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(c. for Latin circa means "around" and indicates an approximate date.)
c. 13.7 billion This physical universe began with big bang. Evolution of Life
c. 7 billion Our sun was established. Evolution of Life
c. 4.7 billion Earth was formed. Evolution of Life
c. 3.5 billion Organic life began. Evolution of Life
c. 1.5 billion Complex cells with nuclei evolved. Evolution of Life
c. 1 billion Sponges evolved.
c. 500 million Vegetation moved on to land. Evolution of Life
c. 470 million Vertebrates evolved.
c. 400 million Amphibians evolved.
c. 300 million Reptiles evolved.
c. 120 million Mammals and flowering plants evolved.
c. 60 million Dinosaurs became extinct. Evolution of Life
c. 50 million Primates evolved.
c. 30 million Propliopithecus lived in Africa. Human Evolution
c. 15-8 million Ramapithecus lived in Africa, Europe, and Asia. Human Evolution
c. 4 million Australopithecus walked erect. Human Evolution
c. 2.5 million Australopithecines began using tools, eating meat. Human Evolution
c. 900,000 Homo erectus used fire. Human Evolution
c. 300,000 Homo sapiens had 1100 cc. brain. Human Evolution
c. 100,000 Homo sapiens brain reached 1450 cc. Human Evolution
c. 100-35,000 Neanderthals lived in Europe. Human Evolution
c. 60,000 Human were buried with flowers. Human Evolution
c. 60-11,000 Ice age lowered oceans; Atlantis was a continent.
c. 60-11,000 Asian land bridge reached Americas. Human Evolution
c. 42,000 Australia was colonized. Human Evolution
c. 40-8,000 Asian land bridge allowed migration to America. Mayans
c. 35,000 Cro-Magnon humans lived in western Europe. Human Evolution
c. 28,500 New Guinea was colonized. Human Evolution
c. 25,000 Hooks and bait were used in fishing. Human Evolution
c. 20,000 Humans used spear-thrower and bow-and-arrow. Human Evolution
c. 20,000 Clothing was sewn by bone needles. Human Evolution
c. 20,000 Caves were painted with animals. Human Evolution
c. 13,000 Cereals were harvested in Nile valley. Egypt
c. 12,000 Dogs were domesticated in the Near East. Sumer
c. 10,000 Goats were domesticated in the Near East. Sumer
c. 8500 Goats' milk was drunk in the Near East. Sumer
c. 8000 Women planted seeds in the Near East.Sumer
c. 8000 Brick houses were built at Jericho for 2,000 people. Israel
c. 7700 Sheep were domesticated in the Near East. Sumer
c. 7200 Sheep were domesticated in Greece.
c. 7000 Emmer wheat was domesticated in Kurdistan. Sumer
c. 7000 Barley, millet, and legumes were cultivated in Thessaly. Greece
c. 7000 Greeks sailed to Melos for obsidian. Greece
c. 6500 Pottery was widespread in the Near East. Sumer
c. 6400 Sumerians invented the wheel. Sumer
c. 6000 Irrigation used the Euphrates River. Sumer
c. 6000 Plow were used in Mesopotamia. Sumer
c. 6000 Catal Huyuk had 5,000 people. Sumer
c. 6000 Village farming spread in Greece.
c. 5500 Wheat and barley were cultivated in Egypt.
c. 5500 Sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle were domesticated in Egypt.
c. 5500 Copper was smelted in Persia.
c. 5400 Eridu was first Sumerian city. Sumer
c. 5000 Yang-shao culture grew rice in China.
c. 5000 Wars over water were fought in Mesopotamia. Sumer
c. 5000 Dikes and canals were built in Egypt.
c. 5000 Wheat was farmed in Italian peninsula. Rome
c. 5,000 Corn (maize) was grown in Mexico. Mayans
c. 4500 Boats sailed on the Euphrates. Sumer
c. 4500 Megalithic tombs were built in Europe.
c. 4350 Horses domesticated in Ukraine. Europe
c. 4000 Wheat, barley, peas, sesame were irrigated in Indus valley.
c. 4000 Asses, horses, buffalo, camels, cattle bred in Indus.
c. 4000 Plows were used in China.
c. 4000 Plows and carts were used in Europe.
c. 4000 Gold and copper were used in Europe.
c. 4,000 Beans were grown in Mexico. Mayans
c. 4,000 Peru grew llamas, corn, potatoes, and cotton. Mayans
c. 3800 Uruk had 10,000 people. Sumer
c. 3500 Sumerians developed government by priests. Sumer
c. 3500 Sumer had wheeled vehicles drawn by animals.
c. 3500 Millet grown in China.
c. 3400 Pictographic writing was used in Sumer. Sumer
c. 3100 Menes, first king of Egypt, conquered south. Old Kingdom
c. 3000 Cuneiform writing was used in Sumer. Sumer
c. 3000 Hieroglyphics were used in Egypt. Egypt
c. 3000 Uruk had 50,000 people. Sumer
c. 3000 Brick houses built and cotton woven in Indus valley.
c. 3000 Stonehenge built in England. Europe
c. 3000 Potatoes cultivated in Andes mountains. America
c. 2890 Hetepsekhemui founded 2nd dynasty in Egypt. Old Kingdom
c. 2800 Sickle invented in Sumer. Sumer
c. 2700 Paper invented in Egypt. Egypt
c. 2700 Mebaragesi ruled Kish in Sumer. Sumer
c. 2700 Djoser founded Old Kingdom, first pyramid in Egypt. Old Kingdom
c. 2700 Physician Imhotep designed pyramids. Old Kingdom
c. 2700 Pyramids were built in Peru. Mayans
c. 2613 Snefru founded 4th dynasty, great pyramids. Old Kingdom
c. 2600 Oxen used with plows in Sumer. Sumer
c. 2600 Gilgamesh ruled Uruk. Sumer
c. 2600 Silk manufactured in China.
c. 2580 Khufu built largest pyramid. Old Kingdom
c. 2550 74 attendants buried with king at Ur. Sumer
c. 2525 Menkaure ruled Egypt 12 years. Old Kingdom
c. 2510 Kish king Mesalim arbitrated Umma-Lagash dispute. Sumer
c. 2500 Ziqqurats built in Ur, Uruk, Eridu, and Nippur. Sumer
c. 2500 Cuneiform script taught in Sumerian schools. Sumer
c. 2500 Libraries established at Shuruppak and Eresh. Sumer
c. 2500 Epic of Gilgamesh written in Sumer.
c. 2500 Ur-Nanshe built canals at Lagash. Sumer
c. 2500 Copper and bronze used in Indus valley. Sumer
c. 2500 Iron smelted in Near East. Sumer
c. 2480 Queen Khentkaues founded 5th dynasty in Egypt. Old Kingdom
c. 2450 Wisdom of Ptah-hotep in Egypt. Early Egyptian Literature
c. 2450 Lagash king Eannatum warred on Elamites and Mari. Sumer
c. 2410 Lagash king Urukagina reformed priesthood. Sumer
2414-2390 Lugalzagesi ruled Umma, plundered Lagash. Sumer
2390 Kish king Sargon defeated Lugalzagesi.
2370 Sargon's wars established Akkadian empire.
c. 2350 Lungshan culture practiced divination in China.
c. 2345 Teti founded 6th dynasty in Egypt. Old Kingdom
c. 2300 Urban phase began in Indus valley.
c. 2290 Treaty between Naram-Sin and Elamites. Sargon
2275-2185 Pepi II ruled Egypt. Old Kingdom
2274 Naram-Sin died after ruling Akkadian empire. Sargon
c. 2250 Elamite king Puzur-Inshushinak claimed empire. Sargon
c. 2250 Legendary emperor Yao ended 70-year rule in China.
2249 Akkadian king Shar-kali-sharri killed in revolution. Sargon
c. 2220 Legendary emperor Shun ended 30-year rule in China
2205-1766 Legendary Xia dynasty founded by Yu. China
c. 2200 Grain milled in China.
c. 2200 Palaces built at Knossos and Phaistos on Crete.
2197- 2178 Gudea governed Lagash and rebuilt temples. Sumerian Revival
2185-2040 Civil wars in Egypt. Old Kingdom
2176 Uruk governor Utu-hegal revolted against Guti. Sumerian Revival
2169 Ur-Nammu proclaimed king of Sumer at Ur.
c. 2160 Law code promulgated by Ur-Nammu. Sumerian Revival
2150-2103 Shulgi ruled Ur empire. Sumerian Revival
2133 Mentuhotep I founded 11th dynasty in Egypt. Old Kingdom
2103-2094 Amar-Sin ruled Ur empire. Sumerian Revival
c. 2100 "Instructions for Merikare" written in Egypt. Old Kingdom
2094-2086 Shu-Sin ruled disintegrating Ur empire. Sumerian Revival
2083 Eshnunna became independent. Sumerian Revival
2073 Ishbi-Irra established Isin dynasty. Sumerian Revival
c. 2060 Third dynasty of Ur ended. Sumerian Revival
c. 2050 Eshnunna law code formulated by King Bilalama. Sumerian Revival
2040 Middle Kingdom began in Egypt.
2009-1997 Mentuhotep III ruled Egypt. Middle Kingdom
c. 2000 Decimal system used in Mesopotamia. Sumerian Revival
c. 2000 Aryan language used in Central Asia. Europe
c. 2000 Daggers and axes used in Europe.
1991 Amenemhet I founded 12th dynasty in Egypt. Middle Kingdom
1971-1926 Sesostris I ruled Egypt and invaded Nubia. Middle Kingdom
1990-1980 Lipit-Ishtar ruled Isin with law code.
1980 Larsa king Gungunum attacked Isin.
1950 Babylonian dynasty founded by Amorite Samu'abum.
1917-1893 Enlil-bani ruled Isin.
c. 1900 Hittites settled in Anatolia.
c. 1900 Decline of Harappan civilization.
1890 Elamite Kudur-Mabuk took over Larsa.
1878-1840 Sesostris III ruled Egypt. Middle Kingdom
1869-1837 Shamshi-Adad ruled first Assyrian empire.
1850 Larsa king Rim-Sin defeated Babylonians.
1848-1806 Hammurabi ruled Babylon with law code.
1844-1799 Amenemhet III ruled Egypt. Middle Kingdom
1810 Mesopotamia conquered by Hammurabi.
1806-1768 Samsu-iluna ruled shrinking Babylonian empire.
c. 1800 Bronze used in Italian peninsula. Rome
1702-1682 Ammisaduqa ruled Babylon.
c. 1700 Hittite king Hattusilis I founded Hattusas.
1674 Hyksos took Memphis and ruled Egypt for a century.
c. 1650 Hittite king Mursilis captured Babylon.
c. 1650 Bronze used in Yellow River area of China.
1628 Volcanic eruption destroyed Thera in the Aegean. Crete
1626-1157 Kassite dynasty founded by Agum II.
c. 1600 Babylonian hymn to Ishtar.
c. 1600 Egyptian Book of the Dead sold on papyrus.
c. 1600 "The Admonitions of a Prophet" by Ipuwer. Hyksos
c. 1570 Ahmose expelled Hyksos and founded 18th dynasty.
c. 1550 Hurrians established at Alalakh.
1546-1525 Amenhotep I ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1525-1512 Thutmose I expanded Egyptian empire. New Kingdom
c. 1520 Tang founded Shang Dynasty in China.
1512-1504 Thutmose II ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1504-1482 Hatshepsut ruled as regent in Egypt. New Kingdom
c. 1500 Bronze-age warriors fought in Europe.
c. 1500 Horses moved from Egypt to Sahara. New Kingdom
c. 1500 Harappan civilization faded away in Indus valley.
c. 1500 Olmecs lived near Gulf of Mexico. Mayans
c. 1500-900 Vedas composed in India.
1490 Kassite king Burnaburiash I made peace with Assyria.
1490-1436 Thutmose III expanded Egyptian empire. New Kingdom
1480 Hurrian king Idrimi ruled at Alalakh.
1450-1425 Amenhotep II ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1425-1417 Thutmose IV ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1417-1380 Amenhotep III ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
c. 1400 Mitanni-Hittite treaty invoked Aryan gods.
c. 1400 Iron manufactured in Asia Minor. Hittites
c. 1400 Myceneans conquered Minoans.
c. 1400 Linear B used as early form of Greek writing. Crete
1384 Pan Geng moved Shang capital to Anyang.
1380-1363 Akhenaten changed Egyptian religion. New Kingdom
1380 Suppiluliumas became Hittite king.
c. 1370 Hittite Suppiluliumas plundered Wassukkanni.
c. 1360 Mitanni king Tushratta murdered. Hittites
1352 Tutankhamen died at 19 in Egypt. New Kingdom
1348-1320 Horemheb ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1320 Muwatallis became Hittite king.
1304-1237 Ramses II ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
c. 1300 Two-wheeled chariots used in Europe.
c. 1300 Egyptians fought Hittites at Kadesh. New Kingdom
c. 1300 Legendary Theseus became king at Athens. Mycenae
c. 1284 Treaty between Ramses II and Hattusilis III. New Kingdom
c. 1275 Moses led Hebrews out of Egypt.
1274-1245 Assyrian Shalmaneser I destroyed Mitannians.
c. 1265 Tudhaliyas IV became Hittite king.
c. 1250 Shang king Wu Ding fought wars in China.
1244-1208 Tukulti-Ninurta I ruled Assyria.
c. 1240 Joshua and Hebrews invaded Canaan.
1221 Libyan invasion defeated by Egypt's Merneptah. New Kingdom
c. 1200 200 years of Mycenaean dominance ended by raiders.
c. 1200 Sea raiders destroyed Hittite empire.
c. 1200 "The Instruction of Amenemope" in Egypt. Egyptian Literature
1198-1166 Ramses III ruled Egypt. New Kingdom
1183 End of Trojan war according to Eratosthenes. Mycenae
1179-1133 Ashur-dan ruled Assyria.
1157 Elamite king Shutruk-nahhunte captured Babylon. Assyrian Empire
c. 1170 Worker strike in Egypt. New Kingdom
c. 1141 Philistines defeated Israelites. Conquest of Canaan
c. 1140 Elamite king Kutir-nahhunte died. Assyrian Empire
1133-1116 Ashur-resh-ishi ruled Assyria.
1124-1104 Nebuchadrezzar I ruled Babylon at Isin. Assyrian Empire
1115-1077 Tiglath-pileser I ruled Assyria.
c. 1100 Kosalas and Videhas ruled northern India. Vedas
1074-1057 Ashur-bel-kala ruled Assyria.
1050-1032 Ashurnasirpal I ruled Assyria.
c. 1030 King Wen originated 64 hexagrams of Yi Jing.
c. 1025 Shang Dynasty overthrown by Zhou king Wu in China.
c. 1025 Samuel anointed Saul king of Judah.
c. 1020 Duke of Zhou regent for Zhou king Cheng.
c. 1012 David anointed king of Judah.
c. 1005-961 David ruled Israel.
1002 Zhou king Zhao died.
c. 1000 Ionians colonized Asia Minor. Dorians
967-935 Tiglath-pileser II ruled Assyria.
c. 961-927 Solomon ruled Israel.
c. 950 Aryan conquest covered northern India. Vedas
945 Shoshenk I founded 22nd dynasty in Egypt.
934-912 Ashur-dan II ruled Assyria.
927-907 Jeroboam I ruled Israel.
926 Shoshenk I invaded Israel, plundered Jerusalem.
926-910 Rehoboam ruled Judah.
911-891 Adad-nirari II ruled Assyria.
908-868 Asa ruled Judah.
906-883 Baasha ruled Israel.
c. 900-700 Brahmanas composed in India.
c. 900-200 Chavin culture grew coca in Peru. Mayans
c. 900 Bharata war in India. Brahmanas
c. 900 Arishtanemi refused to sacrifice deer at his wedding. Brahmanas
890-884 Tukulti-Ninurta II ruled Assyria.
883-859 Ashurnasirpal II ruled Assyria.
882-871 Omri ruled Israel.
878-841 Li Wang ruled Zhou kingdom.
878 Assyria's Ashurnasirpal II conquered Phoenicia.
871-852 Ahab ruled Israel.
868-847 Jehoshaphat ruled Judah.
c. 860 Elijah led prophet school at Mt. Carmel. Israel
c. 860 Ahab defeated Syrian king Benhadad. Israel
858-844 Aram ruled Urartu. Assyrian Empire
858-824 Shalmaneser III ruled Assyria.
853 Ahab and Syria battled Assyria's Shalmaneser III. Israel
851 Moab rebelled against Israel king Ahaziah.
851 Elijah died and was replaced by Elisha. Israel
851-845 Jehoram ruled Israel.
850 Marduk-zakir-shumi made king of Babylon. Assyrian Empire
c. 850 Corn farming improved in Peru. Mayans
849 Shalmaneser III attacked Urartu. Assyrian Empire
c. 845 Syrian king Benhadad besieged Samaria. Israel
845-840 Athaliah queen of Judah; Edom revolted.
845-818 Jehu ruled Israel.
840-801 Jehoash ruled Judah.
836 Civil wars began in Egypt during reign of Takelot II.
827-782 Xuan ruled Zhou kingdom.
823-811 Shamsi-Adad V ruled Assyria.
c. 810 Sammuramat (Semiramis) regent in Assyria.
818-802 Jehoahaz ruled Israel.
814 Carthage founded in north Africa by Phoenicians. North Africa
810-785 Menua ruled Urartu. Assyrian Empire
806 Assyrian king Adad-nirari III invaded Syria.
802-787 Jehoash ruled Israel.
801-787 Amaziah ruled Judah.
c. 800 Iron tools improved in Europe.
c. 800 Homer composed Iliad and Odyssey.
c. 800-600 Book of Odes composed in China.
c. 790 Israel king Jehoash defeated Judah king Amaziah.
787-747 Jeroboam II ruled Israel.
787-736 Uzziah ruled Judah.
785-753 Argishti ruled Urartu. Assyrian Empire
783 Assyrian king Adad-nirari III died.
776 First Greek Olympiad held. Aristocrats
771 Zhou king Yu Wang killed by invading barbarians.
c. 760 Amos prophesied in Israel and Judah.
753 Rome founded according to tradition.
753-735 Sarduri II ruled Urartu. Assyrian Empire
c. 753-716 Legendary Romulus ruled Rome.
c. 750 Hosea prophesied in Israel.
c. 750 Scythians drove Cimmerians from Caucasus mountains. Assyrian Empire
c. 750 Harnesses and bits used by Europeans and Assyrians.
c. 750 Greeks began colonizing Italy and Sicily. Aristocrats
c. 750 Lycurgus made laws for Sparta.
c. 750-400 Upanishads composed in India.
747-738 Menahem ruled Israel.
745-727 Tiglath-pileser III ruled Assyria.
744 65,000 Iranians displaced. Assyrian Empire
c. 742-697 Isaiah and Micah prophesied in Israel and Judah.
741-725 Ahaz ruled Judah allied with Assyria.
736 Assyria'sTiglath-pileser III defeated Urartu's Sarduri II.
735 Chalcidians led by Theocles founded Naxos. Aristocrats
734 Corinthians established Syracuse. Aristocrats
731-723 Hoshea ruled Israel.
730 Kushite king Piankhi took Memphis. Egypt
c. 730-710 Sparta conquered Messenia.
730-698 Duke Xi ruled Qi. Spring and Autumn Era
728 Leontini and Catana founded. Aristocrats
725-722 Assyrian king Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria.
725-697 Hezekiah ruled Judah.
722 Samaria captured by Assyrians. Israel
722-481 Spring and Autumn era in China.
721-705 Sargon II ruled Assyria.
c. 720 Marduk-apal-iddina II (Merodach-baladan) ruled Babylon. Assyrian Empire
720 Tefnahkte succeeded by Bocchoris in Egyptian delta.
716 Kushite Shabaka invaded Egypt. Nubia
c. 716-672 Numa Pompilius ruled Rome.
714 Assyria's Sargon II attacked Urartu.
c. 710 Lelantine war between Chalcis and Eretria. Aristocrats
704-681 Sennacherib ruled Assyria.
701 Egypt and Judah rebelled against Assyria.
c. 700 Parshva taught nonviolence in India. Mahavira
c. 700 Theogony and Works and Days written by Hesiod.
c. 700 Corinthian pottery traded widely. Aristocrats
697-686 Duke Xiang ruled Qi. Spring and Autumn Era
696-642 Manasseh ruled Judah.
694 Sennacherib attacked Elam and destroyed Babylon. Assyrian Empire
690-664 Kushite Taharqa ruled Egypt. Africa
687-652 Gyges ruled Lydia. Assyrian Empire
685-645 Duke Huan ruled Qi. Spring and Autumn Era
684-646 Guan Zhong advised Duke Huan. Spring and Autumn Era
682 Athenian kingship reduced to annual election.
681-669 Esarhaddon ruled Assyria.
679 Duke Huan of Qi made protector. Spring and Autumn Era
677 Sidon revolt put down by Assyria.
c. 675 Athens gained Attica by taking Eleusis.
c. 672-640 Tullus Hostilius ruled Rome.
671 Assyria's Esarhaddon drove Kushites out of Memphis. Egypt Nubia
c. 670 Archilochus wrote Greek poetry. Poets
c. 670 Pheidon of Argos standardized weights and measures. Tyrants
c. 670 Polydorus and Theopompus ruled Sparta with reforms.
669 Argos hoplites defeated Spartans at Hysiae.
669-627 Ashurbanipal ruled Assyria.
c. 665 Spartan king Polydorus assassinated by Polemarchus.
664 Kushite Tanutamen invaded Egypt. Nubia
664 Elam attacked Babylon. Assyrian Empire
c. 664 Corcyra defeated Corinth in first Greek naval battle. Tyrants
c. 660 Messenian Aristomenes led revolt against Sparta.
656 Psamtik's Saite dynasty united Egypt.
c. 655 Demaratus emigrated from Corinth to Italy. Aristocrats
c. 655-625 Cypselus ruled Corinth. Tyrants
653 Medes attack on Nineveh defeated. Assyrian Empire
653-625 Scythians subjugated Medes. Assyrian Empire
651 Babylon's Shamash-shum-ukin revolted from Assyria.
c. 650 Kapila founded Samkhya philosophy.
c. 650 Lydia minted first coins. Assyrian Empire
c. 650 Orthagoras ruled Sicyon. Tyrants
c. 650 Poetry by Tyrtaeus inspired Spartans.
c. 650 Sparta crushed Messenian revolt.
649 Assyria's Ashurbanipal took over Babylon.
647 Qin duke Mu sent grain to Jin. Spring and Autumn Era
645 Jin duke Yi-Wu attacked Qin. Spring and Autumn Era
c. 645 Eunomia written by Tyrtaeus. Poets
c. 640-616 Ancus Marcius ruled Rome.
639 Assyria's Ashurbanipal destroyed Susa in Elam.
639-609 Josiah ruled Judah.
637-629 Zhong-Er ruled Jin. Spring and Autumn Era
632 Zhong-Er defeated Chu at Cheng-bu, made protector. Spring and Autumn Era
632 Cylon seized Acropolis of Athens.
631 Qin duke Mu's attack on Jin failed. Spring and Autumn Era
c. 630 Zephaniah prophesied in Judah.
c. 630-580 Sappho wrote and taught on Lesbos. Poets
c. 628-551 Zarathushtra taught new religion in Persia.
c. 627-580 Jeremiah prophesied in Judah.
626-605 Nabopolassar ruled Babylon.
c. 625 Metal coins used in Greece. Aristocrats
c. 625-584 Periander ruled Corinth. Tyrants
623-612 Sin-shar-ishkun ruled Assyria.
621 Dracon codified strict Athenian laws.
c. 620 Deuteronomy codified laws of Moses. Judah
c. 620 Nahum prophesied in Judah.
c. 620 Aesop born a Phrygian slave.
616 Medes attacked Nineveh. Persian Empire
c. 616-579 Tarquin ruled Rome.
612-609 Ashur-uballit II ruled Assyria.
c. 610 Theagenes ruled Megara. Tyrants
c. 610-560 Alyattes ruled Lydia. Babylonian Empire
610-545 Anaximander of Miletus wrote on nature. Early Philosophy
609 Assyrian army surrendered to Babylonians.
609 Pharaoh Necho ordered canal from Nile to Red Sea. Egypt
605 Babylon defeated Egypt at Carchemish.
605-562 Nebuchadrezzar II ruled Babylonian Empire.
c. 600 Dharma Sutras passed on orally in India.
c. 600 Habakkuk prophesied in Judah.
597 Chu king Zhuang defeated Jin, made protector. Spring and Autumn Era
597 Jehoiachin surrendered Jerusalem to Babylon. Judah
597-588 Zedekiah ruled in Jerusalem for Babylon. Judah
595-589 Psamtik II ruled Egypt. Egypt
594 Solon elected archon in Athens.
593 Psamtik II's Egyptians with Greeks invaded Nubia. Egypt
593-563 Ezekiel prophesied in Babylon.
593-568 Aspelta ruled Kushites at Meroe. Nubia
586 Babylon's Nebuchadrezzar captured Jerusalem.
586-573 Babylonians besieged Tyre.
585 Nebuchadrezzar mediated Mede-Lydian truce. Babylonian Empire
585 Thales predicted eclipse of the sun. Early Philosophy
585-550 Astyages ruled Medes. Persian Empire
c. 584-581 Psammetichus ruled Corinth. Tyrants
c. 580 Cleisthenes ruled Sicyon. Tyrants
c. 580 Thrasybulus ruled Miletus. Tyrants
c. 580 Alcaeus wrote poetry in Mytilene and Lydia. Poets
c. 579-535 Servius Tullius ruled Rome.
c. 570 Spartans defeated at Tegea.
c. 570-560 Pittacus ruled Mytilene. Early Philosophy
c. 570-485 Anacreon of Teos composed love and drinking songs. Poets
c. 570-475 Ionian philosopher Xenophanes wrote about God. Early Philosophy
568 Babylonians invaded Egypt.
565 Peisistratus led Athenian conquest of Salamis.
563 Siddartha Gautama (Buddha) born in India.
562-560 Amel-Marduk ruled Babylon.
c. 562 Mahavira born in India.
561 Peisistratus seized Acropolis in Athens.
560-556 Neriglissar ruled Babylon.
c. 560-546 Croesus ruled Lydia. Persian Empire
559-556 Peisistratus ruled Athens.
559-529 Cyrus II ruled Persian Empire.
556-539 Nabonidus ruled Babylon.
555 Tyranny in Sicyon ended. Tyrants
c. 555 Pindarus surrendered Ephesus to Croesus. Tyrants
553 Nabonidus recaptured Harran from Persians. Babylonian Empire
551 Confucius born in Lu.
550 Cyrus II took over Median empire. Persian Empire
c. 550 Purana Kassapa taught no-action in India. Contemporaries
c. 550 Pakudha Katyayana taught eternalism in India. Contemporaries
c. 550 Ajita Keshakambalin taught materialism in India. Contemporaries
c. 550 Sanjaya Belatthiputta taught equanimity in India. Contemporaries
c. 550 Zoque built pyramids in Chiapas. Mayans
c. 550 Bias persuaded Croesus to make peace with islands. Aristocrats
c. 550 Theognis of Megara composed elegies. Poets
c. 550 Chilon elected ephor at Sparta.
549 Persian Empire took over Armenia from Medes.
c. 547 Sparta invaded Thyrea.
546-527 Peisistratus returned to rule Athens.
545 Heang Seu organized peace conference at Song. Spring and Autumn Era
544 Lydia's Croesus attacked Persians and lost empire.
c. 544-491 Bimbisara ruled Magadha.
542-480 Zilu studied with Confucius.
c. 540 Second Isaiah prophesied in Babylon.
c. 540-480 Heraclitus of Ephesus. Early Philosophy
539-538 Persia's Cyrus conquered and destroyed Babylon.
537 Cyrus made Cambyses king of Babylon. Persian Empire
537 50,000 Jews moved from Babylon to Israel.
536 Zheng criminal code cast in bronze in China. Spring and Autumn Era
535-509 Tarquin Superbus ruled Rome.
534 Siddartha Gautama renounced the world in India.
534 Peisistratus sponsored dramatic contest with Thespis. Greek Theatre
c. 532 Mahavira renounced the world in India.
532-522 Polycrates ruled Samos. Tyrants
c. 531-510 Pythagoras taught at Crotona.
c. 530 Sybaris and Crotona destroyed Siris. Tyrants
529 Chu king Ling died. Spring and Autumn Era
529-522 Cambyses II ruled Persian Empire.
528 Buddha founded religion in India.
527-514 Hippias and Hipparchus ruled Athens.
525 Persian king Cambyses conquered Egypt.
525-456 Aeschylus wrote tragedies for Athens.
c. 525 Sparta attacked Samos.
522 Confucius disciple Jan Qiu born.
521-481 Yen Hui studied with Confucius.
521 Darius had Oroites executed in Sardis. Persian Empire
520 Confucius disciple Zi-Gong born.
520 Haggai prophesied in Israel. Jews
c. 520 Lao-zi wrote Dao De Jing in Chu.
c. 520 Mankhali Gosala taught transformation in India. Contemporaries
c. 520-491 Cleomenes I and Demaratus co-ruled Sparta.
520-486 Darius ruled Persian Empire.
c. 519 Mahavira founded Jain religion in India.
519 Athens took Plataea from Thebes.
519 Darius invaded Scythians. Persian Empire
519 Aeginetan fleet defeated pirates in Cydonia. Athens
518 Darius reconquered Egypt. Persian Empire
516 Jerusalem temple rebuilt by Jews.
514-510 Hippias ruled Athens harshly.
514-496 King of Wu studied Sun Tzu's Art of War.
513 Hindush satrapy added to Persian Empire.
c. 512 Darius invaded European Scythians. Persian Empire
510 Spartan king Cleomenes expelled Hippias from Athens.
510 Crotona destroyed Sybaris. Tyrants
509 Brutus and Collatinus first consuls elected in Rome.
509-43 Rome governed as a republic.
508 Carthage made a treaty with Rome. North Africa
508 Ananda became Buddha's personal attendant.
508 Isagoras elected archon in Athens.
508 Cleomenes intervened in Athens.
508 Clusium king Porsena invaded Rome.
508-501 Cleisthenes reformed Athens.
507-425 Zi-Xia was a disciple of Confucius.
506 Wu invaded Chu, occupied capital at Ying. Sun Tzu's Art of War
506 Athenians defeated Chalcidean and Boeotian armies.
506-443 Zi-yu was a disciple of Confucius.
505-436 Confucius Zeng Shen wrote Classic of Filial Piety.
503-447 Zi-zhang was a disciple of Confucius.
501 Confucius felt he understood his mission.
501 Roman senate appointed first dictator for six months.
500 Ionian cities revolted against Persia.
c. 500-100 Celts flourished in western Europe.
499 Ionians burned Sardis. Persia
499 Aeschylus' first play presented at Athens.
498 Cypress defeated by Persians.
496-406 Sophocles wrote tragedies for Athens.
c. 495 Confucius traveled to Wei, Chen, Song, and Kuang.
494 Yue kingdom submitted to Wu. Sun Tzu's Art of War
494 Persians defeated Greek fleet off Miletus.
494 Roman plebeians asserted rights, elected tribunes.
c. 493 Capture of Miletus by Phrynichus banned in Athens. Greek Theatre
492 Ji Kang-zi of Lu asked advice of Confucius.
491 Devadatta caused schism among Buddhists. Community (Sangha)
491 Coriolanus and Volscians marched on Rome.
c. 491-478 Gelon ruled Syracuse. Persian Invasions
c. 491-460 Ajatashatru ruled Magadha.
490 Greeks defeated Persian invasions at Marathon.
c. 490-470 Mahavira died; Sudharma led Jain order in India.
489 Miltiades convicted of treason died. Persian Invasions
488-432 Hui ruled Chu. Period of Warring States
487 Qi rebellion attacked Lu; Zi-Gong advised states. Spring and Autumn Era
487 Hipparchus ostracized by Athenians. Persian Invasions
487 War between Athens and Aegina. Persian Invasions
486 Spurius Cassius executed for proposing land reform in Rome.
486-465 Xerxes ruled Persian empire.
484 Confucius returned to Lu.
484 Xanthippus ostracized by Athenians. Persian Invasions
483 Buddha died; first Buddhist Council led by Mahakassapa. Community (Sangha)
482 Babylonian revolt by satrap Zopyrus defeated. Persian-Greek Wars
482 Wu military power dominated China. Sun Tzu's Art of War
482 Wu connected Yangzi to Shantung by canal. Sun Tzu's Art of War
482 Aristeides ostracized by Athenians. Persian Invasions
482 Themistocles' decree to build Athenian navy. Persian Invasions
482-474 Rome warred with Veii.
481 Athenians recalled ostracized men. Persian Invasions
481-411 Protagoras of Abdera first sophist taught in Greece.
c. 480 Analects of Confucius written.
480 Carthage's invasion defeated by Syracuse's Gelon. Persian Invasions
480 1000 Greeks killed by Persians at Thermopylae.
480 Athens evacuated; Persians defeated at Salamis.
480-406 Euripides wrote tragedies for Athens.
479 Confucius died in Lu.
479 Greeks defeated Persians at Plataea and Mycale. Persian Invasions
479 Ionians revolted from Persia.
479 Fabius clan killed at Cremera. Rome
478 Pausanias' Spartan expedition to Cyprus and Byzantium. Athenian Empire
478-467 Hieron ruled Syracuse. Athenian Empire
476 Delian league attacked Thrace. Athenian Empire
474 Etruscans attacked Cyme, defeated by Syracuse. Rome
473 Wu destroyed and annexed by Yue. Sun Tzu's Art of War
472 The Persians by Aeschylus produced by Pericles.
c. 471 Themistocles ostracized by Athenians.
471 Roman tribunes elected by tribal assembly.
470 Yue became protector in China. Sun Tzu's Art of War
470 Himera and Acragas became independent in Sicily. Athenian Empire
c. 470-452 Arya Jambu Swamy led Jain order in India.
c. 470-390 Mo-zi taught philosophy of love in China.
469 Socrates born in Athens.
467 Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus won first prize.
466 Greek ships invaded Caria. Athenian Empire
465 Egypt revolted against Persia.
465 Athenians put down revolt in Thasos.
464 Athenians colonized Amphipolis, defeated by Thracians.
464 Helots revolted against Sparta. Athenian Empire
464-424 Artaxerxes I ruled Persian empire.
463 Athens sent a force led by Cimon to Messenia.
462 Pericles led democratic reforms in Athens.
461 Cimon ostracized by Athenians.
461 Athenian reformer Ephialtes murdered.
460 Athens allied with Argos and Megara.
c. 460-377 Hippocrates practiced medicine.
459 Athenians captured Memphis in Egypt.
458 Ezra led 1600 Jews from Persia to Jerusalem.
458 Oresteia by Aeschylus won first prize. Agamemnon
c. 458 Cincinnatus appointed dictator in Rome.
457 Sparta defeated Athens at Tanagra.
457 Athenians defeated Boeotians at Oenophyta.
457 Athens completed its long walls.
456 Persians and Phoenicians drove Greeks out of Memphis. Athenian Empire
456 Athens conquered Aegina.
455 Athenian general Tolmides captured Chalcis.
454 Persia reconquered Egypt.
454 Delian league treasury moved to Athens.
453 Zhao, Wei, and Han states established in China. Warring States
453-221 Period of Warring States in China.
451 Cimon negotiated 5-year Athens-Sparta truce.
451 Argos made 30-year peace with Lacedaemonians. Athenian Empire
451 Periclean law limited Athenian citizenship.
451-450 Decemvirs ruled Rome, wrote 12 tables of law.
c. 450 Crossbow invented in China. Warring States
c. 450 On Nature and Purifications by Empedocles of Acragas.
c. 450 Celts invaded the British isles. Europe
450 Sicels led by Ducetius defeated by Syracuse. Athenian Empire
449 Treaty of Callias between Athens and Persia.
449 Cimon died besieging Citium on Cypress. Athenian Empire
449 Valerio-Horatian laws enshrined in Rome.
448-438 Acropolis and Periclean Athens rebuilt.
447 Boeotia regained independence from Athens.
446 Euboean revolt crushed by Athens.
446 Megara regained independence from Athens.
c. 446-366 Antisthenes studied and taught in Athens. Diogenes
445 Herodotus recited his History in Athens.
445 Pericles made 30-year peace with Sparta. Athenian Empire
445 Canuleius laws liberalized marriage; military tribunes in Rome.
445-433 Nehemiah governed in Jerusalem for Persia. Jews
c. 445-385 Aristophanes wrote comedies for Athens.
443 General Thucydides ostracized by Athenians.
443 Roman censors appointed.
442 Sophocles treasurer of Athenian naval league.
441 Miletus aided by Athens defeated by Samos.
441 Antigone produced by Sophocles.
c. 440 Da Xue (Higher Education) by Zeng Shen or Zi-si. Confucian Works
c. 440 Zhong Yong (Center of Harmony) by Zi-si. Confucian Works
440 Pericles and Sophocles elected generals in Samian War. Athenian Empire
439 Samos and Byzantium revolts defeated by Athens.
438 Alcestis produced by Euripides.
436 Epidamnus civil war drew in Corinth and Corcyra. Peloponnesian War
436-338 Isocrates wrote and taught rhetoric in Greece.
435 Corcyra destroyed 15 Corinthian ships. Peloponnesian War
433 Athenian defensive alliance with Corcyra. Peloponnesian War
433 Corinthians seized Anactorium, sold 800 Corcyraeans. Peloponnesian War
432 Potidaean revolt besieged by Athens. Peloponnesian War
432 Socrates rescued Alcibiades at Potidaea.
432 Pericles decree excluded Megara from trade. Peloponnesian War
432 Peloponnesian league declared war on Athens.
431 Thebes attacked Plataea; Sparta invaded Attica. Peloponnesian War
431 Medea produced by Euripides.
431-404 Peloponnesian war between Sparta and Athens.
c. 430 Oedipus the Tyrant produced by Sophocles.
430-429 Many Athenians including Pericles died of plague. Peloponnesian War
428 Athenian property taxed for war. Peloponnesian War
428 Hippolytus produced by Euripides.
c. 428 Xenophon and Plato born in Athens.
428-427 Mytilene revolt crushed by Athens. Peloponnesian War
427 Corcyra civil war erupted. Peloponnesian War
427-400 Agis II co-ruled Sparta. Peloponnesian War
425 The Acharnians produced by Aristophanes.
c. 425 Heracleidae, Andromache, and Hecuba produced by Euripides.
424 Athens appointed Cleon general, banished Thucydides. Peloponnesian War
424 Spartan general Brasidas won over Amphipolis. Peloponnesian War
424 Hermocrates speech kept Sicily out of war. Peloponnesian War
424 The Knights produced by Aristophanes.
424-404 Darius II ruled Persian empire.
423 Spartans and Athenians agreed on 1-year armistice. Peloponnesian War
423 The Clouds by Aristophanes satirized Socrates.
422 Athens lost Amphipolis; Cleon and Brasidas killed. Peloponnesian War
422 The Wasps by Aristophanes won first prize.
421 Nicias peace and Sparta-Athens defensive alliance. Peloponnesian War
421 Peace produced by Aristophanes.
420 Athens allied with Argos, Mantinea, and Elis. Peloponnesian War
420 Eleians excluded Sparta from Olympic games. Peloponnesian War
c. 420 The Suppliant Women produced by Euripides.
418 Athenians elected Nicias general. Peloponnesian War
418 Spartans defeated Athenians at Mantinea. Peloponnesian War
417 Hyperbolus last Athenian ostracized. Peloponnesian War
416 Athenians killed men of Melos, enslaved the rest. Peloponnesian War
416 Alcibiades won chariot race at Olympics. Peloponnesian War
416 Egesta in Sicily asked Athens for aid. Peloponnesian War
415 Accused Alcibiades led Athenian invasion of Sicily. Peloponnesian War
415 The Trojan Women produced by Euripides.
414 The Birds produced by Aristophanes.
414-413 Athenian siege of Syracuse failed; 7,000 enslaved. Peloponnesian War
413 Pissouthnes revolt put down in Sardis by Persia.
413 Electra produced by Euripides.
412 Sparta-Persia treaty of Miletus. Peloponnesian War
412 Helen produced by Euripides.
412-411 Athenian allies Samos, Rhodes, Euboea revolted. Peloponnesian War
411 400 ruled Athens for 4 months; Cynossema naval win. Peloponnesian War
411 Lysistrata and The Thesmophoriazusae produced by Aristophanes.
410 Persia destroyed Jewish temple at Elephantine. Egypt
410 Athenian democracy restored. Peloponnesian War
409 Athenians invaded Lydia. Peloponnesian War
409 Carthage navy destroyed Selinus and Himera in Sicily. Syracuse
409 Philoctetes by Sophocles won first prize.
409 Three plebeians elected quaestors in Rome.
408 Wu Qi led Lu attack on Qi and Wei attack on Qin. Warring States
408 Gorgias made speech at Olympia. Peloponnesian War
408 Orestes produced by Euripides.
408-395 Pausanias co-ruled Sparta.
407 Alcibiades returned to Athens. Peloponnesian War
406 Alcibiades retired to Chersonese. Peloponnesian War
406 Athenian generals executed for Arginusae naval loss. Peloponnesian War
406 Carthaginians besieged Acragas. Syracuse
406-396 Roman siege of Veii.
c. 405 Mo-zi imprisoned in Song.
405 Spartan Lysander defeated Athenians at Aegospotami. Peloponnesian War
405 Dionysius made treaty with Himilco of Carthage.
405 Iphigenia in Aulis and The Bacchae produced by Euripides.
405 The Frogs by Aristophanes won first prize.
405-404 Blockade and surrender of Athens to Sparta. Peloponnesian War
405-367 Dionysius I ruled Syracuse.
404 Egypt revolted from the Persian empire.
404 Thirty led by Critias ruled Athens, executed 1500. Spartan Hegemony
404-403 Thrasybulus led revolution against the 30 in Athens. Spartan Hegemony
404-359 Artaxerxes II ruled Persian empire.
404-323 Diogenes founded Cynic school of philosophy.
403 Speech against Eratosthenes by Lysias. Spartan Hegemony
403 Revolt at Syracuse against Dionysius.
403-322 Athens ruled by democracy. Spartan Hegemony
402 Oedipus at Colonus produced by Sophocles.
402 Isocrates speech against Callimachus.
401 Cyrus and Greek officers killed by Persians at Cunaxa. Spartan Hegemony
401 Athenians attacked Eleusis. Spartan Hegemony
400 Dionysius conquered Catane and Naxos.
c. 400 Zhou Rituals written in China. Li (Propriety)
c. 400 Ramayana passed on orally.
c. 400 Mahabharata by Vyasa passed on orally.
c. 400 Vaishesika Sutras by Kanada.
c. 400 Ruth, Joel, Malichi, Jonah, and Esther. Jews in the Persian Empire
c. 400 Peloponnesian War written by Thucydides.
c. 400 Lysis written by Plato.
400-360 Agesilaus II co-ruled Sparta.
399 Spartan Dercylidas gained control of Troad.
399 Socrates tried and executed in Athens.
398 Sparta made truces with Pharnabazus and Tissaphernes.
396 Egypt aided Sparta in war on Persia.
396 Himilco abandoned Syracuse. North Africa
396 Spartan king Agesilaus invaded Phrygia.
396 Roman soldiers paid by the state.
395-380 Agesipolis I co-ruled Sparta.
c. 395 Defense of Socrates by Plato.
394 Persian navy defeated Spartan navy off Cnidus.
394 Sparta defeated Athenian-Theban coalition at Corinth.
393 Mo-zi advised Prince Wen of Lu Yang.
393 Conon helped Athenians rebuild their long walls. Spartan Hegemony
c. 393 Defense of Socrates by Xenophon.
392 Lysias gave patriotic funeral oration in Athens. Spartan Hegemony
392 Dionysius defeated Carthaginians led by Mago.
392 The Ecclesiazusae produced by Aristophanes.
391 Athenians rejected treaty, banished Andocides. Spartan Hegemony
c. 390 Memoirs of Socrates written by Xenophon.
c. 390 Charmides, Protagoras, Laches, Euthydemus written by Plato.
390 Gauls captured Rome, besieged citadel.
388 Athenians Thrasybulus and Conon died overseas. Spartan Hegemony
388 Lysias speech at Olympics criticized Greek wars. Spartan Hegemony
388 Plutus produced by Aristophanes.
387 Athenians supported revolt of Euagoras at Cyprus. Spartan Hegemony
387 Plato founded Academy in Athens.
386 Peace of Antalcidas between Greeks and Persia.
385 Roman dictator Camillus defeated Volscians.
384 Aristotle born in Stagira.
384 Demosthenes born in Attica.
382 Spartans seized citadel at Thebes.
380 Spartans defeated at Olynthus; Agesipolis killed.
380 Persia defeated Egypt and Euagoras.
380 Isocrates wrote Panegyric oration.
c. 380 Meno, Gorgias, Phaedrus, Symposium, Phaedo by Plato.
380-371 Cleombrotus I co-ruled Sparta.
379 Syracuse defeated Carthage again; Mago killed. North Africa
378 Carthaginians beat Syracuse at Cronion, made treaty.
378 Spartans expelled from Theban citadel.
378 Spartan Sphodrias raided Piraeus.
378 Athens allied with Thebes against Sparta.
378-377 Spartan king Agesilaus invaded Boeotia.
377 Athens formed league with 70 cities, added tax. Spartan Hegemony
377-353 Mausolus ruled Caria. Persia
377-366 Tribunes Licinius and Sextius agitated for reform. Rome
376 Jin territory divided by Zhao, Wei, and Han. Warring States
376 Athenian Chabrias defeated Lacedaemonians at Naxos. Spartan Hegemony
374 Short peace between Athens and Sparta.
373 Athenians led by Iphicrates defeated Sparta at Corcyra.
373 Isocrates speech asked aid for Plataeans.
371 Athenians made peace with Sparta.
371 Thebes defeated Spartans at Leuctra.
371-289 Mencius taught Confucian philosophy in China.
371-287 Theophrastus studied with and succeeded Aristotle.
370 Jason of Pherae assassinated. Theban Hegemony
370-319 Hui ruled Liang advised by Mencius. Warring States
370-309 Cleomenes II co-ruled Sparta. Greece
c. 370-295 Zhuang-zi wrote Daoist musings in Song.
370 Arcadian union built Megalopolis. Theban Hegemony
370 Boeotians led by Epaminondas invaded Lacedaemonia. Theban Hegemony
c. 370 Republic written by Plato.
368 Ptolemy murdered Alexander II of Macedonia. Theban Hegemony
368 Iphicrates intervened in Macedonia. Theban Hegemony
368 Pelopidas, who helped Thessaly form union, captured. Theban Hegemony
368 Dionysius I defeated by Carthaginians at Lilybaeum.
368 Theaetetus written by Plato.
368 Isocrates wrote to Dionysius I of Syracuse.
367 Ariobarzanes revolted from Persia.
367 Persia recognized independence of Messenia.
367 Athens executed envoy Timagoras. Theban Hegemony
367 Plato visited Dionysius II in Syracuse.
367 Licinian law limited land ownership by Romans.
367-357 Dionysius II ruled Syracuse.
367-347 Aristotle studied in Plato's Academy.
366 Thebans seized Oropus.
366 Athens allied with Arcadia. Theban Hegemony
366 Lycomedes killed by Mantinean exiles. Theban Hegemony
366 Isocrates wrote oration for Spartan Archidamus.
366 Sextius first plebeian elected consul in Rome.
366 Roman patricians created new office of praetor.
365 Macedonian regent Ptolemy assassinated. Theban Hegemony
365 Athens led by Timotheus conquered and settled Samos. Theban Hegemony
364 Pelopidas killed attacking Alexander at Pherae. Theban Hegemony
364 Olympic games disrupted by Arcadian invasion of Elis. Theban Hegemony
364 Demosthenes sued trustees of his estate.
364 Etruscan dance and music used in Rome during a plague.
362 Epaminondas killed in battle at Mantinea. Theban Hegemony
362 Ariobarzanes crucified by Persia in satrap revolt.
361 Agesilaus mercenary in Egypt's revolt from Persia.
361 Corcyra oligarchs left Athenian league. Theban Hegemony
c. 360 Hellenica history of Greece 411-362 by Xenophon.
c. 360 Laws written by Plato.
360 Plato visited Syracuse again.
360-338 Archidamus co-ruled Sparta. Macedonian Expansion
c. 360-270 Pyrrho of Elis founded Skeptical school of philosophy.
359 Qin duke Xiao instituted reforms of ShangYang.
359 Cotys of Thrace and Alexander of Pherae killed. Macedonian Expansion
359 Macedonian king Perdiccas killed.
359-336 Philip II ruled Macedonia.
358 Macedonian Philip defeated Paeonians and Illyrians.
358 Rome outlawed bribery and reduced interest rates.
357 Philip II's army captured Amphipolis.
357 Chios, Rhodes, and Cos seceded from Athenian league. Macedonian Expansion
357 Chian fleet killed Chabrias and blockaded Samos. Macedonian Expansion
357 Dion led revolution in Syracuse.
356 Caria, Rhodes, Chios, Cos, and Byzantium confederated. Macedonian Expansion
356 Philip's army captured Pydna and Potidaea.
356 Isocrates wrote letter to Spartan king Archidamus.
356 Phocians seized treasury of Delphi. Wars
356 Alexander III born in Macedonia.
356 Rutulus first plebeian appointed dictator of Rome.
355 Athenians acquitted Iphicrates and fined Timotheus. Wars
355 Chares supported Artabazus rebellion against Persia. Wars
355 Athens made peace with Chios, Rhodes, Cos, Byzantium. Wars
355 On the Peace written by Isocrates.
355 Demosthenes spoke against Leptines and Androtion.
c. 355 Ways and Means written by Xenophon.
354 Thebans defeated Phocians, killed Philomelus. Wars
354 Areopagiticus written by Isocrates.
354 Samnites allied with Rome.
354 Dion murdered in Syracuse.
354-353 Callippus ruled Syracuse. Sicily
354-350 Eubulus administered Theoric fund in Athens. Wars
353-351 Hipparinus ruled Syracuse. Sicily
353 Philip's Macedonian army captured Methone.
353 Phocians led by Onomarchus captured Coroneia. Wars
353 Demosthenes spoke against Aristocrates.
352 Macedonians defeated Phocian army.
352-337 Han reformed by prime minister Shen Bu-hai. Warring States
351 First Philippic oration by Demosthenes.
351-346 Nysaeus ruled Syracuse. Sicily
c. 350 Nyaya Sutras by Gautama.
c. 350 Mimamsa Sutra by Jaimini.
c. 350 Vedanta Sutra by Badarayana.
c. 350 Jataka tales told in India.
349 Thirty-two cities of Chalcide submitted to Philip.
349 Three Olynthiac orations by Demosthenes.
348 Philip's forces captured Olynthus.
348 Rome renewed treaty with Carthage.
348 Roman taxes, interest, and conscription reduced.
347 Plato died in Athens.
347 Athenian embassy led by Philocrates to Philip.
347-339 Speusippus headed Academy in Athens. Aristotle
346 Athens made treaty with Macedonia.
346 Philip allied with Thebes defeated Phocis.
346 Isocrates wrote to Macedonian king Philip.
346-344 Dionysius II ruled Syracuse.
345 Aeschines prosecuted Timarchus.
345-343 Persia invaded Egypt.
344 Demosthenes made speeches in the Peloponnese.
344 Second Philippic oration by Demosthenes.
344 Timoleon defeated Hicetas at Hadranum.
343-338 Spartan king Archidamus II fought in Italy.
343 Philocrates and Aeschines impeached in Athens.
343 Antiphon executed for treason by Athens. Wars
343 Demosthenes and Aeschines spoke on the treaty.
343 Roman senate declared war on Samnites.
343-341 Athenians formed various alliances. Wars
342-341 Philip's Macedonian army invaded Thrace.
342-336 Aristotle tutored Alexander in Macedonia.
342-292 Menander wrote more than a hundred comedies.
341 Third Philippic and On the Chersonese by Demosthenes.
341-325 Rome observed truce with Samnites.
341-270 Epicurus founded Hedonist school of philosophy.
340 Qin attacked state of Wei. Warring States
c. 340 Lie-zi told Daoist tales in Zheng.
340 Amphictyonic Council conflicts. Wars
340 Philip appointed Alexander regent in Macedonia.
340, 338 Athenians crowned Demosthenes.
339 Amphictyons asked Philip to lead sacred war.
339 Timoleon's army defeated Carthaginians at Crimisus.
339-329 King Wei ruled Chu. Zhuang-zi
339-314 Xenocrates headed Academy in Athens.
338 ShangYang executed in Qin.
338 Macedonian army captured Amphissa and Chaeronea.
338 Timoleon liberated Sicily, instituted democracy.
338-326 Lycurgus administered Athenian finances. Demosthenes
338-318 Sicily ruled by democracy.
337-333 Demosthenes administered Athenian Theoric fund.
336 Philip sent force to secure the Hellespont.
336 Philip murdered; Alexander made king of Macedonia.
336 Alexander elected general by the Greeks.
336 Aristotle founded Lyceum in Athens.
336-330 Darius III ruled Persian empire.
335 Macedonian army attacked Ionian coast. Alexander
335 Alexander invaded Thrace and Illyria.
335 Alexander's Macedonians destroyed Thebes.
335-323 Aristotle lectured on logic, metaphysics, nature.
335-323 Aristotle lectured on Ethics, Politics, and Rhetoric.
334 Yue taken over by Chu. Warring States
334-323 Alexander's Macedonian army conquered Persian empire.
334-263 Latins settled in 19 colonies in Italy.
334 Alexander's Macedonian army conquered Lydia.
334 Alexander of Epirus defeated Brettian league in Italy.
333 Alexander's Macedonian army conquered Cilicia.
332 Alexander's army conquered Phoenicia, Judea, and Egypt.
c. 332-260 Zeno founded Stoic school of philosophy.
331 Samaritans killed Alexander's governor Andromachos. Jews
331 Alexandria founded in Egypt. Alexander
331 Macedonian army defeated Persians at Gaugamela. Alexander
331 Revolt led by Spartan king Agis defeated at Megalopolis. Alexander
330 Alexander's Macedonian army destroyed Persepolis.
330 Alexander of Epirus killed in battle at Pandosia. Alexander
330 Aeschines spoke against Ctesiphon and Demosthenes.
330 Demosthenes defended himself in On the Crown.
329 Alexander's Macedonian army conquered Arachosia.
329 Romans defeated Privernum.
328 Zhang Yi made prime minister of Qin. Warring States
328 Demosthenes became Athenian wheat commissioner.
328-308 Nastasen ruled Kushites using Meroitic script. Africa
328-302 Second Roman-Samnite war.
328-299 Huai ruled Chu. Warring States
327 Alexander's Macedonian army conquered Sogdiana.
326 Alexander's Invasion of India.
325 Hui proclaimed king of Qin. Warring States
324 Alexander and 80 officers wed Persians.
324 Demosthenes convicted and exiled from Athens.
324-300 Chandragupta founded Mauryan dynasty.
323 Zhang Yi made prime minister of Wei. Warring States
323 Hephaestion and Alexander died of possible poisoning.
323 Aristotle, accused of impiety, fled Athens.
323-283 Ptolemy I Soter ruled Egypt. Alexander's Successors
322 Aristotle died in Chalcis.
322 Demosthenes poisoned himself.
322 Antipater's Macedonians put down Athenian revolt. Alexander's Successors
322-307 Macedonian garrison in Athens. Alexander's Successors
321 Ptolemy's forces defeated and killed Perdiccas in Egypt. Alexander's Successors
321 20,000 Roman soldiers surrendered to Samnites.
321-301 Antigonus I ruled Asia Minor area. Alexander's Successors
320-c. 310 Mencius advised Qi king Xuan.
c. 320 Qin army killed 80,000 in Han. Warring States
c. 320 Su Qin formed alliance against Qin. Warring States
c. 320-300 Ju Yuan diplomat in Chu, Qi, and Qin. Songs of Chu
c. 320-232 Cleanthes studied and taught Stoic philosophy.
319 Antipater died in Macedonia, succeeded by Cassander. Alexander's Successors
317 Zhang Yi made prime minister of Qin again. Warring States
317 Eudemus left India. Mauryan Empire
317-289 Agathocles ruled Syracuse. Alexander's Successors
316 Cassander executed Olympias, mother of Alexander. Alexander's Successors
316 Dyskolos by Menander won a prize at Athens.
315 Yen king abdicated, caused revolt; Qi invaded Yen. Warring States
315 Romans captured 7,000 Samnite soldiers at Luceria.
315-281 Lysimachus ruled Thrace area. Alexander's Successors
315-241 Arcesilaus founded Middle Academy in Athens. Pyrrho
314 Qin attacked Wei. Warring States
314-260 Zeno taught Stoic philosophy in Athens.
313 Qin king Hui-wen sent Zhang Yi to Chu with gifts. Warring States
312 Ptolemy I defeated Demetrius at Gaza. Alexander's Successors
312 Censor Appius Claudius started highway and aqueduct. Rome
312-280 Seleucus I ruled Mesopotamia area. Alexander's Successors
c. 310 Qi and Qin defeated Chu, killing 80,000. Warring States
310 Agathocles' Syracusan army attacked Carthage. Alexander's Successors
310 Roman army defeated Etruscans.
c. 310-240 Callimachus wrote poetry in Alexandria.
c. 310-250 Theocritus wrote poetry in Alexandria and Syracuse.
310-212 Xun-zi taught Confucian philosophy in China.
309-265 Areus I co-ruled Sparta. Greece
307 Macedonian Demetrius liberated Athens. Alexander's Successors
306-270 Epicurus taught hedonistic philosophy in Athens.
306 Rome's treaty with Carthage renewed.
305 Treaty made by India's Chandragupta and Seleucus. Alexander's Successors
305 Macedonian Demetrius captured Rhodes. Alexander's Successors
c. 302 Qi king Xuan founded Ji-Xia academy. Warring States
302 Rome intervened for aristocratic class at Arretium.
301 Antigonus defeated and killed at Ipsus. Alexander's Successors
301 Ptolemy I claimed Syria. Alexander's Successors
301-281 Lysimachus ruled Anatolia area. Alexander's Successors
301-266 Mithridates I ruled Pontus. Alexander's Successors
c. 300 Ju Yuan composed Songs of Chu.
c. 300 Kautilya wrote Artha Shastra.
c. 300 Euclid taught geometry, wrote Elements in Alexandria.
c. 300 Sacred History written by Euhemerus. Greece
298 Cassander died in Macedonia. Alexander's Successors
298 Agathocles' army captured Corcyra from Macedonia. Alexander's Successors
298-290 Third Roman-Samnite war.
297-279 Zipoetes I ruled Bithynia. Seleucid Empire
297-272 Pyrrhus I ruled Epirus. Alexander's Successors
296 Rome intervened for aristocratic class at Lucania.
c. 295-215 Apollonius of Rhodes wrote the Argonautica. Alexandrian Poetry
294 Demetrius of Phalerum organized museum in Alexandria.
294-288 Demetrius ruled Macedonia. Alexander's Successors
293 Qin army attacked Han and Wei, killing 240,000. Warring States
292 Qin army invaded Chu. Warring States
290 Aetolian League took over Delphi. Alexander's Successors
289-280 Hicetas ruled Syracuse. Alexander's Successors
288 Qin king Zhao proclaimed Western Emperor in China. Warring States
288 Qi king proclaimed Eastern Emperor in China. Warring States
288 Pyrrhus and Lysimachus conquered Macedonia. Alexander's Successors
287 Ptolemy I married Berenice. Egypt
287 Hortensius Roman dictator; plebiscites made law.
286 Qi took over Song. Warring States
c. 286-206 Chrysippus studied and taught Stoic philosophy.
284 Yen, Qin, Wei, and Zhao invaded Qi. Warring States
284 Xun-zi and scholars fled Ji-Xia academy.
284-276 Xun-zi taught Confucian philosophy in Chu.
283 Gauls invaded Etruria; Romans destroyed Senones.
283-246 Ptolemy II Philadelphus ruled Egypt.
282 Tarentines destroyed Roman fleet.
281 Lysimachus defeated by Seleucus and killed in Lydia. Alexander's Successors
281 Seleucus assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus. Alexander's Successors
c. 280 Qin devastated Zhao, Wei and Han. Warring States
c. 280 Han prince Han Fei-zi born.
280 Ptolemy II's army took Damascus from Seleucids.
280-274 Pyrrhus' army invaded Italy and Sicily.
280-261 Antiochus I ruled Seleucid empire.
279 Gauls invaded Macedonia, killed Ceraunus.
279 Aetolian League defeated Gauls at Delphi. Greece
279-250 Nicomedes I ruled Bithynia. Seleucid Empire
278 Qin army invaded Chu. Warring States
c. 277 Poet Ju Yuan drowned. Songs of Chu
277 Antigonus II defeated invading Gauls at Lysimacheia.
277-239 Antigonus Gonatas ruled Macedonia.
276 Gauls invaded Anatolia and settled Galatia. Seleucid Empire
276-265 Xun-zi taught at Ji-Xia academy in Qi.
275 Antiochus I defeated Galatians in Anatolia. Seleucid Empire
275 Ptolemy II Philadelphus married his sister Arsinoe.
274 Antiochus I invaded lower Syria. Seleucid Empire
273 Latin colony settled in Cosa. Italy
c. 273-236 Ashoka ruled India.
272 Pyrrhus invaded Peloponnesus and was killed. Greece
270-215 Hiero II ruled Syracuse. Rome
268 Latin colony settled in Ariminum. Italy
268 Roman silver coin denarius (day's wage) minted.
267-261 Chremonidean War between Athens and Macedonia.
265-259 Xun-zi taught in Qin and Zhao.
264 Latin colony settled in Firnum. Italy
264 Rome intervened for aristocratic class at Volsinii.
264 First gladiatorial contests held in Rome.
264-241 Carthage fought first Punic war against Rome. North Africa
263-241 Eumenes I ruled Pergamum. Seleucid Empire
261 Ashoka converted to Buddhism.
261-246 Antiochus II ruled Seleucid empire.
260 Qin army defeated Zhao at Chang-ping, killing 400,000. Warring States
260 Ephesians revolted against Egypt. Seleucid Empire
c. 260 Apollonius of Rhodes became librarian at Alexandria.
260 Roman navy defeated Carthaginians at Mylae.
259 Antigonus Gonatas defeated Egyptians off Cos. Macedonia
256 Qin army attacked Han, killing 40,000. Warring States
256 Roman navy captured 64 Carthaginian ships.
255 Ptolemy II ceded Ionia and Cilicia to Antiochus II.
255 Ariarathes III began ruling Cappadocia. Seleucid Empire
255 Spartan general Xanthippus defeated Rome's Regulus.
c. 254-184 Plautus produced comedies for Rome.
253 Roman fleet wrecked by storm off Palinurus.
252 Antiochus II married Ptolemy's daughter Berenice.
c. 250 Xun-zi magistrate of Lan-ling in Chu.
c. 250 Guan-zi and Book of ShangYang Legalist texts.
c. 250 Bactria led by Diodotus became independent. Seleucid Empire
250 Romans besieged Lilybaeum.
249 Qin army defeated and ended Zhou dynasty. Warring States
249 Sicyon joined Achaean League. Greece
249 Carthaginians captured 93 Roman ships at Drepana.
247 Li Si left Xun-zi and gained an office in Qin. Warring States
c. 247 Ashoka prohibited killing animals for sport.
247-207 Devanampiyatissa ruled Ceylon. India
246 Zheng became king of Qin. Warring States
246-226 Seleucus II ruled Seleucid empire.
246-221 Ptolemy III Euergetes ruled Egypt.
245 Aratus elected general of Achaean League. Greece
245 Aetolian League defeated Boeotians. Greece
244-241 Agis IV co-ruled Sparta. Greece
243 Achaeans led by Aratus captured Corinth. Greece
242 Rebuilt Roman navy defeated Carthaginians.
c. 241 Ptolemy III signed peace treaty in Palestine.
241 Rome annexed Sicily.
241-238 Mercenary revolt crushed in Carthage.
241-235 Leonidas II ruled Sparta. Greece
241-219 Phoenician coast ruled by Ptolemies.
241-197 Attalus I ruled Pergamum. Seleucid Empire
c. 240 Livius Andronicus adapted Greek plays in Rome. Plautus
239-229 Demetrius II ruled Macedonia.
239-169 Quintius Ennius adapted Greek tragedies in Rome. Plautus
238 Seleucus II defeated Antiochus the Hawk near Ancyra. Seleucid Empire
238-225 Rome invaded and annexed Sardinia and Corsica.
238-229 Carthage's Hamilcar conquered Iberia (Spain).
237 Li Si succeeded Lu Bu-wei as Qin prime minister. Warring States
235 Achaeans declared war on Lacedaemonians. Greece
235-222 Cleomenes III co-ruled Sparta. Greece
234 Qin army attacked Han. Warring States
234 Han king An sent Legalist Han Fei-zi as his envoy to Qin.
233 Legalist Han Fei-zi died of poison in Qin.
231 Federal republic established in Epirus. Greece
230 Qin annexed Han. Warring States
230 Seleucus II invaded Parthia. Seleucid Empire
230-228 Roman army intervened in Illyria.
230-182 Prusias I ruled Bithynia. Seleucid Empire
229 Argos joined Achaean League. Greece
228 Qin annexed Zhao. Warring States
228 Athens paid off Macedonian garrisons.
227 Achaeans defeated by Spartan forces at Elis. Greece
227 Cleomenes III reformed Sparta. Greece
227 Colossus of Rhodes destroyed in earthquake. Greece
226 Roman-Carthaginian treaty in Spain.
226-223 Seleucus III ruled Seleucid empire.
225 Qin annexed Wei. Warring States
225 Roman army defeated invading Gauls.
224 Macedonia allied with Achaeans, Thessaly, Epirus, etc.
223 Qin annexed Chu. Warring States
223-187 Antiochus III ruled Seleucid empire.
222 Qin annexed Yen. Warring States
222 Macedonian alliance defeated Sparta at Sellasia.
222 Insubres Gauls submitted to Rome.
221 Qin annexed Qi. Warring States
221 Qin king Zheng proclaimed August Emperor (Huang-di).
221 Hasdrubal assassinated and replaced by Hannibal. Carthage
221-206 Qin dynasty united China.
221-179 Philip V ruled Macedonia.
221-204 Ptolemy IV Philopator ruled Egypt.
220-219 Antiochus III's army put down revolt in Babylon. Seleucid Empire
220-210 Great wall construction continued in China. Qin Empire
219 Li Si made a high minister of Qin empire.
219 Roman navy defeated piratical Demetrius of Pharos.
219 Hannibal captured Saguntum in Spain. Carthage
219-217 Antiochus III's Seleucids invaded Phoenicia.
218 Attempted assassination of Qin emperor.
218 Lex Claudia barred Roman patricians from commerce.
218 Hannibal crossed Alps and invaded Italy. Carthage
218-201 Carthage fought 2nd Punic war against Rome. North Africa
217 Egyptians defeated Antiochus III at Raphia. Seleucid Empire
217 Philip V made a treaty with Aetolians. Greece
217 Roman navy defeated Hasdrubal off the Ebro.
217 Hannibal defeated Roman army at Lake Trasimene.
216 Carthaginian army defeated Roman forces at Cannae.
c. 215 The Menaechmi by Plautus performed in Rome.
214 500,000 "criminals" sent to invade Luliang in China. Qin Empire
214 Antiochus III besieged Achaeus at Sardis. Seleucid Empire
214 Romans led by Fabius Maximus devastated Caudini.
213 Qin emperor ordered books burned.
213 Li Si made chancellor of Qin empire.
213-211 Syracuse besieged by Marcellus and Romans.
213-129 Carneades headed New Academy in Athens. Pyrrho
212 700,000 forced to build Qin emperor's palaces.
212 Roman army up to 25 legions.
212-211 Capua starved into surrender by Romans.
212-204 Antiochus III invaded Parthia and Bactria. Seleucid Empire
211 Meteor landed and inscribed in China. Qin Empire
211 Archimedes killed as Syracuse is captured by Romans.
210 First Qin emperor died.
210 12 Latin colonies refused to support Roman war.
209 Chen She began revolt against Qin dynasty.
209 Scipio's Roman army captured New Carthage in Spain.
208 Zhao Gao appointed Chancellor of Qin empire.
208 Philopoemen's Achaeans defeated Sparta at Mantinea. Greece
207 Second Qin emperor killed.
207 Nabis instituted radical policies in Sparta. Greece
207 Rome's Scipio defeated Hasdrubal at Metaurus in Spain.
206 King Zi-ying surrendered, ending Qin dynasty.
206 Xiang Yu declared Protector king of Western Chu. Han Dynasty
206 Liu Bang (governor of Pei) appointed king of Han. Han Dynasty
206-8 CE Western Han dynasty ruled China.
205 Xiang Yu defeated king of Han. Han Dynasty
205 The Swaggering Soldier produced by Plautus.
205 Carthaginian army surrendered Spain at Gades.
204 Asian cult of mother goddess Cybele brought to Rome.
203 Rome's Scipio defeated Syphax's Numidians in Africa.
203-181 Ptolemy V Epiphanes ruled Egypt.
203-187 Nubians controlled Thebes. Africa
202 Xiang Yu defeated committed suicide. Han Dynasty
202-195 King of Han named Emperor Gao-zu ruled China. Han Dynasty
202 Rome's Scipio defeated Hannibal at Zama near Carthage.
201 Rome made treaty with Carthage and Masinissa.
201-169 Jia Yi wrote "Faults of Qin." Han Dynasty
200 Gao-zu established Chinese capital at Chang-an. Han Dynasty
c. 200 Daoist Lu Jia wrote New Discourses. Han Dynasty
c. 200 Yoga Sutras written by Patanjali. Yoga
200 Seleucid army defeated Egyptians at Panium.
200 Insubres destroyed Placentia. Rome
200 Rome declared war on Philip's Macedonia.
200 Stichus produced by Plautus.
199 Aetolians joined Roman alliance against Philip. Greece
198 Achaeans and Boeotians joined Roman alliance. Greece
198 Carthaginian captives and slaves revolt crushed. Rome
197 Roman army defeated Macedonian army in Thessaly.
197 Roman army defeated Insubres and Hamilcar.
197 Romans defeated Macedonian phalanx at Cynocephalae.
197 Rome made peace treaty with Macedonia's Philip V.
197-160 Eumenes II ruled Pergamum. Seleucid Empire
196 Edict promoting men of virtue in China. Han Dynasty
196 Flamininus proclaimed Greek liberty at Corinth. Rome
196 Slave rebellion in Etruria put down. Rome
195 Lex Oppia restricting women's luxuries repealed. Rome
195 Rome declared war on Spartan tyrant Nabis.
195-188 Hui-di ruled China. Han Dynasty
194 Romans withdrew garrisons from Greece.
194-185 Cao Can Daoist prime minister in Qi. Han Dynasty
192 Antiochus III's Seleucid army invaded Greece.
192-189 Rome at war with Seleucid Antiochus III.
191 Romans defeated Seleucids at Thermopylae and Corycus.
191 Pseudolus produced by Plautus.
190 Scipio's army defeated Seleucid army at Magnesia. Rome
189 Roman forces punished Galatia for raids.
188 Seleucids lost Anatolia in treaty of Apamea.
188 Achaean League led by Philopoemen captured Sparta. Greece
188-180 Empress Lu ruled China as regent. Han Dynasty
c. 187 Brihadratha's death ended Mauryan dynasty in India.
187 Scipio brothers charged with peculation in Rome.
187-175 Seleucus IV ruled Seleucid empire.
c. 187-151 Pushyamitra ruled in India.
186 Bacchic cult suppressed in Rome.
186 Amphitryo produced by Plautus.
c. 185 Terence born a slave in Carthage.
184 Elder Cato elected censor in Rome.
183 Pontic king Pharnaces I invaded Galatia. Seleucid empire
182 Messenia revolted; Philopoemen poisoned. Greece
181 Philip's son Demetrius killed by poison. Greece
181-173 Cleopatra I ruled Egypt as regent.
c. 180 Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach written. Judea
180-157 Wen-di ruled China. Han Dynasty
179-167 Perseus ruled Macedonia.
c. 179-105 Confucian Dong Zhong-shu founded Yin Yang school.
177 Xiong-nu invaded Honan.Han Dynasty
177 Sempronius Gracchus defeated Sardinians. Rome
175-163 Antiochus IV Epiphanes ruled Seleucid empire.
175 Bactrians invaded northern Mauryan empire.
174 Mao-Dun, founder of Xiong-nu empire, died. Han Dynasty
173 Roman consul Popillius Laenas subjugated Statielli.
173-145 Ptolemy VI Philometor ruled Egypt and Cypress.
172 Menelaus appointed high priest in Jerusalem. Judea
172 Rome declared war on Macedonia.
171-168 Roman army invaded Greece.
c. 171-155 Eucratides I ruled Bactria. Seleucid Empire
171-138 Mithridates I ruled Parthia. Seleucid Empire
c. 170 Bactrian king Demetrius II conquered northwest India. Seleucid Empire
169 Seleucid army invaded Bactria.
169 Antiochus IV captured Ptolemy VI at Memphis. Seleucid Empire
169-116 Ptolemy VII ruled Cyrene.
168 Antiochus IV seized Jerusalem treasury. Seleucid Empire Judea
168 Rome's envoy Popillius forced Antiochus out of Egypt.
168 Romans defeated Macedonian army at Pydna.
167 Mutilation removed from Chinese penal code. Han Dynasty
167 Antiochus IV Epiphanes Hellenized Jerusalem temple. Seleucid Empire
167-150 1000 Achaeans including Polybius held in Rome. Greece
166 The Woman of Andros produced by Terence in Rome.
165 Civil service exams began in China. Han Dynasty
165 The Mother-In-Law produced by Terence.
164 Maccabees rededicated Jerusalem temple. Judea
c. 164 Daniel written in Judea.
163 The Self-Tormentor produced by Terence.
162 China's Wen-di made peace with Xiong-nu king. Han Dynasty
162-150 Demetrius I ruled Seleucid kingdom.
161 Alcimus appointed high priest in Jerusalem. Judea
161 The Eunuch and Phormio produced by Terence.
160 Judas killed in Maccabean revolt. Judea
160 The Brothers produced by Terence.
c. 160 On Agriculture written by the elder Cato. Rome
157-141 Jing-di ruled China. Han Dynasty
155 Athenian philosopher diplomats dismissed from. Rome
c. 155-130 Menander ruled Bactria. Seleucid Empire
154 Chao Cuo executed for seizing territory in China. Han Dynasty
154 Rome made Bithynia's Prusias II pay war damages.
154-138 Rome at war with Lusitanians in Spain.
152-142 Jonathan high priest in Jerusalem. Judea
151 Roman men resisted conscription. Rome
c. 150 Laws of Manu written.
c. 150 Panchatantra tales written down.
c. 150 Books found in house of Confucius. Confucian Works
c. 150 Steel and paper manufactured in China. Han Dynasty
150 Achaean League attacked Sparta. Greece
150-146 Third Punic war of Rome with Carthage.
150-145 Balas ruled Syria. Seleucid Empire
c. 150-120 Mithridates V ruled Pontus. Seleucid Empire
149 Andriscus raised an army and ravaged Thessaly. Greece
149 Lex Calpurnia established extortion court in Rome.
149-146 Carthage fought 3rd Punic war against Rome. North Africa
147-145 Egypt's Ptolemy VI Philometor invaded Syria.
146 Carthage destroyed by Romans.
146 Romans defeated Achaean army, destroyed Corinth. Greece
145-140 Demetrius II ruled Syria. Seleucid Empire
145-116 Ptolemy VII (Euergetes II) ruled Egypt.
145-101 Elara ruled Sri Lanka (Ceylon). India
c. 145-90 Sima Qian wrote biographies and history of China. Wu-di's Reign
144 Xiong-nu invaded Shanxi. Han Dynasty
142-135 Simon Maccabeus ruled Judea.
141-87 Wu-di ruled China.
140 Mithridates I captured Seleucid king Demetrius II.
140-129 Antiochus VII ruled Syria. Seleucid Empire
139 Huai-nan-zi presented to Wu-di.
139 Astrologers and Jews expelled from Rome.
138-133 Attalus III ruled Pergamum. Rome
136 Dong Zhong-shu founded imperial university in China. Wu-di's Reign
135 Empress Dowager Dou died in China. Wu-di's Reign
135-131 Chancellor Tian Fen promoted Confucians. Wu-di's Reign
135-132 Slave revolt in Sicily led by Syrian Eunus. Rome
c. 135-50 Poseidonius taught philosophy at Rhodes. Stoics
133 Attalus III willed Pergamum to Rome.
133 Roman army destroyed Numantia in Spain.
133 Roman tribune Tiberius Gracchus proposed land reform.
133 Senators killed Tiberius Gracchus in Rome.
133-119 Wu-di warred against Xiong-nu.
131-126 Ptolemy VII exiled from Egypt by Cleopatra II.
c. 130 Luxuriant Gems of the Annals written by Dong Zhong-shu. Confucian Works
129 Roman province of Asia organized. Reforms
129-104 John Hyrcanus I ruled Judea.
128 China invaded Manchuria and Korea. Wu-di's Reign
125 Consul Fulvius Flaccus proposed Italian citizenship. Reforms
123 Gaius Gracchus elected tribune and proposed reforms.
123- 86 Mithridates II ruled Parthia. Seleucid Empire
122 Huai-nan king's rebellion failed. Wu-di's Reign
121 China invaded Mongolia. Wu-di's Reign
121 Gaius Gracchus killed in Rome riots.
121 120,000 Gauls were killed by Roman army. Reforms
120 700,000 disaster victims moved to Shanxi. Wu-di's Reign
c. 120-63 Mithridates VI ruled Pontus. Rome
119 Imperial monopolies of salt and iron began in China. Wu-di's Reign
118 Numidian king Micipsa died; kingdom divided. Marius
116-108 Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII co-ruled Egypt.
114 Wu-di's travel caused two governors' suicides.
114 Last religious human sacrifice in Rome. Marius
113-112 Numidian Jugurtha besieged Adherbal at Cirta. Marius
112 China used criminals in army and construction. Wu-di's Reign
112 Rome declared war on Numidia's Jugurtha. Marius
110 Wu-di broke with Confucians over sacrifices.
110 Sang Hung-yang began Chinese standards bureau. Wu-di's Reign
109 China invaded south to Vietnam. Wu-di's Reign
108 China established four commanderies in Korea. Wu-di's Reign
108-101 Cleopatra III and Ptolemy IX co-ruled Egypt.
107 Marius elected consul and replaced Metellus in Africa.
106 Cicero and Pompey born in Italy.
106 Sulla captured Jugurtha in Africa.
105 Chinese envoys reached Seleucia. Wu-di's Reign
105 Teutons and Cimbri defeated Romans at the Arausio. Marius
104 Mithridates VI occupied Galatia and Cappadocia. Marius
104 Jugurtha executed in Rome. Marius
104 Slaves revolted in Sicily. Marius
103-90 China war with Xiong-nu killed many. Wu-di's Reign
103-76 Alexander Janneus ruled Judea.
102 Marius' proletarian Roman army defeated Ambrones.
101 Chinese sailors using compass reached India. Wu-di's Reign
101-88 Ptolemy IX and Berenice co-ruled Egypt.
101-77 Dutthagamani ruled and unified Sri Lanka (Ceylon). India
c. 100 Li Ji compiled by Dai De and Dai Sheng. Li (Propriety)
c. 100 "Sir Fantasy" poem written by Sima Xiang-ru. Wu-di's Reign
c. 100 Bhagavad-Gita written.
100 Marius served sixth consecutive Roman consulate.
100 Reforming tribune Saturninus killed in Rome. Marius
100 Julius Caesar born in Rome.
99 Du Zhou prosecuted many in China. Wu-di's Reign
99 Historian Sima Qian arrested and castrated. Wu-di's Reign
97 Scaevola established judicial tribunals in Asia. Marius
97 Rome banned human sacrifice. Marius
94-74 Nicomedes IV ruled Bithynia. Sulla
93-87 Pharisee revolt put down in Judea.
92 Rutilius Rufus convicted of extortion by Romans. Marius
91 Many executed for sorcery in China. Wu-di's Reign
91 Tribune Drusus assassinated in Rome. Marius
91-88 Rome war with Marsi and other Italians. Marius
89 Asiello murdered by creditors in Rome. Marius
88 Mithridates VI invaded Bithynia and Asia Minor. Marius
88 Sulla's Roman legions besieged and captured Athens.
88 Sulla marched on Rome; tribune Sulpicius killed.
88-81 Ptolemy VIII ruled Egypt.
87-84 Consul Cinna ruled Rome. Sulla
87-68 Ho Guang ruled China for Zhao-di and Xuan-di. Confucian China 87-30 BC
86 Flaccus' and Fimbria's soldiers deserted to Sulla.
86 Marius died of illness during 7th consulate.
84 Cinna killed by troops mutinying at Ancona. Sulla
83 Armenian king Tigranes I conquered Syria. Sulla
83 Sulla's forces returned to Italy, aided by Pompey.
83-66 Tigranes I ruled Armenia. Pompey
82 Sulla won Roman civil war, proscribed enemies.
81 Japanese emperor Sujin ordered shipbuilding. Confucian China 87-30 BC
81 Salt and iron monopolies debated in China. Confucian China 87-30 BC
81-79 Dictator Sulla reformed Rome's laws.
80 Cicero defended Sextus Roscius on murder charge.
80-51 Ptolemy XI king of Egypt.
79-78 Sulla retired and died of illness.
78 Roman Consul Lepidus proposed reforms. Pompey
78-75 Servilius attacked pirates in Lycia and Cilicia. Pompey
77 Catulus defeated Lepidus; Pompey sent to Spain.
77-59 Saddhatissa ruled Sri Lanka. India
77-6 Liu Xian added to Songs of Chu.
76-67 Salome Alexandra ruled Judea.
75 Cicero served as quaestor in western Sicily.
c. 75-30 Kanvas dynasty ruled in India.
74 Nicomedes IV bequeathed Bithynia to Rome. Pompey
74 Armenian Tigranes I invaded Cappadocia. Pompey
74 Mithridates VI invaded Bithynia; Rome sent Lucullus. Pompey
74 Rome annexed Cyrene. Pompey
73-71 Spartacus led slave revolt in Italy crushed by Crassus.
72 Perperna murdered Sertorius in Spain. Pompey
70 Consuls Crassus and Pompey reformed Sullan laws.
70 Cicero prosecuted Verres for governing Sicily corruptly.
70-19 Virgil wrote poetry in Italy.
69 Roman army led by Lucullus invaded Armenia. Pompey
69-63 Judea civil war between Hyrcanus II and Aristobolus II.
68-48 Xuan-di ruled China.
67 Pompey cleared pirates out of the Mediterranean.
67 Rome annexed Crete. Pompey
66 Lucullus replaced by Pompey in Mithridatic war.
66 Cicero praetor and defended Cluentius.
65 Julius Caesar aedile and Crassus censor in Rome.
63 Pompey made Judea a Roman province.
63 Julius Caesar elected pontifex maximus and praetor.
63 Cicero defended Rabirius on murder charge.
63 Cicero defended Murena on bribery charge.
63 Consul Cicero executed 5 Catiline conspirators.
62 Pompey organized Syria as a Roman province.
62 Catiline and Manlius defeated and killed fleeing Italy. Cicero
62 Pompey given the largest triumph in Rome.
61-60 Caesar became rich governing farther Spain.
60 Caesar elected consul allied with Pompey and Crassus.
59-56 Ptolemy XI exiled from Egypt.
59-50 Caesar' governed and conquered Gaul.
58-56 Rome sent Cato to annex Cypress.
58 Tribune Clodius passed law distributing free grain. Cicero
58 Caesar's army defeated Helvetii and Ariovistus.
58-57 Cicero exiled from Rome in Greece.
57 Caesar's army defeated Belgae and Nervii.
57-37 Orodes ruled Parthia. Crassus
56 Cicero opposed Caesar's land law.
56 Pompey, Crassus, and 120 senators met Caesar at Luca.
55 Second consulship of Pompey and Crassus.
55 Pompey sent Syrian governor Gabinius to occupy Egypt.
55 Caesar's army invaded Germans and Britain.
55 Cicero wrote on Oratory.
c. 55 Lucretius, who wrote poem On the Nature of Things, died.
54 Julia, Caesar's daughter and Pompey's wife, died.
c. 54 Catullus, who wrote erotic poetry, died at the age of 30.
53 Crassus took 10,000 talents from Jerusalem temple.
53 Crassus was killed invading Parthia.
52 Clodius attacked Milo and was killed. Cicero
52 Caesar's army defeated revolt led by Vercingetorix.
51 Confucian classics formalized by Xuan-di.
c. 51 Cicero wrote his Republic.
51-48 Ptolemy XII and Cleopatra VII co-ruled Egypt.
c. 50 Wisdom of Solomon written. Judea
c. 50 Mayans used hieroglyphics.
50 Pompey mobilized his forces.
49 Pompey fled; Caesar made dictator in Rome.
49 Caesar's army won battle at Ilerda in Spain.
49 Curio's army destroyed by Juba's Numidians. Caesar
48 Caesar's army defeated Pompey's at Pharsalus.
48 Pompey killed in Egypt; Caesar fought Alexandria.
48-33 Yuan-di ruled China by Confucian principles.
48-30 Cleopatra VII ruled Egypt.
47-44 Julius Caesar ruled Roman empire as dictator.
46 Caesar's army victorious at Thapsus in Africa.
c. 46 Laws by Cicero.
45 Julian calendar inaugurated by Caesar.
45 Caesar's army victorious at Munda in Spain.
45-43 Cicero wrote books on philosophy and ethics.
44.3.15 Caesar assassinated by Casca, Cassius, Brutus, et al.
44 Conspirators fled Rome; Octavian returned to Rome.
44 Mark Antony assigned to Gaul.
44-43 Cicero's "Philippics" criticized Antony.
43 Octavian defeated Antony at Mutina.
43 Rhodes devastated by Cassius. Brutus
43.8.19 Roman senate elected Octavian consul.
43.8.27 Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed triumvirate.
43 Proscriptions killed Cicero and many others. Antony
42 Antony defeated Cassius and Brutus at Philippi.
42-36 Sextus Pompey controlled Sicily. Octavian
41 Antony visited Cleopatra in Alexandria.
40 Antony and Octavian divided Roman empire.
40 Virgil wrote pastoral Eclogues.
38 Octavian divorced wife and married Livia in Rome.
37 Roman triumvirate renewed for five years. Octavian
37-4 Herod I ruled Judea.
36 Agrippa defeated Sextus Pompey in naval battle. Octavian
36 Antony retreated from Armenia.
34 Antony invaded Armenia, donated kingdoms.
33-7 Cheng-di ruled China.
32 Antony divorced Octavia; his will read in Rome.
31 Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra at Actium.
30 Herod had Hyrcanus executed.
30 Hillel came to Judea and began teaching.
30 Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide at Alexandria.
30 Octavian made tribune for life in Rome.
30 Virgil wrote Georgics.