Germain trained Denmark’s army.
1761.7.16 German allies defeated 90,000 French. Louis XV Friedrich II
1761.8.15 France & Spain made 3rd Family Compact. Louis XV Spain
1761.9.20 Inquisition executed Malagrida for heresy. Portugal
1761.10 Rousseau published Emile (on Education).
1761-62 Petr III ruled Russia for six months.
1761-63 Konarski published 4 volumes on debates. Poland-Lithuania
1761-72 Grigory Orlov was Ekaterina II’s lover.
1761-92 Wilno Gazette was published. Poland-Lithuania
1762.1.4 Britain declared war on Spain & Naples.George III
1762.1 Carlos III controlled papal documents in Spain.
1762.2 Petr III secularized church properties. Russia
1762.3.10 Jean Calas was executed. Voltaire
1762.3.24 Voltaire’s Olympia opened at Ferney.
1762.4 Rousseau published The Social Contract.
1762.5 Portugal refused to close ports to Britain. Spain
1762.5.5 Russia and Prussia made a peace treaty. Friedrich II
1762.5.18 Portugal declared war on France & Spain.
1762.6.9 Parlement condemned Rousseau’sEmile.
1762.6 Petr III allied with Prussia’s Friedrich II. Russia
1762.6.28 Ekaterina II overthrew her husband Petr III.
1762 Voltaire published The Maid of Orléans.
1762 George III bought Canaletto paintings. Venice
1762 Austrian Empire began printing paper money.
1762 Mozart and his sister began touring. Joseph II
1762 Geneva burned books by Rousseau. Swiss
1762 Denmark’s new tax caused riots in Bergen. Norway
1762 Olof von Dalin completed his History of SwedenSweden
1762 Rosén published Diseases of ChildrenSweden
1762.7.6 Petr III was killed. Ekaterina II
1762.7 Ekaterina II ended Prussian alliance. Friedrich II
1762.8 Spain invaded Portugal and captured Almeida.
1762.8.8 Ekaterina II decreed serf-owners must buy land.
1762.8.13 British navy captured Havana. Spain
1762.9.22 British navy captured Manila. Spain
1762.9.22 Ekaterina II was crowned Empress of Russia.
1762.10.29 Prussians defeated Austrians at Freiberg. Friedrich II
1762.11.3 British, French & Spanish agreed on peace. Louis XV
1762.11 France ceded Louisiana to Spain.
1762-63 Friedrich II replaced Polish coins. Poland-Lithuania
1762-73 Russian Empire had forty peasant revolts. Ekaterina II
1762-87 French government controlled political news. France
1763.2.10 Paris Treaty ended Seven Years’ War. George III France Spain
1763.2.15 Prussia, Austria & Saxony made peace. Friedrich II Poland-Lithuania
1763.2 Portugal regained Sacramento colony in treaty.
1763.4 Voltaire published his Treatise on Tolerance.
1763.4.23 John Wilkes issued North Briton 45. George III
1763 Hundreds of Irish attacked landlords. Ireland
1763 Physiocrats began La Gazette du CommerceFrance
1763 Elder Mirabeau published his Rural PhilosophyFrance
1763 Famine killed 30,000 people in Sicily.
1763 Russia allied with Prussia.
1763 Mendelssohn won a Prussian essay contest.
1763 Swedenborg published Angelic Wisdom.
1763 Ekaterina II had burned town of Tver rebuilt.
1763.12.15 Ekaterina II reorganized the government.
1763, 1773 The Dutch economy crashed. Netherlands
1763-69 Bougainville sailed around the world. France D’Alembert
1764.1.19 Parliament expelled Wilkes. George III
1764.2 Ekaterina II put serfs under Economy College.
1764.3.27 Joseph was elected King of the Romans. Austrian Empire
1764.4.5 British Sugar Act taxed Americans.
1764.4.15 Madame de Pompadour died. France
1764 Rousseau wrote Letters from the Mountain.
1764 Austrian army massacred 400 Székelys.
1764 Ekaterina II and Betskoi wrote on education.
1764 Ekaterina II confirmed Russia’s Prussian alliance.
1764.7.5 Imprisoned Ivan VI was killed. Ekaterina II
1764.7 Voltaire’s Philosophical Dictionary first appeared.
1764.7 Beccaria wrote On Crimes and Punishments.
1764.9.7 Sejm elected Poniatowski King Stanisław II. Poland-Lithuania Russia
1764.11 Louis XV suppressed the Jesuits. France Clement XIV
1764.11 Sejm abolished the veto. Poland-Lithuania
1764-66 Esquilache provoked resistance in Madrid & fled. Spain
1764-90 Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor. Austrian Empire
1765.1 Voltaire criticized Rousseau again.
1765.1 Pope Clement XIII defended Jesuits.
1765.3.11 Denmark allied with Russia.
1765.3 Parliament passed Stamp & Quartering acts. Britain
1765.3 Ekaterina II bought D’Alembert’s library.
1765 Goldsmith published The Vicar of Wakefield.
1765 De Belloy’s play The Siege of Calais opened. France
1765 Emperor Joseph II became co-regent of Austria.
1765 Brunswick started Europe’s first savings bank. German States
1765 Lichtenberg began writing aphorisms.
1765 Denmark made five trade treaties. Russia
1765 Chydenius published The Nation’s ProfitSweden
1765 Stanisław II founded the College of Chivalry. Poland-Lithuania
1765 Ekaterina II founded the Free Economic Society.
1765.7 George III replaced Grenville with Rockingham.
1765.9.5 Carlos III wedded Maria Luisa; 10 were killed.
1766.3.4 Pitt persuaded Commons to repeal the Stamp Act. George III
1765-68 Caps party governed Sweden.
1765-69 Blackstone published Commentaries on the LawsBritain
1765-85 Poland’s weekly Monitor was published. Poland-Lithuania
1765-90 Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldino ruled Tuscany.
1766.3 Parlement accepted Louis XV’s sovereignty. France
1766 Britain & Russia made a commercial treaty. Ekaterina II
1766 France annexed Lorraine.
1766 Campomanes made reforms, accused Jesuits. Carlos III
1766 Prussia adopted French taxes and tolls.
1766 Zamoyski freed peasants from labor-rents. Poland-Lithuania
1766 Russian Repnin blocked reforms in Poland. Poland-Lithuania
1766-67 Rousseau lived in England.
1766-82 Moser wrote New German Constitutional LawEducation
1766-95 Willem V governed the Dutch Republic. Netherlands
1766-1808 Kristian VII suffered from dementia. Denmark
1767.2-4 Spain’s Carlos III expelled the Jesuits. Clement XIII
1767.3 Lutherans formed a confederation at Torun. Poland-Lithuania
1767.3 Russians invaded Poland-Lithuania. Poland-Lithuania
1767.5 Spain made a friendship treaty with Morocco. Carlos III
1767.6 Catholics formed the Radom Confederation. Poland-Lithuania
1767 Joseph Priestley published his book on electricity. Britain
1767 La Rivière published Natural and Essential OrderFrance
1767 Genovesi published his Academic LettersNaples
1767 Maria Theresa ordered smallpox inoculations.
1767 Lessing published Laocoön.
1767 Sejm confirmed conservative principles. Poland-Lithuania
1767.7.2 Townshend’s Revenue Act became law. Britain
1767.7 Ekaterina II set up a commission to revise laws.
1767.9 Venice suppressed 127 monasteries.
1767.9.30 Lessing’s comedy Minna von Barnhelm opened.
1767.10.4 Willem V married Wilhelmina of Prussia. Netherlands
1767.11 Naples expelled the Jesuits. Carlos III
1767-68 Many British workers were on strike.
1767-72 Townshend governed Ireland.
1767-1816 Ferdinando ruled Naples and Sicily.
1768.2.29 Nobles formed the Bar Confederation. Poland-Lithuania
1768.3.11 The Pacification Edict aided Swiss burghers.
1768.5.15 Genoa ceded Corsica to FranceLombardy
1768.5 Ferdinando married Austrian Maria Carolina. Naples
1768 Du Pont de Nemours published PhysiocratieFrance
1768 Portugal set up a censorship board.
1768 Basedow published his Appeal to FriendsGerman
1768.9 Pope Clement XIII accepted Jesuit refugees.
1768.10.12 Ekaterina II was inoculated for smallpox.
1768.10 Russia improved trade with China. Ekaterina II
1768.12 Ekaterina II ended the law commission.
1768-71 Hats party governed Sweden.
1768-76 Tanucci was First Secretary in Naples.
1769.6 Russian Navy destroyed Turks in Çeşme Bay. Ekaterina II
1769 Voltaire wrote History of Paris ParlementFrance
1769 Madame du Barry became Louis XV’s mistress. France
1769 Choiseul abolished the Company of the Indies. France
1769 Voltaire criticized religion in Dieu et les hommes.
1769 Emperor Joseph II visited Naples.
1769 Maria Theresa began dissolving monasteries.
1769 Brzostoski began a Peasant Commonwealth. Poland-Lithuania
1769 Austrians invaded Poland and annexed Spisz. Poland-Lithuania
1769 Ekaterina II began a satirical journal.
1769 Russia began printing paper money. Ekaterina II
1769.7 Emperor Joseph II visited Venice.
1769.7.21 Russians defeated Turks at Kagul. Ekaterina II
1769-70 Turgot published his Reflections on RichesLouis XVI
1769-74 Novikov edited the weekly DroneEkaterina II

1770.4.12 Britain repealed Townshend taxes except on tea.
1770.5.16 Louis-Auguste married Marie Antoinette. Louis XVI Maria Theresa
1770 Bawdy comedies were banned in Vienna. Maria Theresa
1770 Austrians took Nowy Targ and Nowy Sacz. Poland-Lithuania
1770.10.22 Bar Confederation renounced Stanisław II. Poland-Lithuania
1770.12 Louis XV dismissed Foreign Minister Choiseul. France
1770-72 Central Europe suffered from a famine. Austrian Empire
1770-72 Queen Matilda and Struensee ruled Denmark.
1770-82 Frederick North was British prime minister. Britain
1771.1.20 Members of Parlement were exiled. France
1771.5 Mackenzie published The Man of Feeling.
1771.5.23 Stanisław II’s forces defeated confederates. Poland-Lithuania
1771 Encyclopedia Britannica was published. Britain
1771 Tobias Smollett published Humphry Clinker.
1771 Rousseau wrote his Confessions.
1771 Turks returned Little Wallachia to Austria.
1771 Royal Swedish Academy of Music began. Sweden
1771 Swedenborg published The Christian Religion.
1771 Russians invaded the Crimea.
1771 Bubonic plague killed 56,672 people in Moscow. Russia
1771 Sumarokov’s Dimitry the Pretender played. Russia
1771-88 Zedlitz promoted education in Prussia.
1772.1.16 Kristian VI arrested Struensee & Matilda. Denmark
1772.2.13 Denmark made Danish the official language.
1772.2 Prussia & Russia took Poland’s land. Poland-Lithuania
1772.3.8 Lessing’s tragedy Emilia Galotti opened.
1772.4 Rousseau wrote on Poland’s government.
1772.4.28 Denmark executed Struensee and Brandt.
1772.6.22 Chief Justice Murray outlawed slavery in England. Britain
1772 England’s financial crash spread in Europe. Britain
1772 Coimbra University expanded science. Portugal
1772 Herder published On the Origin of Language.
1772 Norwegian Society began in Copenhagen. Norway
1772 Novikov published a book on Russiana writers.
1772.8.5 Austrian Empire obtained Polish Galicia.
1772.8.5 Poland-Lithuania was partitioned. Poland-Lithuania
1772.8.18 Confederates at Jasna Gora surrendered. Poland-Lithuania
1772.8.19 Gustav III claimed absolute power in Sweden.
1772.78 Council & Stackelberg governed Poland-Lithuania.
1772-84 Juliane, Frederik & Guldberg ruled Denmark.
1772-92 Gustav III ruled Sweden.
1773.3.15 Goldsmith’s She Stoops to Conquer opened.
1773.5.25 Portugal freed the children of slaves.
1773.6-11 Diderot visited Ekaterina II in St. Petersburg.
1773 John Wesley wrote on the Present Scarcity.
1773 A bad harvest led to a revolt in Palermo. Sicily
1773 Herder wrote On German Character and Art.
1773 Denmark allied with Russia against Sweden.
1773 Gustav III founded the Royal Academy of Art. Sweden
1773 Sejm allowed szlachta to engage in trade. Poland-Lithuania
1773 Stanisław II named an Education Commission. Poland-Lithuania
1773.7 Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Jesuits. Spain
1773.9 Sejm ratified first partition of Poland-Lithuania.
1773.11 Voltaire satirized weapons in La Tactique.
1773-74 Pugachev led rebellion in Russia.
1773-74 Diderot visited Ekaterina II.
1774.3.31 Britain imposed the Boston Port Act.
1774.4.12 Goethe’s drama Götz von Berlichingen opened.
1774.5.10 Louis XV died of smallpox. France
1774 John Wesley wrote Thoughts on Slavery.
1774 Pombal decreed free trade in Portugal.
1774 Basedow completed his Elementary BookGerman
1774 Mendelssohn translated the Psalms into German.
1774 Herder wrote Another Philosophy of History.
1774 Goethe published Sorrows of Young Werther.
1774 Goethe’s Clavigo played.
1774 Załuski left the Warsaw library to the state. Poland-Lithuania
1774.7 Russian and Ottoman empires made peace.
1774-76 Turgot was Controller-General. Louis XVI
1774-91 Louis XVI ruled France. Louis XVI
1774-91 Warsaw Gazette was published. Poland-Lithuania
1775.1.10 Pugachev was executed in Moscow. Russia
1775.1 Sheridan’s comedy The Rivals opened.
1775.2.9 Parliament declared Massachusetts in rebellion. Britain
1775.2 BeaumarchaisBarber of Seville opened.
1775.3.22 Burke proposed reconciliation with America. Britain
1775.3.31 Parliament restrained New England’s trade. Britain
1775.4.19 British soldiers were attacked at Lexington.
1775.4.28 Necker wrote “Essay on Grain-Trade Legislation.”  Louis XVI
1775.5 Soldiers in Paris arrested 162 in Flour War. Louis XVI
1775 James Watt built large steam engines. Britain
1775 Sweden limited production of alcohol.
1775 Russian army destroyed the Zaporizhian Sich. Ukraine
1775.7.8 Spanish forces attacked Algiers. Spain
1775.8.23 George III promised to suppress American revolt. Britain
1775.11.4 Sejm voted to abolish the War Department. Poland-Lithuania
1775.11.7 Ekaterina II announced reorganization.
1775.12.22 Parliament blockaded American ports. Britain
1775 40,000 troops crushed Bohemian peasants. Austrian Empire
1775.9 Ferdinando outlawed Freemasons in Naples.
1775-77 Saint-Germain reformed France’s military. Louis XVI
1775-79 Krasicki published several books. Poland-Lithuania
1775-80 Kant lectured on ethics.
1775-99 Pope Pius VI was a moderate.
1776.1 Beaumarchais supplied weapons for Americans. Louis XVI
1776.2.5 Britain put American colonies under interdict.
1776.2 Richard Price’s pamphlet criticized war with America.
1776.3 Adam Smith published Wealth of Nations.
1776.5 Weishaupt began the secret Illuminati. German States
1776.6.30 France began a national lottery. Louis XVI
1776 Baron d’Holbach published La Morale UniverselleLouis XVI
1776 Reymond wrote The Rights of Parish PriestsFrance
1776 Rousseau wrote Reveries of the Solitary Walker.
1776 Beaumarchais raised funds for Americans.
1776 Austrian Empire abolished torture.
1776.7.4 American Congress declared independence. Britain
1776.12 Benjamin Franklin arrived in France. Louis XVI
1776-81 Necker directed the Royal Treasury. Louis XVI
1777.1.1 Journal de Paris was first daily newspaper. Louis XVI
1777.3 Burke recognized Americans’ right to revolution. Britain
1777.4 Lafayette left France for America. Louis XVI
1777.5.8 Sheridan’s The School for Scandal opened.
1777.5.28 France allied with Swiss Cantons. Louis XVI
1777 Hannah More published Essays to Young WomenBritain
1777 John Howard published The State of the PrisonsBritain
1777 Viceroy Stigliano allowed free trade in cereals. Sicily
1777 Swiss Confederation allied with France.
1777 Sweden’s grain trade was freed.
1777 Novikov published Freemason’s Morning LightRussia
1777.9 Voltaire published Le Prix de la justice.
1777.12.6 France recognized the United States of America. Louis XVI
1777.12.30 Austria claimed Bavarian territory. German States
1777-86 Maria and Pedro III ruled Portugal.
1777-87 Venetian radical Pisani was in prison. Venice
1778.1.16 Austrian forces invaded Bavaria. German States
1778.2.6 France allied with the United States. Louis XVI
1778.3.17 Britain declared war against France.
1778.5.30 Voltaire died in Paris.
1778 Frances Burney published her novel Evelina.
1778.7.2 Rousseau died.
1778.7 France declared war on Britain. Louis XVI
1778.7-10 Prussian army invaded Bohemia.
1778.8 La Scala opera house opened in Milan. Lombardy
1778, 1780 Lessing wrote “Conversations for Freemasons.”
1778-80 Diderot published Jacques the Fatalist.
1779.3.7 Austria & Prussia agreed to an armistice.
1779.4.3 Spain declared war against Britain.
1779.4.6 Goethe’s Iphigenia in Tauris opened.
1779.5.13 Teschen treaty ended war over Bavaria. Austrian Empire German States
1779.5 Lessing published Nathan the Wise.
1779 8,000 workers demolished machines in Lancashire. Britain
1779 William Alexander wrote History of WomenBritain
1779 Parliament passed the Penitentiary Act. Britain
1779 Johnson published Lives of the English Poets.
1779 Diderot wrote his essay on Seneca’s philosophy.
1779 Pestalozzi opened a school for poor children.
1779 Denmark regained Schleswig.
1779 Sweden repealed witchcraft laws.
1779.8.10 Necker got France to end serfdom. Louis XVI
1779-83 Spanish besieged British at Gibraltar. Louis XVI Spain

1780.1 British navy defeated Spaniards near Portugal.
1780.2 Ekaterina II declared armed neutrality.
1780.5 France sent 7,000 men under Rochambeau. Louis XVI
1780.5 Ekaterina II met secretly with Joseph II.
1780.5.27 Zürich executed pastor Waser for his ideas. Swiss
1780.6.2 50,000 protested Parliament’s Papists Act.Britain
1780  Naples began Academy of Science & Literature.
1780 Pestalozzi published Evening Hour of a Hermit.
1780 Mendelssohn published his Genesis translation.
1780 Lessing wrote “Education of the Human Race.”
1780 Lessing wrote “The Religion of the Christ.”
1780.8.9 Spaniards seized 60 British merchant ships. Spain
1780.8 Denmark joined the League of Armed Neutrality.
1780.8 Denmark allied with Britain.
1780.11.20 Britain declared war against Holland.
1780.12.10 Dutch joined the League of Armed Neutrality.Netherlands
1780.12.20 British declared war against the Dutch. Netherlands
1780-82 Diderot published his novel The Nun.
1780-90 Joseph II ruled the Austrian Empire.
1781.1 Joseph II appointed his sister to govern Belgians.
1781.1 British navy captured 200 Dutch ships. Netherlands
1781.1.19 Necker began Hospital Administration. Louis XVI
1781.3.13 Herschel discovered the planet Uranus. Britain
1781.4-5 Gruyère peasants revolted. Swiss
1781.5.10 Spanish navy captured Pensacola. Spain
1781 Condorcet urged abolition of slavery. France
1781 Beccaria suggested using decimal measures.
1781 Mendelssohn published a book to help Jews. German
1781 Kant published his Critique of Pure Reason.
1781 Joseph II visited the Austrian Netherlands.
1781 Sweden allowed freedom of religion.
1781 Burns wrote “Paraphrase of the First Psalm.”
1781.10-11 Joseph II decreed religious toleration.
1781.10.19 Cornwallis & 8,000 surrendered at Yorktown. France
1781-82 Joseph II abolished serfdom in regions.
1781-83 Ekaterina II wrote her elementary-school primer.
1781-86 Viceroy Villamaina governed Sicily with reforms.
1781-87 Pestalozzi published Leonard and Gertrude.
1782.1.13 Schiller’s The Robbers opened in Mannheim.
1782.2 Spain recovered Minorca.
1782.2-4 Irish convention demanded independence. Britain Ireland
1782.4 Dutch Republic recognized the United States. Netherlands
1782.4 Russia reformed its Police Code.
1782.4-7 Foreign troops suppressed Geneva conflict. Swiss
1782.5.7 France and Britain began negotiating. Louis XVI
1782 Laclos published his novel Dangerous Liaisons.
1782 Priestley published Corruptions of ChristianityBritain
1782 Finished Murazzi protected Venice from the sea.
1782 Patriot movement spread in the Dutch Republic.
1782 Opera house opened in Stockholm. Sweden
1782 Poland’s Black Sea Company was organized.
1782.6 Spain formed its first national bank.
1782.8 Diderot completed D’Alembert’s Dream.
1782.9.14 Spain made a treaty with the Ottoman Empire.
1783.1 Dordrecht formed the first Free Corps. Netherlands
1783.3 France began a School of Mines.
1783.4 Russia annexed Crimea, Taman & Kuban Side.
1783.5 Russian decree prohibited peasant movement.
1783 John Wesley wrote on Educating Children.
1783 Laclos wrote “On Women and Their Education.”
1783 Earthquakes killed 40,000 people in Naples.
1783 Joseph II visited Transylvania.
1783 Mendelssohn published Jerusalem.
1783 Skaptar Jokull volcano eruption ravaged Iceland.
1783 Sweden & United States made friendship treaty.
1783 Cossacks were replaced by dragoon regiments. Ukraine
1783 Ekaterina II founded a Teachers’ Training School.
1783.7.20 Schiller’s Conspiracy of Fiesco in Genoa opened.
1783.7.24 Russia agreed to protect Georgia.
1783.8.1 Russia defeated Nogay Tatars at Laba River.
1783.9.3 Britain, France & Spain made peace.
1783.12 Younger William Pitt became prime minister.
1784.4.3 Rotterdam Free Corps fired on Orangists. Netherlands
1784.4.13 Schiller’s tragedyIntrigue and Loveopened.
1784.4.27 Beaumarchais’ Marriage of Figaro opened. France
1784.6 Joseph II made German the official language.
1784 Britain enacted a national lottery.
1784 Haüy began a school for the blind in Paris. France
1784 French commission studied Mesmer’s theories. France
1784 Schiller wrote “Ode to Joy” and about theater.
1784 Fonvizin published his Life of Count PaninRussia
1784 Russia made some Muslims nobles.
1784.7.31 Diderot died.
1784.8.13 Britain’s India Act became law.
1784.10 30,000 Rumanian serfs rebelled. Joseph II
1784.12 Kant published “What is Enlightenment?” 
1784.12.18 Samuel Johnson died.
1784-85 Bavaria suppressed Illuminati & Freemasons. German
1784-86 Necklace fraud affected Cardinal Rohan & Queen. France
1784-88 Sheremetev funded 40 plays, operas & ballets. Russia
1784-91 Herder wrote Ideas for a Philosophy of History.
1784-1808 Prince Frederik VI governed Denmark as regent.
1785.3 Sweden claimed West Indies islands.
1785.4 Kant published his Metaphysics of Morals.
1785.4.21 Ekaterina II renewed privileges of nobles.
1785.6 Thousands of Free Corps militia met at Utrecht. Netherlands
1785 Richard Price wrote on the American Revolution. Britain
1785 Condorcet advised ranking voting. France
1785 Mendelssohn published Morning Hours.
1785 Stroynowski wrote The Science of Natural LawPoland-Lithuania
1785 Russia ennobled Ukrainian aristocrats. Ukraine
1785.7 League of German states formed. Joseph II
1785.8 Joseph II abolished serfdom in Hungary.
1785.11.8 France mediated a treaty for Joseph II & Dutch. France
1785-94 New Prussian Law Code was implemented.
1786.5.1 Marriage of Figaro opera opened in Vienna. Joseph II
1786.6 Spain made a treaty with Algiers.
1786 Condorcet wrote On the American RevolutionFrance
1786 Venice made a treaty with Tunis.
1786 Joseph II abolished Milan’s council & senate.
1786 Denmark ended compulsory labor.
1786 Russian State Loan Bank began.
1786 Wollstonecraft wrote On Education of Daughters.
1786.9 Britain made a trade treaty with France.
1786.12.5 Ekaterina II issued her Statute for Schools.
1786-87 Austrian Empire got new law codes. Joseph II
1786-97 Friedrich Wilhelm II ruled Prussia
1787.1 France and Russia made a commercial treaty.
1787.1.1 Joseph II decreed laws for Austrian Netherlands.
1787.1-5 Belgian protests stopped new laws. Austrian Netherlands
1787.2.22 French Assembly of Notables met. France
1787.4.21 People in Amsterdam demanded a city council. Netherlands
1787.5 British founded Sierra Leone for freed Africans.
1787.5 Dutch troops fought Patriot militia in Utrecht. Netherlands
1787.5.20 Brussels riot led to Belgian revolt & repression. Joseph II
1787.6 Willem V regained control over Gelderland. Netherlands
1787 Clarkson & Wilberforce began abolition committee. Britain
1787 David painted The Death of SocratesFrance
1787 Schiller’s historical tragedy Don Carlos played.
1787 Sweden tried to regain Finnish provinces.
1787 Ekaterina II and Potemkin toured Russia.
1787.7.6 Parlement demanded the States General meet. France
1787.8 Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia. Joseph II
1787.9.7 Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire. Russian
1787.9.13 Prussian army invaded and took over Utrecht. Netherlands
1787.9 Kant published his Critique of Practical Reason.
1787.10 Mozart’s Don Giovanni opened in Prague. Joseph II
1787-88 Brienne was France’s Finance Minister.
1788.1.1 London Times began publishing. Britain
1788.1.6 Frederik removed Norway’s grain restrictions.
1788.1 British began sending criminals to Australia.
1788.1.29 Parlement granted Protestants only civil status. France
1788.2 Society of Friends of the Blacks began. France
1788.5 Parlements’ powers were reduced.France
1788.6 Uprisings began in French provinces. France
1788.6.27 Dutch States General guaranteed Willem V. Netherlands
1788 Britain allied with the Netherlands.
1788 Gibbon finished Decline & Fall of Roman EmpireBritain
1788 Bernardin de Saint-Pierre wrote Paul and Virginia.
1788 Madame de Staël published Letters on Rousseau.
1788 Pope Pius VI reformed higher education.
1788 Goethe wrote his historical tragedy Egmont.
1788 Blake wrote “All Religions Are One.”
1788.7.6 10,000 troops were called out in Paris. France
1788.7 Britain began restricting the slave trade.
1788.8.8 Brienne agreed to summon the Estates General. France
1788.8 Prussia allied with Britain.
1788.8 Turks invaded Austrian Banat.
1788.8.16 Brienne declared France’s government bankrupt.
1788.9.11 Necker summoned the Estates General. France
1788.9.21 Willem V offered amnesty to Dutch patriots. Netherlands
1788.9.23 Louis XVI recalled the parlements. France
1788.11 Assembly of Notables agreed all should pay tax. France
1788.12.14 Carlos IV became King of Spain.
1788.12 Parlement enforced the ban on petitions. France
1788.12 Prussia & Britain agreed to protect the Dutch. Netherlands
1788.12 Russians defeated Turks at Ochakov in Ukraine.
1788.12.27 France doubled Third Estate representatives. France
1788-92 The Great Seym met in Poland.

1789.1.1 French women petitioned for rights.
1789.1 Emperor Joseph II banned meetings in Brabant. Netherlands
1789.1.19 Seym abolished Poland’s Permanent Council.
1789.1.24 French election rules were proclaimed.
1789.1.26 Class conflict broke out in Brittany. French
1789.2.10 Parlement ordered Mirabeau’s book burned. French
1789.2.11 Sieyès and friends began Valois Club. French
1789.2 George III recovered from mental illness. Britain
1789.2 Bread riots broke out in Barcelona. Spain
1789.3.23 Third Estate electors took over Paris. French
1789.3.27 Mirabeau mediated bread-price conflict. French
1789.3-4 Marseille, Orléans & other cities had riots. French
1789.4.3 Sweden’s Gustav III granted rights to peasants.
1789.4.28 Troops killed 25 French destroying factories.
1789.5.2 Deputies were presented to Louis XVI. French
1789.5.5 Necker spoke on finances at Assembly opening. French
1789.5.26 Schiller lectured on “What is Universal History.”
1789.6.17 Third Estate became the National Assembly. French
1789.6.20 Louis XVI approved reforms. French
1789.6.30 4,000 French stormed the Abbaye prison.
1789 Lavoisier published Elements of ChemistryFrance
1789 3,305 pamphlets were published in France. French
1789 Bentham’s Introduction to Principles of Morals.
1789 Bentham wrote a “Plan for Universal Peace.” 
1789 Blake published Songs of Innocence.
1789.7.7 Constituent Assembly ordered a constitution. French
1789.7.11 Louis XVI banished Necker. French
1789.7.14 French people killed 6 at the Bastille.
1789.7.15 Louis XVI withdrew troops from Paris. French
1789.7 Austrians captured Berbir in Serbia.
1789.7.16 Louis XVI recalled Necker. French
1789.7.18 Desmoulins published La France LibreFrench
1789.7.18 Prudhomme began Révolutions de ParisFrench
1789.7.28 Brissot resumed Le Patriote françaisFrench
1789.8.1 Russians defeated Turks at Focsani.
1789.8.4 French Assembly abolished feudal privileges.
1789.8.15 People in Liège revolted. Netherlands
1789.8 French towns formed federation of communes.
1789.8.26 French approved a Declaration of Rights.
1789.9.13 Orléans guardsmen killed 90 protesters. Rights
1789.9 Marat began publishing Friend of the PeopleRights
1789.9 Spain began censoring news from France.
1789.9.22 Russo-Austrian army defeated Turks at Râmnic. Russia
1789.10.5 7,000 women & men marched to Versailles. Rights           
1789.10.6 60,000 and royal family went back to Paris. Rights
1789.10.8 Turks surrendered Belgrade to AustriansHungary
1789.10.10 Bishop Talleyrand proposed selling church land. French
1789.10.24 Brabantines rejected Austrian rule. Netherlands
1789.10.28 Britain & Spain agreed on northwest America.
1789.10.29 France passed voting by tax-paying men. Rights
1789.11.4 Price spoke to the London Revolutionary Society. Britain
1789.11 Chénier’s Charles IX played in Paris. Rights
1789.11 Spain expelled foreigners from Madrid.
1789.12 France approved local elections. Rights
1789.12.22 Suvorov’s Russian army captured city of Izmail.
1789.12.31 Brabant States General declared independence. Netherlands
1789-97 Manin was the last Doge of Venice. Italy
1790.1.1 Burns wrote a poem on New Year’s Day.
1790.1.11 United States of Belgium was proclaimed. Netherlands
1790.1 Danton’s Cordeliers Club protected Marat. French
1790.1 United States of Belgium deposed Joseph II. Austrians
1790.1 Austrian garrison at Antwerp capitulated. Netherlands
1790.1.28 Joseph II canceled Hungary’s reforms.
1790.2.4 Louis XVI swore to uphold the constitution. French
1790.2.8 Jacobin Club began forming branches. French
1790.2.9 Burke criticized the French Revolution. Britain
1790.2.13 France dissolved most monasteries. French
1790.2 France had 83 departments & 44,000 communes. French
1790.2 Sweden banned reporting on French Revolution.
1790.2.17 Mechlin Archbishop cried revolutionaries enemies. Netherlands
1790.2.20 Austria’s Emperor Joseph II died. Netherlands
1790.3.2 Burke said dissenters could destroy the Church. Britain
1790.3.13 Conservatives founded the Church and King Club. Britain
1790.3.29 Poland made a treaty with Prussia.
1790.4 France refused to establish the Catholic religion. French
1790.4 Britain passed the Catholic Relief Bill.
1790.5 Radishchev wrote Journey from St. PetersburgRussia
1790.6 Tory Party won election seats 340-188. Britain
1790.6 Austrians defeated the Turks at Vidin.
1790.6.19 French Assembly canceled inherited noble ranks.
1790 Wollstonecraft wrote on the Rights of Men.
1790 Blake wrote Marriage of Heaven and Hell.
1790 Staszic published his Warnings for Poland.
1790.7.3 Condorcet advocated citizenship for women.
1790.7.10 Swedes defeated Russians at Svensksund. Sweden
1790.7.27 Prussia & Austria made a treaty at Reichenbach. Netherlands
1790.8.14 Sweden and Russia made peace in Finland.
1790.8 France began electing priests and bishops. French
1790.8 Peasants revolted in Saxony. Germans
1790.9.2 40,000 Parisians protested executions. French
1790.9.8 Ekaterina II sent Radishchev to Siberia. Russia
1790.9 Austrian & Ottoman empires signed an armistice.
1790.10.28 Spain & Britain agreed to the Nootka Convention.
1790.11.2 French Assembly approved selling church land.
1790.11 Burke wrote Reflections on French RevolutionBritain
1790.11 Orange clan allied with Austria, Prussia & Britain. Netherlands
1790.11.27 French priests were required to take an oath.
1790.12.2 Austrian army occupied Brussels. Netherlands
1790.12.10 The Hague declared Leopold II ruler of Belgium. Netherlands
1790.12 Ochs persuaded Basel to abolish serfdom. Swiss
1790.12.20 Assembly approved education for all children. Condorcet
1790-97 Greek Ephemeris newspaper published in Vienna.
1790-1801 Ferdinando III ruled Tuscany. Italy
1791.1.6 Cailly published La necessité du divorce.  French
1791.1 Priestley published his Letters to BurkeBritain
1791.1.12 Austrian army entered Liège. Netherlands
1791.2.24 Spain suspended private periodicals.
1791.3 French Assembly abolished corporations.
1791.3 Paine published The Rights of Man.
1791.4.25 France began using the guillotine for executions. French
1791.5.3 Poland’s Seym passed a constitution.
1791.5.27 Holland dissolved the East India Company. Netherlands
1791.6 English constitutional societies formed. Britain
1791.6.21 Louis XVI was caught trying to escape. French
1791 Boswell published Life of Samuel Johnson.
1791 Volunteers formed the Belfast Whig Club. Ireland
1791 Tone wrote On Behalf of Catholics in Ireland.
1791 Bentham published Panopticon prison plan.
1791 Blake illustrated Wollstonecraft’s Original Stories.
1791.7.1 Paine wrote his Republican Manifesto.
1791.7.14 Birmingham mob attacked dissenters. Britain
1791.7.15 French Guard fired on 50,000 protesters.
1791.7 Condorcet & Paine began editing Le RépublicanFrench
1791.8.3 Burke appealed to new and old Whigs. Britain
1791.8.4 Treaty ended the Austro-Turkish War. Austrian
1791.8.27 Prussia & Austria made Pillnitz declaration. Germans
1791.9.3 France adopted a free & monarchical constitution. French
1791.9 Gouges wrote Declaration of Women’s Rights. French
1791.9.27 France granted citizenship to Jews. French
1791.9.30 Mozart conducted his Magic Flute opera. Joseph II
1791.10.1 France’s new Legislative Assembly opened.French
1791.10.1 Willem of Orange wed Prussia’s Wilhelmine. Netherlands
1791.10 Society of United Irishmen (UI) began at Belfast. Ireland
1791.12.18 Robespierre spoke against war to Jacobins. French
1791-93 Schiller published History of the 30 Years War.
1792.1.1 French Legislature disowned émigré princes.
1792.1.9 Russia & Ottoman Empire made peace at Jassy.
1792.1 Neilson began the Northern Star in Belfast. Ireland
1792.1 Sweden’s Gustav III convened the Riksdag.
1792.1.20 Liège joined United Belgium. Netherlands
1792.1.25 Hardy began the London Corresponding Society. Britain
1792.2 Paine published The Rights of Man Part 2.
1792.2 Prussia & Austrians made a defensive alliance.
1792.3.1 Leopold II died, succeeded by Franz II. Austrian Netherlands
1792.3.16 Gustav III was mortally wounded at an opera. Sweden
1792.3.31 Manchester Herald began publishing. Britain
1792.4.11 Whigs began the Friends of the People Society. Britain
1792.4 France sent an army to enforce black rights. French
1792.4 Britain banned the slave trade.
1792.4 United Belgium adopted a constitution. Netherlands
1792.4.20 France declared war on AustriaFrench Prussia Netherlands
1792.5 Russian armies invaded Lithuania & Ukraine.
1792.5.18 97,000 Russian troops invaded Poland.
1792.5.21 Britain banned seditious writings & meetings.
1792.6.8 Britain charged Paine with sedition.
1792.6.18 France ended feudal rights without compensation. French
1792.6.20 15,000 protesters visited Louis XVI. French
1792 Mackintosh wrote Defence of French RevolutionBritain
1792 Wyvill wrote Defence of Dr. Price and ReformersBritain
1792 Libel Act gave juries right to judge sentences. Britain
1792 Wollstonecraft wrote Rights of Woman.
1792.7.1 France opened official meetings to the public. Britain
1792.7.10 Louis XVI’s ministers resigned. French
1792.7 Friends of the People in Scotland began. Britain
1792.7 Austrians invaded Lorraine. Netherlands
1792.7.16 Ward wrote To the Friends of Free InquiryBritain
1792.8.1 Prussian army crossed the Rhine near Koblenz.
1792.8.3 Paris Commune voted to depose Louis XVI. French
1792.8.10 2,000 National Guard killed 600 Swiss Guards. French
1792.8.12 Paris Commune arrested Louis XVI. French
1792.8 Marseilles sang and demanded a republic. French
1792.8 France extended vote to most men over 21. French
1792.8.16 LCS demanded annually elected Parliaments. Britain
1792.8.17 British envoy left Paris in protest. Britain
1792.8.19 Lafayette fled to Austria and was imprisoned. French
1792.8-9 France had primary and secondary elections. French
1792.9.12 Paine spoke to Friends of Liberty.
1792.9.13 Austrians invaded the Netherlands.
1792.9 French mob murdered prisoners.
1792.9.20 France approved civil divorce. French
1792.9.20 French defeated Prussians at Valmy. Austrian
1792.9.22 France declared “Year One of the Republic.” French
1792.9.25 Paine wrote an open letter to the French people.
1792.10.3 Basel was declared a republic. French
1792.10 Brissot printed Paine’s Convention speech.
1792.11.6 French army defeated Austrians at Jemappes. Netherlands
1792.11.15 Godoy became Spain’s Prime Minister.
1792.11.16 France declared the Scheldt estuary open. French
1792.11.26 Robert Burns wrote “The Rights of Woman.” 
1792.11.27 France annexed Savoy. French
1792.11.29 French troops entered Antwerp.
1792.12.10 French Convention indicted Louis XVI.
1792.12.18 Britain convicted Paine in absentia.
1792-94 British government spied on the LCS. Britain
1792-1816 Prince João governed Portugal as regent.
1793.1.1 Convention Girondins organized defense. French
1793.1.8 Britain’s Aliens law to deport immigrants passed.
1793.1.15 Deputies found Louis XVI guilty. French
1793.1 Prussians invaded Poland.
1793.1.21 Louis XVI was beheaded in Paris. French
1793.1.23 Russia and Prussia partitioned Poland.
1793.1.31 France annexed Nice. French
1793.2.1 France declared war on Britain & Dutch. French Netherlands
1793.2.11 George III declared war on France. Britain
1793.2 Godwin published Enquiry on Political Justice.
1793.2 France annexed Belgium.  Netherlands
1793.2.15 Condorcet presented a constitution. French
1793.2.24 France drafted 300,000 single men. French
1793.2.24 French army captured Breda. Netherlands
1793.2.25 United States agreed to pay its debt to France. French
1793.3.1 French army invaded Holland. French
1793.3.7 France declared war against SpainFrench
1793.3.9 Paris mobs destroyed printing presses. French
1793.3.10 French Convention set up a criminal court.
1793.3.11 Vendée rebellion began in western France. French
1793.3 Paine published Le Siecle de la Raison.
1793.3 Spain allied with Britain.
1793.3.17 Rhineland joined France. French
1793.3.18 France passed death for émigrés, priests & rebels. French
1793.3.18 Austrians defeated French at Neerwinden.
1793.3.21 France agreed to an armistice with Austria. French
1793.3.23 France annexed Basel. French
1793.3.23 Austrians & allies declared war on France. 
1793.3.24 Napoleon became artillery commander in Italy.
1793.3.25 Britain allied with Russia.
1793.4.1 French Convention ended deputies’ immunity.
1793.4.5 General Dumouriez defected to Austria. French Netherlands
1793.4.6 Danton formed the Committee of Public Safety. French
1793.4 Britain implemented the Catholic Relief Act.Ireland
1793.4.18 Napoleon helped French take Oneglia in Genoa.
1793.4.19 British hired 62,000 Prussian soldiers. Netherlands
1793.4.24 French Revolutionary Tribunal acquitted Marat.
1793.4.30 Convention dismissed women from French army.
1793.5.1-4 French riots led to a lower price on bread.
1793.5.8 Allies defeated a French army at Raismes.
1793.5.15 De Maistre published Letters of a RoyalistFrench
1793.5.23 Paolist mob plundered Bonaparte home in Corsica. French
1793.5.23 Britain repealed Habeas Corpus Act.
1793.5.25 Britain allied with Spain.
1793.6 Radicals took over the French Convention in Paris. French
1793.6 60 of 83 French departments rebelled.
1793.6.20 Liège voted to join the French Republic. Netherlands
1793 2,000 Loyal Associations formed in England. Britain
1793 Paley published his Reasons for ContentmentBritain
1793 Beattie published Elements of Moral ScienceBritain
1793 Kant published Religion within Limits of Reason.
1793 Fichte published Freedom of Thought.
1793.7.13 Charlotte Corday murdered Marat. French
1793.7 Schiller published On Grace and Dignity.
1793.7.18 British Navy blockaded Toulon. Britain
1793.7.23 Prussians drove out French & regained Mainz.
1793.7.27 Robespierre joined the Public Safety Committee. French
1793.7.27 France abolished its slave-trade subsidy. French
1793.8.1 France adopted the decimal metric system. French
1793.8.2 France ordered republican plays performed. French
1793.8 99.3% of French voters approved a constitution.
1793.8.22 French Convention elected Robespierre president.
1793.8.23 France drafted 300,000 men aged 18-25. French
1793.8.28 13,000 British allies aided royalists in Toulon. French Britain
1793.8.31 Britain allied with Austria.
1793.8-10 Republican army besieged royalist Lyon. French
1793.8-10 Poland made treaties with Russia & Prussia.
1793.9.5 Jacobins called for revolutionary terror.  French
1793.9.8 French beat British & Germans at Hondschoote.
1793.9.16 French artillery besieged Toulon.
1793.9.17 France began detaining the unpatriotic. French
1793.9.17 French army defeated Spaniards at Peyrestortes.
1793.9.23 Saint-Simon renounced his noble titles.
1793.9.29 France imposed price and wage controls. French
1793.10.3 Public Safety Committee charged many Girondists. French
1793.10.6 France adopted a new seasonal calendar. French
1793.10.13 Germanic allies defeated French at Wissembourg.
1793.10 France began executing 1,867 rebels in Lyon. French
1793.10 Prince Aleksandr married Louise of Baden.
1793.10.16 French defeated Austrians at Wattignies.
1793.10.16 Marie Antoinette was guillotined at Paris. French
1793.10.17 Republican army defeated Vendéans at Cholet. French
1793.10.25 French army defeated Marseille & executed 289.
1793.10.28 France banned clergy from teaching. French
1793.10.31 Saint-Just taxed the rich in Strasbourg. French
1793.10.31 France beheaded 22 Girondins. French
1793.11.23 Commune closed churches in Paris. French
1793.12.6 French Convention affirmed freedom of religion.
1793.12.19 France mandated education for children 6-13. French
1793.12.19 Le vieux Cordelier urged freeing 200,000 suspects. French
1793.12.19 French drove British out of Toulon.
1793-94 France executed about 20,250 in 15 months. French
1794.1 France began replacing pikes with bayonets. French
1794.1.17 Scottish Constitutional Information Society met. Britain
1794.1-2 France executed 5,000 people in Nantes. French
1794.1-9 French army massacred 250,000 in Vendée.
1794.2.4 France abolished slavery in its colonies.  French
1794.2 France began manufacturing rifles.  French
1794.2 Paine published his Age of Reason.
1794.2.21 Russia ordered the Polish army reduced. Poland
1794.3.1 French Convention elected Saint-Just president.
1794.3.12 A Russian force entered Krakow. Poland
1794.3.13 Convention arrested Cordeliers & foreigners. French
1794.3 French army deported thousands of Basques.
1794.3 Liberal Lord-lieutenant Fitzwilliam was recalled. Ireland
1794.3 Spain exiled Aranda for criticizing war.
1794.3.24 Krakow citizens declared right to resist tyranny. Poland
1794.3.27 France ordered the Revolutionary Army disbanded. French
1794.3.29 Condorcet was found dead in prison. French
1794.4.5 Danton & 15 were beheaded for corruption. French
1794.4.13 France executed 19 for prison conspiracy. French
1794.4.17 Poles drove the Russians out of Warsaw. Poland
1794.4.22 Col. Jasinski led the Wilno uprising.  Poland
1794.4-6 Emperor Franz II visited Brussels. Netherlands
1794.5.7 Kościuszko proclaimed his Połaniec Manifesto. Poland
1794.5.8 France executed Lavoisier with tax collectors.  French
1794.5.11 France nationalized medical care and pensions.  French
1794.5 French bread rations were reduced.
1794.5 Godwin published his novel Caleb Williams.
1794.5 Britain charged 13 reformers with treason.
1794.5 Britain suppressed the Dublin United Irish (UI). Ireland
1794.5 The Hours (Die Horen) began publishing. Schiller
1794.5.18 French defeated Coalition allies at Tourcoing. Netherlands
1794.6.10 France restricted trials, ending right to defense. French
1794.6.17 60 were executed for conspiring to kill Robespierre. French
1794.6.26 French defeated allies at Fleurus. Netherlands
1794 France got 701 new songs. French
1794 Wollstonecraft wrote on the French Revolution.
1794 Martinovics led revolutionaries in Hungary.
1794 Magnus Stephensen began a society in Iceland.
1794.7 Madame de Staël wrote Reflections on Peace.
1794.7 French invaded Guipuzcoa in Spain.
1794.7.13 66,000 Russians & Prussians besieged Warsaw. Poland
1794.7.17 France executed 16 Carmelite sisters in Paris. French
1794.7.28 Robespierre, Saint-Just & 20 were beheaded. French           
1794.8.1 France repealed Draconian laws. French
1794.8 France released 3,500 suspects in Paris. French
1794.8 France conscripted 732,000 men into the army. French
1794.9 Babeuf began the Journal of Press Freedom
1794.9.18 French army defeated Austrians at Sprimont. Netherlands
1794.10.6 A Polish army invaded Royal Prussia. Poland
1794.10.9 Russians took Kościuszko as a hostage.
1794.10.16 France banned collective petitioning. French
1794.10.20 Godwin’s Cursory Strictures aided reformers.  Britain
1794.11.4 Russians killed 16,000 people in Warsaw. Poland
1794.12.8 French Convention reinstated 73 deputies.
1794.12.24 France abolished economic maximums. French

1795.1.2 France ended restrictions on trade. French
1795.1 Prussia, Russia & Austria met on Poland.
1795.1 Schiller began On Aesthetic Education of Man.
1795.1.16 Estates of Utrecht surrendered to the French. Netherlands
1795.1.18 Stadtholder Willem V fled to England. Netherlands
1795.1-2 British army retreated from Holland. Britain
1795.2.2 White Terror began in Lyon killing Jacobins.
1795.2-9 White Terror killed 30,000 French revolutionaries.
1795.3.8 French Convention recalled outlawed Girondists. White Terror
1795.3 H. More began writing Cheap Repository TractsBritain
1795.3 France imprisoned Philippe Buonarroti. Italy
1795.4.5 Basel treaty ceded Rhine to France. French Prussia
1795.5.4 30,000 “anti-terrorists” killed 110 prisoners in Lyon. French
1795.5.4 Britain and Austria made a treaty.
1795.5 Convention expelled leftists & arrested Jacobins. French
1795.5.16 Batavian Republic ceded territory to France. French Netherlands
1795.5.20 Martinovics and six were beheaded for treason. Hungary
1795.5.21 20,000 French demanded bread & a constitution.
1795.5.30 France returned churches to worshippers. French
1795.6.5 Marseilles killed 700 Jacobin prisoners. French
1795.6.7 French army took Luxembourg from Austrians.
1795.6.11 British took Cape Town from the Dutch. Britain
1795.6 Fire destroyed central Copenhagen. Denmark
1795.6.23 Bread riot broke out in Birmingham. Britain
1795.6.28 British landed 8,000 troops at Quiberon. French
1795.6.29 Thousands met with LCS in St. George’s Fields. Britain
1795 Germaine de Staël published Reflections on Internal peace.
1795 Coleridge gave “A Moral and Political Lecture.”
1795 Kant published Perpetual Peace.
1795.7.7 Paine spoke to France’s Convention.
1795.7.14 “Marseillaise” became France’s national anthem. French
1795.7 Paine wrote On First Principles of Government.
1795.7 Food riots spread in England. Britain
1795.7.21 French army killed 750 surrendered émigrés.
1795.7.22 France and Spain agreed on a peace treaty. French
1795.8.22 French Convention approved a new constitution.
1795.9.6 96% of French voters approved the constitution.
1795.9 Sweden made a defensive alliance with France.
1795.9 Persians burned city of Tiblisi. Russia
1795.9.21 Irish Protestants founded the Orange Order. Ireland
1795.9.25 Republican army defeated royalists at St. Cyr. French
1795.10.1 France annexed Belgium & Luxembourg. French Netherlands
1795.10.5 Soldiers killed 1,400 insurgents in Paris. French
1795.10.25 Napoleon became Interior Army commander. French
1795.11.12 Thelwell spoke to 300,000 in London. Britain
1795.11 Baxter published Resistance to Oppression.  Britain
1795.11 Babeuf and Buonarroti began the Panthéon Club. Italy
1795.11.22 Austrians captured besieged Mannheim.
1795.11.24 French army defeated Austrians near Genoa.
1795.11.30 Babeuf published his Plebeian Manifesto.
1795.12.11 Stock Exchange in Paris closed. Babeuf
1795.12.18 Britain passed Treason and Sedition laws.
1795-96 Goethe’s Apprenticeship of Wilhelm Master.
1796.1.25 French Directory appointed city officials.
1796.2.1-20 French Directory restricted bread & meat rations.
1796.2.15 Britain took Ceylon from the Dutch. Netherlands
1796.2.25 France executed royalist Nicolas Stofflet. French
1796.3.2 Directory appointed Napoleon commander in Italy. French
1796.3.6 Napoleon married Joséphine Beauharnais.
1796.3 Napoleon led French invasion of Italy.
1796.3.29 France executed Vendée leader Charette. French
1796.3.30 Babeuf & Buonarroti formed conspiracy of equals.
1796.4.12 Napoleon’s army beat Austrians at Montenotte.
1796.4.16 France ruled royalists could be killed or deported. French
1796.4.20 Equals wrote People’s Cry against OppressorsFrench
1796.4.28 Piedmontese accepted an armistice. French Italy
1796.5 Jenner gave first smallpox vaccination.  Britain
1796.5.10 French army defeated Austrians at Lodi. Italy
1796.5.26 General Lannes had the Pavia Council shot. French
1796.6.3 Napoleon’s army captured Verona.
1796.6.4 French army besieged Mantua. Italy
1796.6.5 Napoleon & Naples agreed to an armistice.
1796.6.23 Napoleon & Pope Pius VI signed an armistice. Italy
1796.3.27 Napoleon’s army took Livorno from British.
1796 Maréchal published the Manifesto of Equals.
1796 Paine published The Age of Reason Part 2.
1796 Britain’s debt was £310,400,000.
1796 Britain gave Austria £6 million subsidy. Austrian
1796 Scandinavian Literary Society began. Denmark
1796.7.4 Napoleon’s army besieged Austrians at Mantua.
1796.8.15 David and artists protested looting of Italian art. French
1796.8 Paine’s Wearmouth Bridge was completed.
1796.8.18 France allied with SpainFrench
1796.8.26 Napoleon organized a Lombardy government.
1796.10.2 French army defeated Austrians at Biberach.
1796.10.4 Napoleon’s army invaded Modena.
1796.10.5 Spain declared war on Britain.
1796.10.19 Austrian army defeated French at Emmendingen.
1796.10.10 France made peace with Ferdinando IV of Naples. French
1796.11.3 French Directory established military courts. 
1796.11.6 Empress Ekaterina II died; Pavel succeeded. Russia
1796.12.4 Paris churches were allowed to reopen. French
1796.12.27 Bologna, Ferrara et al began Cispadane Republic. Italy
1796-97 LCS published Moral and Political MagazineBritain
1796-97 Fichte published Foundations of Natural Right.
1796-1809 King Gustav IV Adolf ruled Sweden.
1797.1.9 Dąbrowski commanded Polish Legion in Milan. Poland
1797.1.15 Napoleon’s army defeated Austrians at Rivoli.
1797.1 Paine joined the Theophilanthropists.
1797.1 Russia, Prussia & Austria divided Poland.
1797.1.20 Polish legion joined the French in Italy.
1797.1.31 Napoleon declared war on the Papal States. Italy
1797.2.2 After 8 months the French conquered Mantua. French Italy
1797.2.14 British beat Spaniards off Cape St. Vincent. Britain Spain
1797.2 Erskine published a book on the war with France. Britain
1797.2.19 Napoleon & Pius VI signed Tolentino treaty. Italy
1797.2.26 Britain issued paper money.
1797.3.1 Cispadane Republic adopted a Constitution. Italy
1797.3.10 Louis XVIII urged supporters to vote in France. French
1797.4.4 Royalists won 170 seats in France’s Council. French
1797.4 Maréchal published “Manifesto of Equals.”  French
1797.4 British blockaded Cadiz. Spain
1797.4.17 Verona rose up against the French. Italy
1797.4.18 Napoleon & Austrians signed armistice. Italy Greek
1797.4-5 Spithead mutiny made gains for British sailors. Britain
1797.5.3 Napoleon declared war on Venice.
1797.5.12 Venice’s Great Council surrendered. Italy
1797.5 Britain hanged 29 mutineers.
1797.5 Chateaubriand published Essay on Revolutions.
1797.6 Napoleon set up Ligurian Republic in Genoa. Italy
1797.6 6,000 British troops entered Portugal.
1797.6.29 Cisalpine Republic formed in Lombardy. Italy
1797 France drafted 382,000 men into the army.
1797 Germaine de Staël wrote On the Influence of the Passions
1797 Paine published “Agrarian Justice.”
1797 Sectarian conflict increased in Ireland.
1797 Coleridge wrote Rime of the Ancient Mariner.
1797 Kant published The Science of Right.
1797.7.9 Cisalpine Republic got a constitution. French Italy
1797.7 LCS meeting at St. Pancras field was dispersed. Britain
1797.7 Wybicki composed Dąbrowski's MazurkaPoland
1797.7.16 Talleyrand became France’s Foreign Minister. French
1797.8.8 Batavian voters rejected a proposed constitution. Netherlands
1797.9.5 French councils began passing repressive laws. France
1797.10.11 British defeated a Batavian fleet at Camperdown. Netherlands
1797.10 Rigas published a revolutionary manifesto. Greek
1797.10.17 French & Austrians made a peace treaty. France Italy
1797.11 Canning founded weekly Anti-JacobinBritain
1797.11.16 Prussia’s Friedrich Wilhelm II died.
1797.12 Austria arrested Rigas & 17 others. Greek
1797.12.17 French Directory banned 16 royalist newspapers. France
1798.1.28 France annexed Alsace.
1798.1.22 Ultras made a coup in the Batavian Republic. Netherlands
1798.1.30 LCS issued Binns’ Address to the Irish NationBritain
1798.2.5 Bern proclaimed liberty and equality. Swiss
1798.2.10 College of Cardinals surrendered Rome. Italy
1798.2.12 Stanisław II died in St. Petersburg. Poland           
1798.2.15 France proclaimed the Republic of Rome.
1798.2.21 France made a treaty with the Cisalpine Republic.
1798.3.4 Bern surrendered to the French. France
1798.3 Rastatt Congress ceded Rhineland to France. Prussia
1798.3.28 Spain’s Prime Minister Godoy resigned.
1798.4.12 France proclaimed the Helvetic Republic.
1798.4.12 Directory authorized Napoleon to seize Egypt. France
1798.4.12 Swiss cantons declared the Helvetic Republic.
1798.4 Batavian Republic approved a constitution. Netherlands
1798.5.11 French Council excluded 127 elected Jacobins. France
1798.5 Irish revolt began. Ireland
1798.6.11 Malta surrendered to France
1798.6 British suppressed the Irish revolt. Ireland
1798.6.29 Helvetians elected a Directory of 5 led by Ochs. Swiss
1798 Malthus published his Essay on Population.
1798 Fichte published Systems of Ethical Theory.
1798 Society of Polish Republicans began. Poland
1798.7.2 Napoleon’s army took over Alexandria, Egypt. France
1798.7.7 United States repealed its treaties with France.
1798.7.21 Napoleon’s army defeated Mamluks in Egypt. France
1798.7.31 Moderates won Batavian elections. Netherlands
1798.8.3 British navy defeated French at Abū Qīr Bay. France Britain
1798.8.19 France allied with the Swiss.
1798.8.22 Napoleon founded the Egyptian Institute. France
1798.8.24 Helvetic Republic allied with France. Swiss
1798.9.9 Ottoman Empire declared war on France.
1798.9.15 French army in Ireland surrendered to the British. France
1798.9 Belgians resisted French military conscription. Netherlands
1798.10 Russians took Ionian islands from the French.
1798.12 French forces secured the Suez port. France
1799.1.1 Second Coalition formed against France. Prussia
1799.1.22 French army defeated 14,000 Mamluks. France
1799.1.23 French forces took over Naples. France
1799.2 Napoleon’s army invaded Syria. France
1799.2 France annexed Piedmont. Italy
1799.3.7 French killed 2,000 Albanian prisoners at Jaffa.France
1799.3.10 Britain arrested 19 United Irishmen.
1799.3.12 France declared war on Austria and Tuscany.
1799.3 Russians & Turks drove French from Ionian Isles. France
1799.3 Austro-Russian army invaded Cisalpine Republic. Italy
1799.3-5 French besieged Acre & lost 2,300 men. France
1799.4.5 Austrians defeated the French in Verona.
1799.4 Jacobins won a majority in French elections. France
1799.6.5 Austro-Russian army entered Milan. Italy
1799.6 Austrians drove French out of Zurich. Swiss
1799.6 French executed author Pieter Corbeels. Netherlands
1799.6 Polish legions suffered heavy losses at Trebbia. Poland
1799.6.20 Austro-Russian army defeated French at Trebbia. Italy
1799.6.22 Britain subsidized the Russian military.
1799 Hegel wrote The Spirit of Christianity & Its Fate.
1799 Batavian Republic spent 80 million on war. Netherlands
1799 Denmark enacted comprehensive poor relief.
1799.7.12 Britain banned workers from organizing.
1799.7.17 Cornwallis granted amnesty in Ireland.           
1799.7.29 Directory appointed Fouché Police Minister. France
1799.8.5 Jacobins voted to redistribute wealth. France
1799.8.27 Anglo-Russian army beat Dutch at Callantsoog. Netherlands
1799.9.3-4 Directory shut down 50 newspapers. France
1799.9.8 Irish rebels & French surrendered. Ireland
1799.9 French defended Swiss Republic from invaders. France
1799.9.30 Austro-Russian army ended Roman Republic. Italy
1799.10.17 Napoleon met with Directory in Paris. France
1799.10.24 Council of 500 elected Lucien Bonaparte president. France
1799.10.29 Sweden made a defensive alliance with Russia.
1799.11.9 Napoleon ordered officers to protect 2 Councils. France
1799.11.10 Council made Napoleon, Sieyès & Ducos consuls.France
1799.11.19 Anglo-Russian army left Holland. Netherlands
1799.11.24 Napoleon claimed the power to tax. France
1799.12.15 Napoleon decreed a constitution giving him power. France
1799-1801 Britain suspended Habeas Corpus.
1799-1805 Prussia’s Friedrich Wilhelm III freed the serfs.

1800.1.17 Napoleon closed 60 newspapers.
1800.1.24 French army left Egypt. Britain
1800.1.27 Napoleon forced Ouvrard to loan France 14 million.
1800.2 Voters passed France’s new constitution.
1800.3.2 Napoleon & Lucien chose moderate prefects.
1800.3 Napoleon replaced 3,000 judges and prosecutors.
1800.3 Napoleon led an army of 51,400 across the Alps.
1800.6.2 Napoleon’s army regained Milan. Northern Italy
1800.6.14 French defeated Austrians at Marengo. Napoleon Northern Italy
1800.6.14 Schiller’sMary Stuart opened at Weimar.
1800.6 Moreau’s army defeated Austrians in Bavaria. Napoleon
1800.6 Sweden & Russia revived Armed Neutrality.
1800.6.23 Britain subsidized Austria.
1800 Germaine de Staël published Literature Considered.
1800 Beethoven composed his first symphony. Austria
1800 Fichte published The Vocation of Man.
1800 Schiller published his Wallenstein Trilogy.
1800 Novalis wrote Hymns to the Night.
1800 79,000 people died of yellow fever in Cadiz. Spain
1800 Polish Society of Friends of Learning began. Poland
1800.7.11 Iceland’s Althing assembly was replaced.          
1800.7.16 Napoleon & Pope Pius VII agreed on a Concordat.
1800.7.28 Austria and France agreed to an armistice. Britain
1800.9.4 France’s Malta garrison surrendered. Britain
1800.9.30 France signed a trade treaty with USA envoys.
1800.11.28 Spain prohibited factories in its colonies.
1800.12.3 Moreau’s army beat Austrians at Hohenlinden. France
1800.12 Godoy returned to power in Spain.
1800.12.24 Napoleon survived an explosion aimed at him. Britain
1800-07 Septinsular Republic was on Ionian islands. Greek
1801.1.8 France deported 130 Jacobins to Guiana.
1801.1.14 Britain imposed embargo on the Neutral League.
1801.1.14 French army captured Siena. Northern Italy
1801.2.5 British Prime Minister Pitt resigned. Britain
1801.2.9 France & Austria made Lunéville treaty. Northern Italy
1801.3.5 Britain released many political prisoners.
1801.3 Spain ceded Louisiana back to France.
1801.3.21 France got Parma & Tuscany in Aranjuez treaty. Northern Italy
1801.3.23 Conspirators murdered Tsar Pavel. Russia
1801.3.24 Aleksandr became Tsar of Russia.
1801.4.1 24,000 Prussian troops invaded Hanover.
1801.4.5 Tsar Aleksandr formed a Permanent Council.
1801.4.12 French army occupied Piedmont. Northern Italy
1801.4 British led by Nelson attacked Copenhagen. Britain Denmark
1801.5.19 Alexander disbanded Armed Neutrality League. Britain
1801.5-6 Spaniards invaded Portugal for three weeks. Spain
1801.6.6 Britain & Portugal made a treaty at Badajoz.           
1801 Chateaubriand published his novella Atala.
1801 British took first comprehensive census. Malthus
1801 Pestalozzi wrote How Gertrude Teaches ChildrenSwiss
1801 Denmark had 3% paupers, Britain 13%.
1801 Aleksandr made Czartoryski Foreign Minister. Poland
1801.8 Tories won British elections 383-275. Britain
1801.9 Pope Pius VII & Napoleon agreed on a concordat. Southern Italy
1801.9.18 Schiller’sMaid of Orleans opened at Leipzig.
1801.10.1 France & Britain signed an armistice.
1801.10 Prussians withdrew from Hanover.
1801.10 Napoleon gave Genoa a constitution. Northern Italy
1802.1 Italian Constitutional Assembly met at Lyon. Northern Italy
1802.1.25 Napoleon became president of Italian Republic. Northern Italy
1802.1-2 Napoleon sent 28,000 to fight a slave revolt.
1802.3.25 French & British made peace at Amiens. France Britain Netherlands
1802.4.8 France gave rights to Protestants & Jews.
1802.4 Chateaubriand published “René” & Christianity.
1802.5.1 France established 45 secondary schools.
1802.6.4 Sardinia’s Carlo Emanuele IV abdicated. Northern Italy
1802.6.26 France made a trade treaty with Ottoman Empire.
1802 Madame de Staël wrote her novel Delphine.
1802 Wilberforce founded Suppression of Vice Society. Britain
1802 Brougham founded the Edinburgh ReviewBentham
1802 Scotland was allowed to form militia.
1802 Cobbett began the weekly Political RegisterTories
1802 Italian Republic began military conscription. Northern Italy
1802 France sent 6,000 Poles to Sainte Domingue. Poland
1802.8 France banned British newspapers.
1802.9.21 France annexed Piedmont.
1802.9.27 Swiss Diet adopted a federalist constitution.
1802.10.1 France bought Louisiana from Spain.
1803.2.21 Col. Despard & 6 were executed for treason. Britain
1803.3.19 Schiller’s Bride of Messina opened at Weimar.
1803.4.27 Franz II dissolved 112 imperial states. Prussia
1803.4.30 France sold Louisiana to USA for 80 million francs.
1803.5 France allied with Dutch and Swiss.
1803.5 British captured 1,200 French & Dutch ships. Netherlands
1803.5.18 George III declared war against FranceBritain
1803.5.27 Queen Maria Luisa began ruling Etruria. Northern Italy
1803.6 British accepted Portugal’s neutrality.
1803 Admiral Popham designed a signal code. Britain
1803 Kant published On Pedagogy.
1803 Dutch got the Napoleonic Civil Code. Netherlands
1803 Denmark made slavery illegal.
1803.10.21 16 Irish rebels were hanged. Ireland
1803.12 Fourier published “Universal Harmony.”
1804.2 Trevithick’s steam engine ran a railway. Britain
1804.3.17 Schiller’sWilhelm Tell opened at Weimar.
1804.4.5 Russia broke diplomatic relations with France. Aleksandr          
1804.5.18 France proclaimed Napoleon emperor. Northern Italy
1804.5.18 Pitt became Prime Minister again. Britain
1804.6.18 Pitt’s Force Bill for the army passed 265-223. Britain
1804 Bread riots broke out in Madrid and Bilbao. Spain
1804 Napoleonic code imposed in the Italian Republic. Northern Italy
1804 Batavian debt passed 1 billion guilders. Netherlands
1804.10.5 British stole £1 million from Spanish gold convoy. Britain
1804.10 Norwegian preacher Hauge was arrested. Denmark
1804.11.6 Russia allied with Austria. Aleksandr
1804.12.2 Napoleon in Paris crowned himself emperor. Northern Italy
1804.12.12 Spain declared war on Britain.
1804.12 Russia issued a Jewish Constitution. Aleksandr
1804-08 Napoleon supervised revision of law codes.

1805.1.4 Spain made a naval alliance with France.
1805.1 Russia allied with Sweden. Aleksandr
1805.3.17 Napoleon in Paris was crowned King of Italy. Northern Italy
1805.4.11 Britain & Russia formed Third Coalition.  Napoleon Aleksandr
1805.6.4 France annexed the Ligurian Republic. Northern Italy
1805 Napoleonic Code was imposed on the Rhineland. Prussia
1805.7.12 16 principalities formed the Rhine Confederation. Prussia
1805.7.22 British & Nelson defeated French off Finisterre. France
1805.7.27 Italian Kingdom boycotted British goods. Northern Italy
1805.8.1 Rhine Confederation seceded from the Empire. Prussia
1805.8.9 Britain loaned Austria £1,666,665.
1805.8.25 France allied with Bavaria.
1805.9.13 Prussians entered Saxony.
1805.9.23 Swiss declared neutrality.
1805.10.3 Sweden accepted support from Britain.
1805.10.3 Sweden joined the 3rd anti-French Coalition.
1805.10.9 Prussia declared war on France.
1805.10 French army defeated Austrians in Germany. France
1805.10.21 British beat French off Trafalgar; Nelson died. France Britain
1805.10.31 Sweden declared war on France.
1805.11 Anglo-Russian army invaded Naples. Southern Italy
1805.12.2 French beat Russians & Austrians at Austerlitz.France
1805.12.26 France & Austria made Pressburg treaty. Northern Italy
1806.1.1 France went back to the Gregorian calendar.
1806.1.1 Napoleonic Civil Code became law in Italy.
1806.1.18 Dutch surrendered Capetown to the British. Britain
1806.1.23 William Pitt the Younger died. Britain
1806.2.15 Napoleon forced Prussia to annex Hanover.
1806.2.26 Prussia barred British ships & invaded Hanover. Britain
1806.3 Prussia captured 1,000 Swedes in Hanover. Sweden
1806.3.30 Napoleon made Joseph King of Naples. Southern Italy
1806.5 Spain’s Godoy sent 24 million livres to Napoleon.
1806.6.5 Napoleon made brother Louis King of Holland. Netherlands
1806.6.27 Prussia made a secret treaty with Britain.
1806.6.27 Buenos Aires surrendered to the Britain.
1806 Fichte published The Way to the Blessed Life.
1806.7.2 Joseph began selling church land in Naples. Southern Italy
1806.7.12 Napoleon was Protector of Rhine Confederation.
1806.7.13 Russia & Austria made a secret alliance. Aleksandr
1806.8.6 Franz II ended the Holy Roman Empire. France Prussia Austria
1806.9.9 Denmark annexed Holstein.
1806.10.14 French defeated Prussians at Jena. France
1806.10.16 Russians invaded the Ottoman Empire. Aleksandr
1806.10.27 French army occupied Berlin. Prussia
1806.11.11 British announced blockade of European ports. Netherlands
1806.11 Grenville’s Whig party won British election. Britain
1806.11.21 Napoleon declared a blockade against Britain. Netherlands
1806.11.26 Murat led a French force into Warsaw. Poland
1807.1.14 Napoleon set up a Polish government at Posen.
1807.2.3 British besieged Montevideo. Britain
1807.2.8-9 French defeated Russians & PrussiansFrance Aleksandr
1807.2 Hegel published his Phenomenology of Spirit.
1807.2 Goethe’s Torquato Tasso opened at Weimar.
1807.3 Napoleon annexed Tuscany, Parma & Lucca.
1807.3.18 British invaded Egypt & occupied Alexandria. Britain
1807.3.24 Prime Minister Grenville resigned. Britain
1807.3.25 British Slave Trade Act became law. Britain
1807.3.30 Britain gave Sicily’s Ferdinando IV a subsidy.
1807.4  Madame de Staël published her novel Corinne.
1807.4.26 Russia and Prussia allied in 4th Coalition. France Aleksandr
1807.5.4 Persia allied with France against British.
1807.5.24 Danzig capitulated to French siege.  France
1807.6.14 French army defeated Russians at Friedland. France Aleksandr
1807 Bilderdijk wrote Sickness of the LearnedNetherlands
1807.7.7 Russia & France made the Tilsit treaty. Netherlands Aleksandr
1807.7.9 Tilsit treaty created the Westphalia kingdom. Prussia
1807.7 Napoleon dictated a constitution for Poland.`
1807.8.16 Prince Frederik declared war on Britain. Denmark
1807.8.22 Jerome Bonaparte married Catharina Frederica. Prussia
1807.9.2-4 British bombarded Copenhagen. Denmark
1807.9.5 Copenhagen capitulated to the British. Britain
1807.9.25 British evacuated Egypt. Britain
1807.10.8 Stein replaced Hardenberg in Prussia.
1807.10.18 A French army invaded Spain.
1807.10.22 Britain and Portugal allied.
1807.10.27   France & Spain divided Portugal.
1807.11.4 Denmark declared war on Britain.
1807.11.5 Fernando’s conspiracy confession was published. Spain
1807.11.7 Russia broke relations with Britain. Aleksandr
1807.11.15 Napoleon sent a constitution to Westphalia.
1807.11 French occupied the Papal Marches. Southern Italy
1807.11.29 Portuguese court left for Brazil. Britain Portugal
1807.11.29 French troops occupied Lisbon.  France Portugal
1807.12 France annexed and dissolved Etruria. Northern Italy
1807.12 Napoleon freed peasants in the Warsaw Duchy. Poland
1807-09 Persia & France opposed Russia & Britain. Aleksandr
1807-14 Linde published his Great Polish DictionaryPoland
1808.1.14 Britain and Spain signed a friendship treaty.
1808.1 French armies invaded SpainFrance
1808.1 Edinburgh Review criticized Byron’s poems.
1808.1 Napoleon’s army invaded the Papal States. Southern Italy
1808.2.20 Napoleon appointed Murat to rule Spain.
1808.2.21 Russian army invaded FinlandAleksandr
1808.2.29 Denmark declared war on Sweden.
1808.3.14 War between Denmark and Sweden began.
1808.3.15 Tsar Alexander claimed Finland.
1808.3 Kleist’s The Broken Jug failed at Weimar.
1808.3.23 Murat’s French army occupied Madrid. France Spain
1808.4.6 Fernando abdicated in favor of Josef Bonaparte. Spain
1808.4.10 Prince Fernando left Madrid to meet Napoleon. Spain
1808.5.2 Murat ordered rebels in Madrid shot. France Spain
1808.5.4 Carlos IV named Josef Spain’s Lt. General. Spain
1808.5 Napoleon made his brother Joseph King of Spain.
1808.5 Spaniards revolted against French rule. France
1808.5 France took over Parma and Piacenza. Northern Italy
1808.5.23 Valencia began uprisings against the French. Spain
1808.5.25 Asturias Assembly declared war on Napoleon. Spain
1808.6.15 French looted Cordoba & besieged Zaragoza. France Spain
1808 Saint-Simon published Scientific Studies.
1808 Fourier published Theory of Four Movements.
1808 Fichte gave Addresses to the German Nation
1808 Kleist published his tragedy Penthesilea.
1808 Goethe published Faust Part 1.
1808 Spain’s debt reached 7 billion reales.
1808.7.7 Napoleon issued a constitution for Spain.
1808.7.19 Seville’s army defeated the French at Bailén. Spain
1808.7.20 Joseph Bonaparte entered Madrid. France Spain
1808.7.21 British defeated a French army in Portugal. France
1808.7.31 King Josef left Madrid. Spain
1808.8.11 Castile Council proclaimed King Fernando VII. Spain
1808.8 Napoleon made Murat King of the Two Sicilies. Southern Italy
1808.8.31 French gave up Portugal in Cintra Convention. Britain
1808.9.8 Paris Convention limited the Prussian army.
1808.9 Quintana began weekly Semanario PatrioticoSpain
1808.9 Portuguese Regency Council was restored. Portugal
1808.9.25 Suprema Junta met in Aranjuez palace. Spain
1808.9-10 Napoleon & Tsar Aleksandr met in Erfurt.
1808.11.4 Napoleon led an army into Spain.
1808.11.11 Finns and Russians agreed on an armistice. Finland
1808.11.19 Prussia granted towns self-government.
1808.11.23 French army defeated Spaniards at Tudela. Spain
1808.12.4 Madrid capitulated to Napoleon.
1808.12.16 Napoleon declared Stein an enemy. Prussia
1808-21 Royal Bragança family was in Brazil. Portugal
1809.1 Spain allowed colonies representation.
1809.1.31 Spain’s 5-man regency began.
1809.2.5 French forces besieged Cadiz. Spain
1809.2.20 Zaragoza capitulated to the French. France Spain
1809.3.2 Napoleon’s sister Elisa began ruling Tuscany. Northern Italy
1809.3.13 Duke Karl replaced Gustav IV.  Sweden
1809.3 Walter Scott began the Quarterly ReviewScotland
1809.3.16 Byron wrote English Bards & Scotch Reviewers
1809.3.29 Gustav IV abdicated, replaced by Karl XIII. Sweden
1809.3.29 Russia allowed Finland to be self-governing. Aleksandr
1809.4.3 Austria declared war on France and Bavaria.
1809.4 French & Bavarians beat Austrians in Bavaria. France
1809.4.16 Austrians defeated Franco-Italian army at Sacile. Northern Italy
1809.4-11 Hofer led a peasant revolt in Tyrol. Prussia
1809.5.12 Wellesley’s army defeated French at Oporto. Britain
1809.5.13 Napoleon’s army entered Vienna.
1809.5.15 600 French prisoners escaped from Cadiz.  Spain
1809.5.17 France annexed Rome & imprisoned Pius VII. Southern Italy
1809.5.22 Austrians defeated Napoleon’s army near Vienna.
1809 Goethe published Elective Affinities.
1809.7.5 Napoleon had Pope Pius VII taken to Savona.
1809.7.5-6 French defeated Austrians at Wagram. France
1809.7 Louis abdicated, and France annexed Holland. Netherlands
1809.7.27 Portugal’s Joao made Wellesley top general. Britain
1809.7.27-8 Anglo-Portuguese fought French at Talavera. Portugal
1809.8.15 British captured Flushing. Netherlands
1809.9.17 Sweden lost territory to RussiaFinland
1809.10.14 France & Austria made Schönbrunn treaty. Northern Italy
1809.12.7 Napoleon and Josephine divorced.
1809.12.10 Jönköping treaty ended Denmark-Sweden War.

1810.1.6 France and Sweden made a treaty.
1810.1 French suppressed Tyrolian revolt. Northern Italy
1810.2.10 Napoleon closed 97 presses in Paris.
1810.2.19 Napoleon ordered Hofer shot. Austria
1810.3 Sweden enacted press freedom.
1810.4.1 Napoleon married Archduchess Marie Louise.
1810.4.17 French abolished religious houses in Italy. Southern Italy
1810.5 Britain and Portugal agreed on a treaty.
1810.6.15 Cobbett was convicted of treasonous libel. Tories
1810.6 Five Norwegian brigs captured 47 British ships. Denmark
1810 Madame de Staël published On Germany.
1810 Britain gave Portugal a subsidy of £1 million.
1810 Ricardo published The High Price of Bullion.
1810 Owen began advocating an 8-hour workday.
1810 France annexed Hamburg, Bremen & Lübeck. Prussia
1810 Humboldt founded the University of Berlin. Prussia Idealism
1810 Swedish romantics began publishing Phosphoros. Sweden
1810.7.3 Napoleon deposed his brother Louis in Holland.
1810.7.10 French army captured Ciudad Rodrigo. Spain
1810.8 English agreed with Stephensen in Iceland.
1810.9.27 Anglo-Portuguese army beat French at Bussaco. Portugal
1810.10.30 Prussia nationalized the churches.
1810.11.5 Bernadotte became Prince Karl Johan. Sweden
1810.12.19 Napoleon annexed Hamburg, Bremen & Lübeck.
1811.1 Britain had 239 bankruptcies.
1811.2.5 British Parliament made Prince George Regent. Britain
1811.2  Napoleon ended his alliance with Russia.
1811.2.24 Spain’s Cortes moved to Cadiz.
1811.3.5 British broke the French siege of Cadiz. Britain
1811.3 Luddites smashed machines in Nottinghamshire. Britain
1811.3 Austrian government became bankrupt.
1811.3 Karl XIII had a stroke making Karl Johan regent. Sweden
1811.3.30 Censors closed the Berliner AbendblätterKleist
1811.4 Hundreds protested military draft at Leiden. Netherlands
1811.5.3-5 British defeated French at Fuentes de Oro. BritainPortugal
1811.5 French forces withdrew from Portugal.
1811.5.16 Allies & French each lost 7,000 men at Albuera. Britain
1811.6 Britain, Sweden & Prussia made a treaty.
1811 Weavers formed unions in Glasgow. Scotland
1811 Goethe began writing Poetry and Truth
1811 Sweden’s Royal Agricultural Academy began.
1811.7 Northern France’s harvest failed, causing famine. Napoleon
1811.7.19 Ferdinando IV arrested 5 Parliament members. Southern Italy
1811.8.4 British force invaded Java. Netherlands
1811.8.6 Spain’s Cortes abolished seigneurial privileges.
1811.9.17 Dutch surrendered Java to the British. Netherlands
1811.9-11 Napoleon visited the Netherlands.
1811.10 Austen published Sense and Sensibility.
1812.1.1 Austria’s General Civil Code began.
1812.1.8 Valencia capitulated to the French. Spain
1812.1 Anglo-Portuguese army occupied Salamanca. Spain
1812.1.20 France annexed Swedish Pomerania. Napoleon
1812.2 Shelley published his Address to the Irish People.
1812.2 Prussia allied with France. Austria
1812.2.29 Byron published Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage.
1812.3 Shelley became a vegetarian.
1812.3 Prussia removed restrictions on Jews.
1812.3 Aleksandr banished Speranskii to Viatka.
1812.3.18 184 deputies signed Spain’s Constitution. Spain
1812.4 Gallardo’s Critical & Satirical Dictionary published. Spain
1812.4 Russia allied with Sweden.
1812.4.24 Luddites burned factory in West Houghton. Britain
1812.5.11 Ruined merchant killed Prime Minister Perceval. Britain
1812.5.28 Russian & Ottoman empires made peace.
1812.6.18 United States declared war on Britain.
1812.6.24 Napoleon & 600,000 invaded Russia’s empire.
1812.6.28 Napoleon set up a Polish-Lithuanian government.
1812.3.2 Shelley wrote about Association of Philanthropists.
1812 140,000 French soldiers died of disease in Russia. Napoleon
1812 Shelley printed his Declaration of Rights.
1812 During famine 20,000 died in Madrid. Spain
1812 Italian Kingdom had 72,000 soldiers. Northern Italy
1812.7.22 Wellington beat French at Salamanca. Napoleon Britain Spain
1812.7-12 One million people died in Franco-Russian War. Napoleon
1812.8.12 Wellington’s army occupied Madrid. Britain
1812.8.17 Napoleon’s army beat Russians at Smolensk.
1812.9.7 French defeated Russians at Borodino.  Napoleon
1812.9.14 Napoleon’s army entered deserted Moscow. Russia
1812.9.15 Fire destroyed two-thirds of Moscow. Napoleon Russians
1812.10.18 Napoleon’s army left Moscow. Russia
1812.10.23 General Malet’s coup attempt in Paris failed. Napoleon
1812.10-12 Russians captured 100,000 French soldiers. Napoleon
1812.12 Tsar Aleksandr began the Russian Bible Society.
1812-13 Britain gave Spain £2.2 million.
1812-13 Britain gave Portugal £4.8 million.
1813.1.5 Denmark declared bankruptcy.
1813.1.7 Sweden declared war on France.
1813.1 Coleridge’s Remorse opened in London.
1813.1 Austen published Pride and Prejudice.
1813.1 Austria allied with Russia.
1813.2.18 Spain’s Cortes abolished the Inquisition.
1813.2.28 Russia and Prussia allied at Kalisz.
1813.3.3 Britain gave Sweden £1 million.
1813.3.3 Sweden allied with Britain.
1813.3 Russia and Prussia declared war on France.
1813.3 Luddites broke power-looms in Lancashire. Britain
1813.4.28 Napoleon’s army of 121,000 invaded Saxony. France
1813.5.20 French lost 21,200 men at Bautzen. France Russia
1813.6 Byron published The Giaour.
1813.6.21 Wellington’s army beat French at Vitoria. France Britain Spain
1813.6-7 War truce was to be for 46 days. France Prussia Austria Russia
1813 Britain gave its allies £11 million.
1813 Shelley published his poem Queen Mab.
1813.7.30 Wellington’s army defeated French at Sorauren. Britain
1813.7.31 Willem took over Belgium’s government.
1813.8.12 Austria declared war on France.
1813.8.27 French army beat Allies at Dresden. France Prussia Russia
1813.9.3 Sweden declared war on Denmark.
1813.9.6 Allies defeated the French at Brandenburg. France
1813.9.9 Allies restored borders of Austria & PrussiaRussia
1813.9 Allies ended the Confederation of the Rhine. France
1813.9 North began the Philomuses Etairelia in Athens. Greek
1813.10.3 Britain gave Austria £1 million.
1813.10.6 Bavaria declared war on France
1813.10.7 Wellington’s army invaded France
1813.10.19 Allies beat French army at Leipzig. France Prussia Austria Russia
1813.10.24 Allies recognized Murat as King of Naples. France
1813.11.15 Dutch revolted in Amsterdam. Netherlands
1813.11.30 Prince Willem landed at The Hague. Netherlands
1813.12.6 Prince Willem began governing in Amsterdam. Netherlands
1813.12.11 Napoleon recognized Fernando VII. Spain
1813.12.29 Swiss canceled agreement with Napoleon. France
1813-14 Venice suffered from famine. Northern Italy
1814.1.14 Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden.
1814.1 Constant published The Spirit of Conquest.
1814.1 Austria allied with King Joachim of Naples.
1814.1.15 Spain’s national congress met in Madrid.
1814.1.29 Allies agreed to limit France’s borders. Britain
1814.1-5 British troops besieged Antwerp. Britain
1814.2.1 Byron published The Corsair.
1814.2.16 Norwegian Assembly elected Kristian Frederik. Norway
1814.3.9 Four allies agreed on a plan to defeat France. Britain Prussia
1814.3.10 Allies defeated Napoleon’s army at Laon. France
1814.3 Denmark gave Jews equal rights.
1814.3.25 Allies reached Paris. France Russia
1814.3.29 Dutch notables approved a constitution. Willem
1814.3.30 Allies & Talleyrand organized a coup in Paris.France Prussia
1814.3.31 French army surrendered to Allies. France Prussia Russia
1814.4.2 France’s legislature deposed Napoleon.
1814.4.6 Napoleon abdicated to live on Elba. France
1814.4.10 Wellington’s army defeated French at Toulon.France
1814.4.10 Byron published his Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte.
1814.4.11 Allies signed treaty of Fontainebleau. France
1814.4.11 Marie-Louise began ruling Parma & Piacenza. Italy
1814.4.24 Austria regained northern Italy in Mantua treaty.
1814.5.3 Napoleon moved to Elba. France
1814.5.3 Louis XVIII arrived in Paris.
1814.5.4  Fernando VII abolished the 1812 Constitution. Spain
1814.5 Austen published Mansfield Park.
1814.5.17 Norway’s Assembly voted for independence. Sweden
1814.5.24 Pope Pius VII returned to Rome. Southern Italy
1814.5.30 Allies agreed on French cessions. Britain Prussians Austria Portugal
1814.6.4 King Louis XVIII offered France a Charter. France
1814.6 France dismissed 300,000 soldiers. Louis XVIII
1814 Görres founded the Rheinische MerkurPrussia
1814 Italian Kingdom had 7 million people. Northern Italy
1814 Naples had an army of 80,000 men. Southern Italy
1814.7 Scott published his novel Waverley.
1814.7 Scott published the works of Jonathan Swift.
1814.7 Denmark enacted schools for all children.
1814.7.26 Sweden’s army invaded Norway.
1814.8.7 Pope Pius VII re-established the Jesuit Order.Southern Italy
1814.8.14 Norwegians & Swedes agreed on a truce.  Norway Sweden
1814.8.15 Cardinals outlawed secret societies. Southern Italy
1814.8.16   19 Swiss cantons accepted a Federal Confederation.
1814.9.15 Congress of Vienna began meeting. France
1814.10.1 Willem decreed Flemish a language in Belgium.
1814.10.11 Norway’s Kristian Frederik abdicated.
1814.10  Louis XVIII restored property to émigrés.
1814.11.1 Congress of Vienna opened. Metternich
1814.11 Sweden’s Karl XIII became King of Norway.
1814.12.18 Louis XVIII confiscated Napoleon’s property.
1814.12.24 Britain & United States made peace at Ghent.
1814-24 Ferdinando III ruled Tuscany. Italy

1815.1.3 France allied with Britain and Austria. Louis XVIII
1815.1-6 Sicily suppressed the carboneriaItaly
1815.2 Three powers partitioned Poland again. Austria
1815.2 Fernando VII sent 10,000 troops to Venezuela.
1815.2.26 Napoleon left Elba.
1815.3.13 Seven Allies proclaimed Napoleon an outlaw. Austria
1815.3.19 Louis XVIII fled from Paris.
1815.3.20 Napoleon returned to Paris.
1815.3.25 Allies formed 7th Coalition against Napoleon.
1815.3.26 Napoleon ordered 8 new armies formed.
1815.4.7 Franz declared Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom. Austria Italy
1815.4.11 Vendée region rebelled against Napoleon.
1815.4 French voted for an Imperial Constitution. France
1815.4.18 Austria declared war on Naples.
1815.5.2-3 Austrian army beat Murat’s army at Tolentino.Southern Italy
1815.5.15 Allies declared war against France.
1815.5 Constant published Principles of Politics.
1815.5.22 Austrians took over Naples.
1815.5.26 Federation of the Midi formed in Toulouse. Louis XVIII
1815.5.30 Murat proclaimed a war of Italian liberation. Southern Italy
1815.6.9 Vienna Congress signed Final Act. Prussia Italy
1815.6.12 Students at Jena organized a union. Prussia
1815.6.12 Ferdinando IV allied Sicily with Austria. Italy
1815.6 Denmark sold Swedish Pomerania to Prussia. Britain
1815.6.16 Napoleon’s army defeated Allies at Ligny.
1815.6.18 Allies beat Napoleon’s army at Waterloo. Britain Willem
1815.6.22 Napoleon abdicated and fled.
1815.6.24 Insurrection broke out in Marseille. Louis XVIII
1815.6.28 Louis XVIII granted amnesty.
1815 Britain’s national debt was £860 million. Tories
1815 Byron wrote The Prisoner of Chillon.
1815 Bonn University was founded. Prussia
1815 British ended their occupation of Sicily. Italy
1815.7.6 Louis XVIII appointed Fouché Police Minister.
1815.7.15 Napoleon surrendered to the British.
1815.7.24 British took Napoleon to England. Britain
1815.7.31 Norway’s Assembly ratified union with Sweden.
1815.8.2 Allies designated Napoleon a British prisoner. Britain
1815.8   48,500 French voted; Ultraroyalists won. Louis XVIII
1815.8.17 Louis XVIII appointed 94 new Peers.
1815.9.26 Russia & allies formed a Holy Alliance. Austria Willem
1815.10.13 Restored Naples executed Murat. Southern Italy
1815.11.9 France passed a sedition law. Louis XVIII
1815.11 United States of the Ionian Islands began. Greek
1815.11.20 France ceded territory in a peace treaty. Louis XVIII Britain Austria
1815.12 Austen published Emma.
1815-21 Napoleon lived isolated at St. Helena.
1816.2 Secret Union of Salvation began in Russia.
1816.2.29 France established primary education. Louis XVIII
1816.5 Scott published The Antiquary.
1816.6 Constant published his novel Adolphe.
1816 Germaine de Staël wrote her book on the French Revolution.
1816 Owen published A New View of Society.
1816 Coleridge wrote for The Statesman’s Manual.
1816 Caroline Lamb published her novel GlenarvonByron
1816 Financiers helped Austria set up a national bank.
1816 Fröbel began German General Education Institute.
1816 Herbart published Textbook in Psychology.
1816 Netherlands Bank was founded. Willem
1816.7.6 Pope Pius VII reformed the Papal States. Italy
1816.7 Austen completed Persuasion.
1816.9 Chateaubriand published On Monarchy.
1816.10.25 Constitutionalists won the French election. Louis XVIII
1816.12.2 Troops dispersed 20,000 people at Spa Fields. Tories
1816.12.12 Ferdinando became King of the Two Sicilies. Italy
1816.12 Scott published Old Mortality.
1816.12 Garay became Fernando VII’s Finance Minister.
1816.12.30 Shelley married Mary Godwin.
1816-17 Swiss & Italians suffered a famine. Italy
1816-26 King João VI ruled Portugal.
1817.1 Swiss joined the Holy Alliance.
1817.6.8 Armed tricolor uprising was put down in Lyon. Louis XVIII
1817.6 Britain suspended Habeas Corpus. Tories
1817.6  Byron published his play Manfred.
1817 Ricardo wrote On Political Economy & Taxation.
1817 James Mill published History of British India.
1817 Coleridge published his Biographical Sketches.
1817 Three universities opened in Belgium. Willem
1817.7 Tsar Aleksandr allowed Lithuania an army. Russia
1817.7.28 Pope Pius VII approved 3 French cardinals. Italy
1817.12.31 Scott published Rob Roy.
1817-20 Netherlands suffered an economic depression. Willem
1818.1 Shelley published The Revolt of Islam.
1818.2 Regent Karl Johan became King Karl XIV. Sweden
1818.3.27 Tsar Aleksandr opened Poland’s Seym. Russia
1818.5.26 Bavaria adopted a conservative constitution. German
1818 Bentham wrote Radical Reform Bill Explanations.
1818   1.5 million British registered for parish relief. Malthus
1818 Britain spent £7,870,801 on the Poor Law. Tories
1818 Mary Shelley published Frankenstein.
1818.7 Cotton-spinners went on strike in Lancashire. Tories
1818.7 Shelley wrote the essay “On Love.”
1818.7 Scott published The Heart of Midlothian.
1818.10 France paid off its war indemnity. Louis XVIII
1818.11 Allies removed their troops from France. Louis XVIII Russia
1819.3 Speranskii began governing Siberia. Russia
1819.3.23 Conservative writer Kotzebue was murdered. Prussia Austria
1819.5.15 Rhine Confederation abolished guilds. German
1819 Géricault painted The Raft of the MedusaLouis XVIII
1819 Trade union newspaper Gorgon began.  Tories
1819 Shelley wrote the essay “On Life.”
1819 Shelley wrotePrometheus Unbound.
1819 Görres published “Germany and the Revolution.”
1819 Russia put 50,000 troops in the Caucasus.
1819.8 Russia suppressed the mutiny at Chuguyev.
1819.8.16 Shelley wrote The Mask of Anarchy.
1819.9.20 German Federation issued Karlsbad Decrees. Austria
1819.12 Scott published Ivanhoe.
1819-24 Byron published his poem Don Juan.

1820.1.1 Lt. Col. Riego proclaimed the 1812 Constitution. Fernando VII
1820.1.29 George III died & was succeeded by George IV. Tories
1820.2.13 Louvel assassinated the Duke of Berry. Louis XVIII
1820.3.9 Fernando VII took an oath to the Constitution.
1820.5.1 Cato Street Conspirators were punished. Tories
1820.6.8 German Confederation accepted the Final Act. Austria
1820.6 Russia made censorship stricter.
1820 Malthus wrote Principles of Political Economy.
1820 Owen proposed collective farming.
1820 Shelley published his tragedy The Cenci.
1820 Shelley wrote A Philosophical View of Reform.
1820.7.2 Minichini led a Carbonari march on Naples. Italy
1820.7.9 Spain’s newly elected Cortes opened. Fernando VII
1820.7.15 Palermo riots upset Neapolitan liberals. Italy
1820.9.15 Lisbon junta declared a provisional government. Portugal
1820.10 Semyonovsky Regiment mutinied in Petersburg. Russia
1820.10.20 Five powers met at Troppau over revolt. Italy Russia
1820.11 French right regained the majority. Louis XVIII
1820.11.19 Troppau Protocol promised stability. German Austria Russia
1820.12.15 Metternich wrote his profession of political faith.
1820.12 Shelley met Mavrokoulos in Pisa.
1821.1.12 Milan & Turin crushed student protests. Italy
1821.1 Scott published Kenilworth.
1821.1.24 Elected deputies met at Lisbon. Portugal
1821.1.26 Laibach Congress let Austria attack Naples. Metternich Italy
1821.1-5 Concert of Nations met at Laibach. Russia
1821.2.8 Fernando VII dissolved his Royal Guards.
1821.2.27 French bishops began supervising schools. Louis XVIII
1821.2-3 Shelley wrote “A Defence of Poetry.”
1821.3.7 Neapolitans fought Austrians at Rieti. Italy
1821.3.9 Portugal promulgated a constitution.
1821.3.10 Military revolted at Torino in Piedmont. Austria
1821.3.10 Alessandria garrison mutinied. Italy
1821.3.11 1,200 people seized Turin’s citadel. Italy
1821.3 Mavromichalis began freedom fight at Kalamata. Greek
1821.3.23 Mavrogordatos issued a Manifesto on tyranny. Greek
1821.4 Greeks gained most of the Morea.
1821.4.22 Turks executed orthodox Patriarch Gregory V. Greek
1821.4.25 Charles Felix was crowned King of Sardinia. Italy
1821.5.12 Laibach Congress ended, approved intervention. Austria
1821.5.25 Franz II made Metternich chancellor.
1821 James Mill wrote Elements of Political Economy.
1821 Byron published his play Cain.
1821 Collected Works of Pestalozzi were published. Swiss
1821 Hegel published his Philosophy of Right.
1821 Kleist’s The Prince of Homburg premiered.
1821 Goethe published Wilhelm Meister’s Travels.
1821 Norway abolished hereditary nobility.
1821 Łukasiński began the secret Patriotic Society. Poland
1821 Pestel began working on Russkaya PravdaRussia
1821 Turks doubled taxes on Christian peasants. Greek
1821.10 Shelley wrote Hellas for Greek freedom.
1821.11.24 Carboneri rose up at Saumur. Louis XVIII
1821.12 Greek National Congress met at Epidauros.
1821-27 Austrian troops occupied Sicily. Italy
1822.2.28 Fernando VII appointed moderate liberals.
1822.4.25 Mahmud II promised to leave Danube region. Austria
1822 British government reduced pensions. Tories
1822 Cobbett published Cottage EconomyTories
1822 Russia’s deficit was 351,244,048 rubles.
1822.7.3 King João VI returned to Portugal.
1822.7 Royalists rebelled in Navarre, Aragon & Galicia. Spain
1822.8.12 Foreign Minister Castlereagh committed suicide. Tories
1822.8 Tsar Aleksandr banned secret societies. Russia
1822.9 Tsar Aleksandr met with Metternich in Vienna.Russia
1822.9.23 Rothschild loaned Metternich 900,000 gulden.
1822-68 Freemason Łukasiński was imprisoned. Poland
1823.2 Stuttgart Beobachter criticized Verona Congress. Metternich
1823.4.7 A large French army invaded Spain.Louis XVIII Fernando VII
1823.4 Byron began working for Greek independence.
1823.5 Scott published Quentin Durward.
1823.8.22 Pope Leo XII was elected & dismissed Consalvi. Italy
1823.9.23 João VI took the oath to the Constitution. Portugal
1823.9.30 French restored Fernando VII in Spain.
1823.11.7 Royalist Spain hanged Riego for treason. Fernando VII
1823-33 Fernando VII ruled Spain repressively.
1824.1.5 Byron arrived to help liberated Greeks.
1824.2 Spain agreed to French occupation in a treaty. Louis XVIII
1824.3.17 Netherlands and Britain made a trade treaty. Willem
1824.4 Bishops began certifying primary teachers. Louis XVIII
1824.4.17 Russia made a treaty with the United States.
1824.4.18 Byron died on Easter Sunday.
1824.5 O’Connell founded the Catholic Association. Ireland
1824.5.17 Hobhouse & Murray burned Byron’s Memoirs.
1824 Delacroix painted the Massacre of Chios.  Louis XVIII
1824 Bentham started the Westminster Review. Tories
1824 Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Society began. Tories
1824 London Co-operative Society was founded. Thompson
1824 Thompson wrote on distribution of wealth.
1824 Coleridge published his Aids to Reflection.
1824 London loaned Greeks £3 million.
1824.9.16 Louis XVIII died, and Charles X succeeded.
1824-59 Leopold II ruled Tuscany liberally. Italy

1825.1.3 Britain recognized American republics. Tories
1825.2 Egyptian armada landed in Messina. Greek
1825.5.23 Egyptian army defeated Greeks at Old Navarino.
1825 Frayssinous published his Defense of ChristianityCharles X
1825 Saint-Simon published New Christianity.
1825 Thompson wrote An Appeal for Women
1825 Hodgkin published Labour DefendedThompson
1825 Sweden’s Royal Institute of Technology began.
1825.11 Széchenyi contributed for Magyar language. Hungary
1825.12 Tsar Aleksandr died, succeeded by Nikolay. Russia
1825.12 Pestel was arrested and hanged in 1826.7. Russia
1825-30 King Francesco ruled the Two Sicilies. Italy
1826.3.10 Portugal’s King João VI died.
1826.3 Nikolay demanded Turkish troops leave Romania. Russia
1826.4.22 Thousands of Greeks were killed at Missolonghi.
1826.5 Russian troops occupied Mirak in Armenia.
1826.6 Mahmud II had Janissaries exterminated. Russia
1826 Fröbel published The Education of Man.
1826 Angeloni published Of Force in Political MattersItaly
1826.10.7 Akkerman Convention gave Serbs autonomy. Russia
1826-30 Co-operative Magazine promoted Owenism.
1827.4.11 Greek Assembly elected Kapodistrias president.
1827.5.24 Turks captured the Acropolis in Athens. Greek
1827.6.22 France restored censorship. Charles X
1827 Ampère wrote on electromagnetism experiments. Charles X
1827 Thompson published Labor Rewarded.
1827.7.6 Britain, France & Russia made London treaty. Charles X
1827.10 Russian troops invaded Persia.
1827.10.20 Allies defeated Turks at Navarino. Charles X Russia Greek
1827.12.20 Mahmud II proclaimed Jihad against Russia. Greek
1828.2 Persia ceded territory in Armenia to Russia.
1828.4.26 Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
1828.6 Filadelfi demanded a constitution at Cilento. Italy
1828.6 Nikolay led Russia forces across the Danube.
1828 France had 163 houses of prostitution. Charles X
1828 Buonarroti wrote History of Babeuf’s EqualsItaly
1828.7.11 Miguel was crowned King of Portugal.
1828-29 Goethe published Faust Part 2.
1828-30 Courier editor Louis de Potter was in prison. Willem
1829.2.11 Persians stormed Russia embassy in Tehran.
1829.4.13 Britain passed the Catholic Emancipation Act. Ireland Tories
1829.5.8 Greeks regained Missolonghi.
1829.8 Adrianople surrendered to the Russians.
1829.9.14 Turks’ treaty gave Greeks & Serbs autonomy.
1829.9 Russians and Turks made peace.
1829.11.17 Polignac became chief minister in France. Charles X
1830.1 Paris students formed a republican society. France
1830.1 National newspaper began in France. France
1830.2.3 Britain, France & Russia pledged to Greeks.
1830.3.2 Charles X claimed sacred rights. France
1830.6.14 French armed forces invaded Algeria. France
1830.6.26 George IV died & was succeeded by William IV. Tories
1830 Delacroix painted Liberty Leading the PeopleFrance
1830 France had 329 secondary schools. Charles X
1830 France had 31,657,429 people.
1830 France’s national debt was 322,752,569 francs.
1830 British iron production reached 700,000 tons. Tories
1830 Thompson wrote on cooperative communities.
1830 Hungarian Academy of Sciences began.
1830.7.5 Algiers capitulated to the French. France
1830.7.25 Charles X repressed Deputies & rights. France
1830.7.26 Parisians protested French government. France
1830.7.27 French revolt began in Paris. France
1830.7.28 Parisians put up 600 barricades in revolution. France
1830.7.29 French deputies set up a provisional government. France
1830.7.30 Charles X left Paris. France
1830.8.1 French made Louis-Phillipe commander. France
1830.8.2 Charles X abdicated. France
1830.8.7 French deputies elected Louis-Phillipe king. France
1830.8 Revolts broke out in Germany.
1832 On War by Clausewitz was published. German

Copyright © 2015-18 2020 by Sanderson Beck

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1714
World Chronology 1715-1815
World Chronology 1816-1830

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950

Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950

Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of Europe 1716-1830

Chronology of America to 1865


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