BECK index

Asia & Africa
Chronological Index of Events

1800-1950

Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
World Chronology to 1715

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1800 1825 1850 1875 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950

1800.2 Napoleon invaded Syria.
1800 British began publishing Cape Gazette.
1800 English bought 23 million pounds of Chinese tea. Jiajing Era
1800-03 Mahmud Mirza ruled Afghanistan. North India
1800-34 Sunjo was king of Korea.
1801 Wahhabis defeated Muscatis and took Bahrain.
1801 British forced the French out of Egypt.
1801 Nizam and Bhangi Sikhs submitted to Ranjit Singh.
1801 Korea persecuted Catholics.
1801 Korean government emancipated 66,067 slaves.
1801 Chong brothers were banished from Korea.
1801.7 British East India Company (BEIC) took Karnatak.
1801.7 Jaswant Rao Holkar captured Ujjain. British
1801.11 Awadh ceded half its territory to BEIC. British
1801-19 Gia Long ruled united Vietnam.
1801-24 Osei Bonsu was Asantehene. Asante
1802 Wahhabis captured Karbala in Iraq.
1802 British proclaimed Ceylon a crown colony. Sri Lanka
1802 Triads spread in Guangxi and Guangdong. Jiajing Era
1802.12.31 Baji Rao and British signed treaty of Bassein.
1803.5 British restored Baji Rao in Puna.
1803 Wahhabis destroyed mausoleums in Mecca.
1803 British evacuated Egypt.
1803.8 Arthur Wellesley captured Ahmadnagar. British
1803.8 General Lake captured Aligarh. North India
1803-05 British fought the Marathas.
1803-05 British fought the Kandyans. Ceylon
1803-08 Shah Shuja ruled Afghanistan. Marathas, North India
1803-09 Shuja-ul-Mulk ruled Afghanistan. British North India
1803-21 Sultan Ahmad ruled Kedah. Malaya
1803-21 Pomare II ruled Tahiti.
1804.4 R. Wellesley declared war on Jaswant Rao Holkar. British
1804.5.3 British killed 50 Aborigines.
1804 Usman dan Fodio led emigration from Degel. Bornu and Hausaland
1804 Jind and Thanesar went over to the British.
1804 8th Dalai Lama died. Tibet
1804 Johnston led rebellion by Irish convicts. Australia
1804.10 Holkar occupied Muttra and besieged Delhi. British
1804-56 Imam Saud ben Sultan ruled Oman. Persian Gulf
1805.2 Ranjit Singh called for a united Sikh state.
1805.4 British made a treaty with Jats of Bharatpur.
1805.4 Gaikwar of Baroda made a subsidiary treaty. British
1805 Wahhabis stopped Ottoman caravans to Mecca.
1805 Tripoli made a treaty with the United States.
1805 Ranjit Singh formed a Sikh confederation.
1805 Penang became a British presidency. Malaya
1805.7-10 Cornwallis governed British India for 3 months.
1805.11 Barlow made a treaty with Daulat Rao Sindia. British
1805.12 Barlow made a treaty with Jaswant Rao Holkar. British North India
1805-28 Chao-Anou ruled Vientiane. Laos
1805-48 Muhammad ‘Ali was viceroy (wali) of Egypt.
1806 Asante invaded Fante and defeated their army.
1806 Sepoys mutinied at Madras. Marathas
1806.7.10 Sepoys attacked Europeans at Madras. British
1806-08 Captain Bligh governed New South Wales. Australia
1806-35 Ang Chan II ruled Cambodia.
1806-56 Sayyid Sa'id al-Busa'idi ruled Oman. Arabs
1807.3.6 British deported Batavian troops from Cape.
1807 Janissaries mutinied and deposed Selim III. Ottoman empire
1807 British abolished the slave trade.
1807 Sierra Leone treaty dispossessed Temne rulers.
1807 London Missionary Soc. sent Morrison to Canton. Daoguang
1807-11 Jaswant Rao Holkar was insane. British
1807-13 Minto governed British India.
1807-1915 Vietnam used civil service examinations. French
1808 Usman established a caliphate at Sokoto. Dahomey
1808 United States prohibited the slave trade. Sierra Leone
1808 British made Sierra Leone a colony.
1808 Lin Qing was beaten for teaching Buddhism. Jiajing Era
1808.10 Ranjit Singh sent Karam Singh to take Faridkot. North India
1808.12 Ranjit Singh suppressed riots in Amritsar, Lahore. North India
1808-11 Daendels governed Java for France. Netherlands East Indies
1808-27 Da Monzon ruled the Segu empire.
1808-39 Mahmud II ruled the Ottoman empire.
1809.4 Ranjit Singh and British made Treaty of Amritsar. Sikhs
1809 British defeated Saudis' Omani allies.
1809 British required Khoisan to carry a pass.
1809 Ranjit Singh made a treaty with the British. Marathas
1809 British destroyed the Melaka fort. Malaya
1809 Fujian pirate chief was drowned. Jiajing Era
1809 Shen Fu's autobiographical account ends. Jiajing Era
1809-24 Rama II ruled Siam.
1810 Wahhabis banned commerce with Syria and Iraq.
1810 Lebanese drove Ottomans out of Syria.
1810 British took Mauritius and Réunion from French.
1810 British took over Ambona. Netherlands East Indies
1810-21 Macquarie governed New South Wales. Australia
1810-28 Radama I ruled Madagascar.
1811 24 Mamluk beys in Egypt were massacred.
1811 Ranjit Singh seized Bhimbar. Sikhs
1811 Rama II banned opium in Siam.
1811 Hong Kyong-nae led rebellion in P'yongan. Korea
1811 Japan captured Russians at Kunashiri.
1811.9 British took over Java from the Dutch. Netherlands East Indies
1811-15 Chin Byan led rebel attacks on Arakan.British Expansion Burma
1811-16 Raffles governed and reformed Java. Netherlands East Indies
1811-18 Egyptians invaded Hijaz and Wahhabis. Arabia
1811-47 Vietnam dominated Cambodia.
1812 Russians restored Moldavia, Wallachia to Turks. Ottoman empire
1812 Law allowed Khoisan children to be "apprenticed." South Africa
1812 Graham ordered men to kill Kaffirs. South Africa
1812 Ranjit Singh seized Rajauri. Sikhs
1812 Tahiti’s Pomare II became a Christian.
1812-29 Pangeran Pakualam ruled at Yogyakarta. Netherlands East Indies
1813 Persia ceded territory to Russia.
1813 Egypt's army captured Mecca and Medina. Arabia
1813 Sweden prohibited slave trade. Sierra Leone
1813 Cape Town Free School for poor began.South Africa
1813 Mohkam Chand defeated Fateh Khan at Attock. North India
1813 Burma seized Manipur. British Expansion
1813 Charter Act encouraged Christian missionaries. Mutiny
1813 Heavenly Reason Society revolted in China. Jiajing Era
1813 Banishing criminals to Manchuria was ended. Jiajing Era
1813.8 Quit-rent system made land-owning hereditary. South Africa
1813-23 Lord Hastings governed British India. North India
1813-47 King Sahle Selassie ruled Shoa. Ethiopia
1814 Dutch abolished the slave trade. Sierra Leone
1814 Ranjit Singh’s Kashmir expedition failed. Sikhs
1814 British made a treaty with Persia.
1814 Rammohun Roy began a friendship society.
1814 Redfern reformed health conditions on ships. Australia
1814 New South Wales began 15 elementary schools. Australia
1814 Kurozumi founded the sun goddess sect. Japan
1814-17 British defeated Gurkhas and made a treaty. Nepal
1814-20 Munro reformed the Madras judicial system. British Expansion
1814-24 Mahmud Bey ruled Tunisia.
1815.3 Weavers in Sarrat rebelled against Spaniards. Philippines
1815 Egypt began manufacturing guns.
1815 European treaty banned piracy and slavery. Tripoli
1815 United States declared war on Algeria.
1815 Bezuidenhout led Boer rebellion against British. South Africa
1815 British helped end Kandyan monarchy. Ceylon
1815 Tambora’s eruption affected global climate. Netherlands East Indies
1815 Kendall wrote The New Zealander’s First Book. New Zealand
1815 800 Christians were arrested in Sichuan. Jiajing Era
1815 Fernando VII ended Spain’s liberal constitution. Philippines
1816 British made North Africans end piracy. Tripoli
1816 Mahmud Bey abolished slavery in Tunisia.
1816 Morocco’s Sulayman freed captured Christians.
1816 British made a treaty with Asante.
1816 British exported timber from Sierra Leone.
1816 British freed children of slaves in Ceylon.
1816 British gave Java back to the Dutch. Netherlands East Indies
1817.6 Baji Rao II signed the Treaty of Puna. British
1817 Omanis attacked the Mazrui at Pate. East Africa
1817 British took 2,060 cattle from Ndlambe.
1817 Nanboku’s The Scarlet Princess of Edo played. Japan
1817.11.5 Daulat Rao Sindia signed the Treaty of Gwalior. British
1817.11.5 British defeated Baji Rao II, occupied Puna. British
1817.12 Malhar Rao Holkar II attacked British. British
1817-28 Jahangir led jihad in Xinjiang. Jiajing
1817-37 Muhammad Bello was Sokoto caliph. Bornu and Hausaland
1817-98 Sayyid Ahmad Khan worked for Muslims. Social Reform
1818.1 Holkar II signed subsidiary treaty. British
1818.6 Marathas surrendered to the British. British
1818 France banned the slave trade again. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1818 Asante went to war against Gyaman.
1818 Zwide had Zulus' Dingiswayo assassinated.
1818 British defeated Pindari outlaws.
1818 Ranjit Singh's Sikh army conquered Multan.
1818 Buckingham began publishing Calcutta Journal. British Expansion
1818 Kamran murdered Fateh Khan. British Expansion
1818 Buckingham began publishing Calcutta Journal. British Expansion
1818 Burma gained sovereignty over Assam. British Expansion
1818 Portuguese traded muskets to Siam.
1818.9 Egyptians captured al-Diriya. Arabia
1818-28 Shaka ruled the Zulus autocratically.
1818-31 Rammohun Roy led campaign to abolish sati.
1818-39 Dost Muhammad ruled Afghanistan. British Expansion
1819.4 Last Maratha fortress at Asirgarh surrendered.
1819 US Congress funded returning slaves to Liberia.
1819 England financed families coming to the Cape. British
1819 Nxele urged Xhosa to attack a town. South Africa
1819 Zulus defeated the Ndwandwe.
1819 Nxele urged Xhosa attack on Grahamstown. South Africa
1819 England financed poor families coming to Cape. South Africa
1819 Ranjit Singh conquered Kashmir. British Expansion
1819 Calcutta Female Juvenile Society was founded. Reconstruction
1819 Raffles made Singapore a British port. Malaya
1819 Chao-Anou put down revolt in Champassak. Laos
1819 Australian Magazine began publishing. Australia
1819 Missionaries arrived in Hawaii.
1819 Morrison translated Bible into Chinese. Daoguang Era
1819 Tahiti adopted puritanical laws.
1819-37 Al-Kanemi governed Bornu with Arab advisors. Bornu and Hausaland
1819-41 Minh Mang ruled Vietnam.
1820 Egypt ordered foreign merchants to pay debts.
1820 Isma'il captured 20,000 slaves from Sudan. Egypt
1820 Bishop’s College was founded at Calcutta. British Expansion
1820 Maori chief Hongi visited London, got muskets.
1820 Revolutionary Iturbide seized Manila goods. Philippines
1820-27 Thomas Munro governed Madras. British Expansion
1821 Azim Khan became ruler of Afghanistan. British Expansion
1821 Indians published their first newspaper. Social Reform
1821 Siamese army invaded Kedah. Malaya
1821-27 Greeks rebelled against Ottoman Empire.
1821-35 Cao Zhenyong headed Qing government. Daoguang Era
1821-38 Dutch won the Padri War on Sumatra. Netherlands East Indies
1821-50 Daoguang Era ruled the Qing empire.
1821-59 Toghtakhu Toro improved Mongolia. Daoguang Era
1822 Tlokwa defeated the Mfengu. Zulus
1822 Rammohun Roy began editing a Persian weekly.
1822-27 Egyptian army invaded Greece.
1822-30 Jehudi Ashmun governed Liberia colony.
1822-32 Maoris fought civil wars.
1822-59 Mawlay 'Abdul-Rahman ruled Morocco.
1822-70 Moshweshwe ruled Sotho wisely.
1823.3 Ranjit Singh’s Sikhs defeated Azim Khan. British Expansion
1823 Lower Egypt rebelled against conscription.
1823 Brotherhood founder al-Darqawi died in Morocco.
1823 Dahomey revolted against the Oyo.
1823 John Adam imposed censorship in Bengal. British Expansion Social Reform
1823 Sanskrit College was founded. British Expansion Social Reform
1823 Burma seized Manipur.
1823 Novales mutiny in Manila failed. Philippines
1823.11 British recaptured Shahpuri from Burma.
1823-26 Barakzai brothers fought over Afghanistan. British Expansion
1823-34 Turki ruled the Saudi kingdom. Arabia
1824.1 British defeated Burmese force from Assam.
1824.5 General Campbell occupied Rangoon. British Expansion
1824 Rebellion in Upper Egypt was quelled.
1824 Asante army killed 178 British.
1824 Colonial Council founded Liberia.
1824 British W. F. Owen intervened at Mombasa. East Africa
1824 Dutch ceded their part of Bengal to England. British Expansion
1824 Dutch-British treaty divided SE Asia archipelago. Malaya
1824 Wentworth began the Australian newspaper. Australia
1824-26 British invaded Burma, made treaty.
1824-31 Barnes governed Ceylon.
1824-35 Husain II Bey ruled Tunisia.
1824-36 George Arthur governed Van Diemen’s Land. Australia
1824-51 Nangklao (Rama III) ruled Siam.
1825.1 British occupied the Arakan capital.
1825 'Umar Saidu went on pilgrimage to Mecca. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1825 Ngwane defeated Hlubi, killing Mpangazita. Southern Africans
1825 Matiwane’s Ngwane defeated Hlubi. Zulus
1825 Vientiane’s Chao-Anou attacked Bangkok. Laos
1825 Aizawa Yashushi wrote New Proposals. Japan
1825 Japan’s exclusion order threatened death.
1825 Nanboku's Ghost Story at Yotsuya played. Japan
1825 Hawaii decreed laws against vices.
1825.12 British captured Bharatpur, killing 8,000.
1825-30 200,000 died in Javanese rebellion. Netherlands East Indies
1825-31 Ralph Darling governed New South Wales. Australia
1825-34 Mzilikazi's Ndebele ravaged the Transvaal. Zulus
1825-54 Kamehameha III ruled Hawaii.
1825-65 British navy captured 1,287 slave ships. Sierra Leone
1826.4 Captain Grant took over Banjul Island. Gambia
1826.6 Ottoman sultan Mahmud II abolished Janissaries.
1826 Asante army invaded Fante.
1826 Zulu army of 40,000 destroyed the Ndwandwe.
1826 Dost Muhammad seized Kabul, Ghazni, Jalalabad. British Expansion
1826 British paid Persia to annul 1814 treaty. British Expansion
1826 British annexed western Assam. Bentinck's Reforms
1826 British combined Malayan Straits Settlements.
1826 Siam made trade treaty with the British.
1826 China's trade balance turned negative. Daoguang Era
1826 Fernando VII returned parishes to friars. Philippines
1826-28 Jahangir led coalition invasion of Altishahr. Daoguang Era
1827 Europeans destroyed Tunisian, Algerian fleets.
1827 Shaka demanded Zulus mourn his mother.
1827 Elphinstone revised Bombay judicial system. British Expansion
1827 Japan banned prostitution, alcohol, gambling.
1827 Li Ruzhen completed Flowers in the Mirror.
1827.6 Egyptian army captured Athens.
1827.10 Europeans destroyed Egyptian-Turkish navy.
1827-29 Russians and Turks fought a war. Ottoman Reforms
1827-29 Siam punished Laos for Chao Anu’s invasion.
1828 Persia lost fertile land to Russia.
1828 Cape Ordinance 50 guaranteed equal rights. South Africa
1828 Siam conquered Vientiane. Laos
1828 Dutch moved into western New Guinea. Melanesia
1828.8.20 Rammohun Roy founded Brahmo Sabha.
1928.9.24 Shaka was killed by his half-brothers. Zulus
1828-35 Bentinck governed British India.
1828-40 Dingane ruled the Zulus.
1828-61 Ranavalona I ruled Madagascar.
1829 British gave Kat River Valley to Khoikhoi.
1829 Bentinck made helping sati a crime. Social Reform
1829-31 Sayyid Ahmad of Bareilly led a revolt. Bentinck's Reforms
1829-43 Orientalist Hodgson was resident in Nepal.
1830 Greece became independent. Ottoman Reforms
1830 French led by Bourmont invaded Algeria.
1830 British annexed Cachar. Bentinck's Reforms
1830 Van den Bosch began cultivation system in Java. Netherlands East Indies
1830 John Williams began converting Samoans.
1830-31 Revolts broke out in Vizagapatam.
1830-53 Mutara II ruled Rwanda, used war. Africa’s Lakes Region
1831 French took control of Oran and Constantine.
1831 Moshweshwe made peace with the Tlokwa. Sotho
1831 In Choshu 100,000 protested cotton monopoly. Japan
1831 Wesleyans converted Tonga chief Taufa'ahau.
1831-33 Ibrahim's Egyptian army invaded Syria.
1831-33 Rammohun Roy visited England, argued for reform.
1831-37 Richard Bourke governed New South Wales. Australia
1831-43 Maclean governed Gold Coast for British.
1831-93 Taufa‘ahau (George Tupou) ruled Tonga.
1832 Egyptians took Acre, Damascus, Konya.
1832 Asantehene Osei Yaw attacked Juaben. Asante
1832 Ndebele defeated Dingane's Zulu invasion.
1832 Sikhs defeated Afghans above Attock. Bentinck's Reforms
1832 South Australia began without convicts.
1832-34 Bodin led Siam’s army, occupied Phnom Penh. Cambodia
1833 England and France got Egypt to make peace. Ottoman Reforms
1833 Methodists came to evangelize Fante. Asante
1833 Zulus killed Portuguese Governor Ribeiro.
1833 British annexed Upper Assam. Bentinck's Reforms
1833 Ceylon adopted Colebrooke-Cameron reforms.
1833 Te Atua Wera founded a Maori Jewish religion.
1833 British East India Company's monopoly ended. Daoguang Opium Wars
1833.9.27 Rammohun Roy died at Bristol.
1833, 1839 Sa’id made treaties with USA and Britain. East Africa
1833-54 Kamehameha III ruled Hawaii. Hawaii
1834.5 Sikhs led by Hari Singh seized Peshawar. Sind
1834 Liberia held first general elections.
1834 Portuguese monopoly on ivory was abolished.
1834 British emancipated all slaves in their colonies.
1834 British repealed vagrancy law in Cape.
1834 Cook founded Wesleyan Mission at Warmbad. South West Africa
1834 Shah Shuja's siege of Qandahar failed. Bentinck's Reforms
1834 Vietnamese defeated Siam and Laos.
1834 Manila was opened to world trade. Philippines
1834-48 Muhammad Shah ruled Persia.
1834-49 Honjong ruled Korea.
1835 Madagascar banned preaching Christianity.
1835 Ngoni went to Zambia, Tanzania & Malawi. Southern Africa
1835 Gardiner began teaching Zulus religion.
1835 Gcaleka’s Chief Hintsa was lured and killed. Zulus
1835 Kokand gained favorable treaty with Qing. Daoguang Era
1835 Macaulay wrote "Minute on Education." Bentinck's Reforms
1835 Maori tribes were united. New Zealand
1835 Peter Parker started a hospital at Canton. Daoguang Era
1835 Wesleyan missionaries came to Fiji.
1835.10 Maori tribes were united.
1835-41 15,000 Boers trekked into Zulu country.
1835-41 Vietnamese occupied Cambodia.
1835-47 'Abdul-Qadir resisted French in Algeria.
1835-50 Corrupt Muchanga led Qing government. Daoguang Era Opium Wars
1835-98 Philippines had 50 different governors. Philippines
1836 Portugul abolished the slave trade. Mozambique
1836.10 Boers fought off Ndebele at Vegkop.
1836-62 Kimweri ye Nyumbai ruled Shambaa. East Africa
1837 Dost Muhammad’s army defeated Hari Singh. Afghanistan
1837 Medical school was built at Cairo. Egypt
1837 Al-Sanusi founded Sanusiya tariqa in Mecca. Tripoli
1837 Sa'id deported Mazrui leaders from Mombasa. East Africa
1837 Boers, Griqua, and Rolong defeated the Ndebele. Southern Africans
1837 Ullathorne & J. D. Lang criticized homosexuality. Australia
1837 Australian Temperance Magazine began. Maconochie
1837 Toghtakhu Toro consolidated 11 monasteries. Daoguang Era
1837 Oshio led a peasant rebellion in Osaka. Japan
1837-8 Persian army besieged Herat. Afghanistan
1837-40 Egyptians defeated Ottomans in Syria. Palestine
1837-55 Ahmad Bey ruled Tunisia.
1838.2 Dingane treacherously slaughtered 71 Boers. Zulus
1838.2 Zulus massacred Voortrekkers twice. Boers
1838 Liberia Commonwealth got a constitution.
1838 Dwarkanath Tagore founded Landholders’ Society. Social Reform
1838 Maconochie published Australiana.
1838 Chinese opium imports reached 2,800 tons. Opium Wars
1838 Healer Nakayama Miki began Tenri movement. Japan
1838 Balagtas published Florante at Laura in Tagalog. Philippines
1838.7 Ranjit Singh, Shuja, and British made a treaty. Afghanistan
1838.12 Boers with rifles killed about 3,000 Zulus.
1838-46 George Gipps governed New South Wales. Australia
1838-48 Mrs. Chisholm helped women in Australia.
1838-70 Ali Alauddin Mansur Syah ruled Acheh. Netherlands East Indies
1839.4.25 Qandahar surrendered to British.
1839.6.27 Ranjit Singh died. Sind Sikhs
1839 Egyptians defeated Ottoman troops in Syria. Ottoman
1839 British installed Shah Shuja in Kabul. Afghanistan
1839 Judah Alkalai wrote Pleasant Paths textbook. Zionism
1839 French began signing treaties with Gabon chiefs. Equatorial Africa
1839 British withdrew from Natal. Southern Africans
1839 Pratap Singh lost his throne at Satara. Bentinck's Reforms
1839 Ranjit Singh died. British Invasion
1839 Siam invaded Kedah.
1839 Wakefields began New Zealand Land Company.
1839 Lin Zexu tried to end opium imports to China.
1839 Korea executed 83 Catholics.
1839.8.7 British installed Shah Shuja in Kabul.
1839.12 British withdrew from Natal. Zulus
1839-40 Lin Zexu tried to end opium imports. Opium Wars
1839-61 Abdul Mejid reformed the Ottoman empire.
1840.2.6 English and Maoris made Waitangi treaty.
1840.2 Mpande defeated Dingane in Zulu civil war.
1840.4 Gladstone condemned war for opium smuggling. Opium Wars
1840.6-7 Baluchi tribes attacked Quetta. Afghanistan
1840 Ottomans took Syria back from the Egyptians.
1840 Sayyid Sa'id moved from Muscat to Zanzibar. East Africa
1840 Luanda founded trading port at Mossamedes. Angola
1840 Pereiras of Macanga began Zambezi wars. Mozambique
1840 British resident withdrew from Burma. Dalhousie's Annexations
1840 New South Wales stopped taking convicts. Australia
1840 English and Maoris made Waitangi treaty. New Zealand
1840 British fleet blockaded Canton and Ningbo. Opium Wars
1840 Hirose Tanso wrote Cirumlocutions. Japan
1840 Hawaii got a constitution and public schools.
1840.9 British drove Egyptian army out of Lebanon.
1840.11 Dost Muhammad surrendered to British.
1840-41 Balinese rajas made treaties with the Dutch. Netherlands East Indies
1840-44 Maconochie tried prison reforms.
1840-72 Mpande ruled the Zulus.
1840-88 Turk Namik Kemal wrote plays and editorials. Ottoman Reforms
1841.4 Jammu raja Gulab Singh took over Kashmir. Sikhs
1841.5.3 New Zealand became a British colony.
1841.5 British destroyed 71 war-junks at Huangpu. Opium Wars
1841 Druze and Maronites first clashed in Lebanon.
1841 Crowther led missionary expedition up Niger.
1841 48 Europeans died in Niger River expedition. Sierra Leone
1841 Mulatto J. J. Roberts became governor of Liberia.
1841 Ladakh’s Zorawar Singh and Lala invaded Tibet.
1841 Qishan-Elliot Chuanbi Convention was rejected. Opium Wars
1841 British captured Amoy, Zhoushan, and Ningbo. Opium Wars
1841 Hirata Atsutane was put under house arrest. Japan
1841.11 Afghans in Kabul attacked British.
1841.12 Macnaghten was treacherously killed by Akbar. Afghanistan
1841-44 Bodin’s Siamese army occupied Phnom Penh. Cambodia
1841-45 Mizuno implemented reforms in Japan.
1841-47 General Bugeaud led French war in Algeria.
1841-63 Brooke governed Sarawak for the British. Malaya
1842.1 British army leaving Kabul was massacred.
1842.2.28 Ellenborough replaced Auckland. British
1842.3 British in Ghazni citadel were massacred.
1842.3 Yijing's attack on Ningbo failed. Opium Wars
1842.4 Shah Shuja was murdered. Afghanistan
1842.6 British captured abandoned Shanghai. Opium Wars
1842 Kashmir invaded Tibet and made a treaty.
1842 Mrs. Chisholm wrote Female Immigration. Australia
1842 New Zealand became a British colony.
1842 Wei Yuan wrote on military reform. Daoguang Era
1842 British captured Shanghai, Zhenjiang & Nanjing. Opium Wars
1842.8 Treaty of Nanjing gave British concessions. Opium Wars
1842.9 Pollock’s forces occupied Kabul. Afghanistan
1842.10 Mocke proclaimed Orange River republic. South Africa
1842.11 Sind made a treaty with the British.
1842-53 Dahomey fought a war with the Egba.
1842-57 Samoans fought tribal wars.
1842-59 Sultan ‘Ali ibn Bello was Sokoto Caliph. Bornu and Hausaland
1843.2 Napier’s force killed 5,000 Baluchis. Afghanistan
1843.6 British made Gambia a separate colony.
1843 Judah Alkalai wrote The Offering of Judah. Zionism
1843 Avi Hirsch Kalischer published An Honest Faith. Zionism
1843 'Abdul-Qadir fled to Morocco. Algeria
1843 Sotho territory defined in treaty with Napier. Southern Africans
1843 Zulu's King Mpande made a treaty with British.
1843 Napier, Moshweshwe & Kok made treaty. Zulus British
1843 New South Wales elected its legislative council. Australia
1843 Yu Zhi founded Infant Protection Society. Daoguang Era
1843.11 French military took over Tahiti.
1843-47 Charles Napier governed annexed Sind.
1843-56 Devendranath Tagore led Brahmo Samaj. Social Reform
1843-63 Dost Muhammad ruled Afghanistan. Annexations India
1843-65 Faisal ibn Turki ruled the Saudi kingdom. Arabia
1844.1 British took over Gwalior.
1844.5.23 The Bab proclaimed spiritual mission at Shiraz. Bábis
1844 'Umar Saidu resolved civil war in Futa Jallon.
1844 Fante Bond outlawed human sacrifices, panyarring. Asante
1844 Madagascar put foreigners under their law.
1844 Kolhapur revolted against British. Revolt
1844 British abolished slavery in Ceylon.
1844 China made treaties with USA and France. Opium Wars
1844 Wei Yuan wrote about countries overseas. Daoguang Era
1844 Polynesian became Hawaii’s official newspaper.
1844.5.23 Báb proclaimed his spiritual mission at Shiraz.
1844.8.13 French defeated ‘Abdul-Qadir at Isly. Morocco
1844-48 Hardinge governed British India. Punjab
1844-53 Johann Krapf explored Kenya. East Africa
1845 Missionaries established a school at Freetown. Sierra Leone
1845 China Mail was founded in Hong Kong. Daoguang Era
1845 Torii Yozo was banished for corruption. Japan
1845 King George Tupou proclaimed Tonga Methodist.
1845-49 Bali fought against the Dutch. Netherlands East Indies
1845-53 George Grey governed New Zealand.
1845-75 Shepstone governed natives in Natal. South Africa
1845-93 George Tupou I ruled Methodist Tonga.
1846 Tunisia abolished slavery. North Africa
1846 Missionaries met at Abeokuta. Oyo and Nigeria
1846 Kanemi dynasty ended in Bornu.
1846 British defeated Sikhs in the Punjab.
1846 Khonds revolted against British. Revolt
1846 Siam garrisoned Champassak. Laos
1846 Three French warships approached Korea.
1846-7 British killed 500 Ndlambe in Xhosa war.
1846-53 Pagan Min ruled Burma.
1846-77 Jung Bahadur governed Nepal.
1847 Balak Singh founded the religious Kukas. India
1847.7.26 Liberia became a constitutional republic.
1847-51 MacDonnell governed Gambia for the British.
1847-60 Ang Duong ruled Cambodia.
1847-83 Tu Duc ruled Vietnam. French
1848.4 Dalhousie annexed Satara.
1848 Catholic press began in Syria and Lebanon.
1848 Algeria abolished slavery. Tripoli
1848 English law began dispossessing slave traders. Sierra Leone
1848 Cape annexed land between Orange and Vaal. South Africa
1848 Tu Duc decreed death for missionaries. Vietnam
1848 Philippines defeated Muslims in Mindanao.
1848-54 'Abbas was viceroy of Egypt.
1848-56 Roberts was first president of Liberia.
1848-56 Dalhousie governed British India.
1848-96 Nasir al-Din Shah ruled Persia.
1849.1.3 Chatar Singh’s troops captured Attock. Dalhousie
1849.1.22 Mulraj surrendered to the British. Dalhousie
1849.3.12 British defeated Sikhs and annexed Punjab. Dalhousie
1849 Livingstone helped discover Lake Ngami. Africa’s Lakes Region
1849 Cape Town protest stopped convict labor. South Africa
1849 Hut tax on Zulu chiefs began. South Africa
1849 British defeated Sikhs and annexed Punjab.
1849 Dalhousie annexed Sambalpur.
1849 Guangxi famine stimulated revolt. Taiping Revolution
1849 French marines attacked a Honolulu fort. Hawaii
1849-56 British suppressed Pathans’ raids. Dalhousie
1849-63 Ch'olchong ruled Korea.
1850.4 Lang and Parkes began the Australian League. Australia
1850 Brazil banned importation of slaves. Nigeria Sierra Leone
1850 British treaty with Eyo banned human sacrifice. Oyo and Nigeria
1850 British bought Danish forts for £10,000. Sierra Leone
1850 War broke out between Kasanje and Portuguese.
1850 War broke out between Kasanje and Portuguese. Southern Africans
1850 Natal land speculator Byrne went bankrupt. South Africa
1850 Religious Disabilities Act banned discrimination. Mutiny
1850 Nepal’s Jang Bahadur visited England.
1850 Maconochie wrote The Principles of Punishment.
1850 Victoria became a province of Australia. Penal Reforms
1850 Wentworth founded the University of Sydney. Australia
1850 Xu Jiyu wrote about the maritime circuit. Daoguang Era
1850 China Herald was founded in Shanghai. Daoguang Era
1850 Philippines allowed Chinese immigration again.
1850.7.9 The Báb was executed at Tabriz.
1850-52 Lawrence brothers governed Punjab. Dalhousie
1850-86 Chandrakirtti ruled Manipur. India
1851.1.1 Hong Xiuquan was proclaimed Taiping king.
1851 Ottoman empire revised penal code.
1851 Livingstone visited the Kololos. Southern Africa
1851 Sotho defeated Warden's army at Viervoet.
1851 Gold rush began in Australia.
1851 Hong Xiuquan was proclaimed Taiping king.
1851 Nian rebellion began in Anhui province.
1851.12 British bombarded Lagos to make Akitoye king. Nigeria
1851-54 Bu Baghla led Grand Kabyla rebellion in Algeria.
1851-61 Xianfeng ruled Qing empire. Opium Wars, Rebellions
1851-64 Sekeletu ruled the Kololo. Southern Africa
1851-68 King Mongkut began modernizing Siam.
1852.2 King Hong ordered beheading for adultery. Taiping Revolution
1852 Bombay adopted Sind’s police system.
1852 British conquered lower Burma. Annexations
1852.12 Taiping rebellion captured Yuezhou and weapons.
1852-59 Gambia’s Gov. O’Connor gave land to Africans.
1852-63 Smuggler Zhang Luoxing led Nian rebellion.
1853 Beecroft deposed King Pepple of Bonny. Nigeria
1853 Colenso became Natal's first Anglican bishop. South Africa
1853 Dalhousie annexed Nagpur and Jhansi.
1853 Siam attacked Burma.
1853 15,000 peasants demanded equality in Nambu. Japan
1853 France claimed New Caledonia. Melanesia
1853.9 Small Swords Triads took over Shanghai. Taiping Revolution
1853-54 Perry's US ships made Japan open to trade. Japan
1853-56 Russia loses Crimean War to other powers. Ottoman Reforms
1853-64 Tax on Asante was unpopular and failed.
1853-64 Taiping Revolution made Nanjing its capital.
1853-67 Tewodros II ruled Ethiopia.
1853-78 Mindon Min ruled Burma.
1853-95 Kigeri IV ruled Rwanda, drafted men. Africa’s Lakes Region
1854 Turks defeated Russians in the Danube region. Ottoman Reforms
1854 Tunisia sent 4,000 troops to Crimean War.
1854 ‘Umar demanded tribute from France for trade. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1854 Jonker Afrikaner attacked the Topnaars. South West Africa
1854 Cape colony adopted a liberal constitution. South Africa
1854 Boers founded the Orange Free State.
1854 British made Hindu College the Presidency College. Reforms
1854 Miners protested at the Eureka Stockade. Australia
1854 Catherine Spence wrote Clara Morison. Australia
1854 Zeng Guofan's Xiang army fought Taiping rebels.
1854 Two Russian warships killed some Koreans.
1854-56 Nepal and Tibet fought and made a treaty.
1854-63 Muhammad Sa'id was viceroy of Egypt.
1854-80 Benin suffered a civil war. Nigeria
1855.2 French helped Qing army regain Shanghai. Taiping Revolution
1855 Creole William Drape founded weekly New Era. Sierra Leone
1855 Unions in Melbourne demanded the 8-hour day. Australia
1855 Tewodros II crowned emperor of Ethiopia.
1855 Taiping northern campaign failed.
1855 Yellow River flooding spurred rebellion.
1855-56 Siam made treaties with England, France and US.
1855-57 Santals revolted. Revolt
1855-59 Muhammad II Bey ruled Tunisia.
1855-63 Zhang Luoxing organized and led Nian rebels. Rebellions
1856.1 Dalhousie annexed Awadh (Oudh).
1856 Bahá’u’lláh advised Bábis not to use violence.
1856 Hay persuaded Morocco to ban monopolies.
1856 Governor O’Connor banned sale of gunpowder. Gambia
1856 Blyden wrote A Voice from Bleeding Africa. Liberia
1856 Cetshwayo defeated Mbuyazi in Zulu civil war.
1856 Xhosa destroyed their own cattle and grain. South Africa
1856 Widow Remarriage Bill passed. Mutiny
1856 New Zealand became a self-governing colony.
1856 Arrow incident provoked British in China. Opium Wars
1856 Taiping leaders killed each other.
1856 Smallpox killed 60% of Guam’s people. Philippines
1856-62 Canning governed British India. Mutiny
1856-63 Miao Peilin led rebellions in Huai.
1856-64 Tukulors and Masina fought a war.
1856-71 M. Pretorius led South African Republic.
1856-73 Du Wenxiu ruled Muslims' Pingnan kingdom. Rebellions
1856-84 Mutesa ruled Buganda, bought guns. Africa’s Lakes Region
1857.5.2 Henry Lawrence stopped mutiny in Awadh. Mutiny
1857.5.10 Sepoys mutinied at Mirat and Delhi. Mutiny
1857.5.14 Governor-General Canning learned of mutiny.
1857.5.17 Bahadur Shah II was deposed at Delhi. Mutiny
1857.5.31 Henry Lawrence stopped mutiny in Lakhnau.
1857.5.31 Mutineers took over Rohilkhand. Mutiny
1857.6.5 Sepoys in Benares fired on Europeans. Mutiny
1857.6.11 Military police joined Awadh mutiny.
1857.6.11 Col. Neill suppressed mutiny harshly in Allahabad.
1857.6.26 Nana Sahib led Kanpur rebellion. Mutiny
1857 British made Persia renounce Afghanistan.
1857 Laird began steamer business on the Niger.
1857 Blyden wrote Vindication of the Negro Race. Liberia
1857 Dr. Livingstone wrote Missionary Travels. Africa’s Lakes Region
1857 Calcutta, Bombay, Madras universities founded. Dalhousie
1857 Spain made the Mariana Islands a prison. Philippines
1857 United States made a treaty with Fiji.
1857.7.3 Henry Lawrence was besieged and killed. Mutiny
1857.7 Gurkhas defeated rebels in Azamgarh & Jaunpur. Mutiny
1857.7.16 Havelock defeated Nana’s troops. Mutiny
1857.8 34,000 Punjabi troops helped the British. Mutiny
1857.9.20 British stormed Red Fort; Bahadur surrendered. Mutiny
1857.9-11 Ahmad Khan led an uprising in Multan. Mutiny
1857-58 Mutiny became revolt in Awadh, Rohilkhand.
1857-75 Hiram Bingham evangelized the Gilbert Islands. Micronesia
1858.3.21 British reoccupied Lakhnau. Mutiny
1858.4.4 British killed 5,000 at Jhansi; Rani escaped. Mutiny
1858.5.5 British defeated rebellion in Rohilkhand. Mutiny
1858.6 Canning controlled the press in Calcutta. Mutiny
1858 Governor Pine allowed a council to be elected. Asante
1858 Burton and Speke explored lakes region.
Africa’s Lakes Region
1858 Boers attacked Sotho, accepted treaty.
1858 Australia gained male suffrage.
1858 Anglo-French forces took Tianjin, made treaty. Opium Wars
1858 Guo Songdao opposed war with Europeans. Qing Reconstruction
1858 Japan made another treaty with the US. Japan
1858.8 British East India Company rule ended in India. Mutiny
1858.11.1 British pardoned most rebels. Mutiny
1858.11.1 Victoria proclaimed equal rights for India. Mutiny
1858-89 Glele ruled Dahomey.
1859 'Umar Saidu returned to Futa with 40,000. Dahomey
1859 Kingsley wrote Recollections of Geoffrey Hamlyn. Australia
1859 Deniehy began publishing the Southern Cross. Australia
1859 Konko Daijin founded the Konkokyo sect. Japan
1859 Jesuits returned to the Philippines.
1859-64 Hong Ren'gan was Taiping prime minister.
1859-66 Governor D’Arcy taxed Gambians.
1859-73 Muhammad IV ruled Morocco, increased trade.
1859-82 Muhammad III as-Adiq Bey ruled Tunisia.
1859-84 Keshab Sen led Brahmo Samaj. India
1860.3 Ii Naosuke was assassinated in Edo. Japan
1860 French backed Maronites against Druze. Lebanon
1860 Indentured laborers from India came to Natal. South Africa
1860 13 million got famine relief in northwest India.
1860 Dekker published the novel Max Havelaar. Netherlands East Indies
1860 Gold rush began in New Zealand.
1860 Anglo-French captured Beijing, got treaty. Opium Wars Qing
1860 Feng Guifen wrote Protest from Jiaobin Studio. Qing Reconstruction
1860 Loyal King led Taiping attack on Shanghai.
1860 Samoa adopted the Vaimauga code of laws.
1860-64 Masai fought against their neighbors. East Africa
1860-64 Ch'oe Che-u founded Tonghak religion. Korea
1860-65 Canning imposed an income tax. India
1860-72 British weapons crushed Maori uprisings.
1860-95 Kigeri Rwabugiri ruled Rwanda.
1861 British annexed Lagos as a colony. Nigeria
1861 Radama II opened Madagascar to foreigners.
1861 Police forces established throughout India.
1861 Indians were allowed on legislative councils. India
1861 Keshab Sen founded Indian Mirror. India
1861 Prince Gong initiated a foreign office. Qing Reconstruction
1861-75 Tongzhi's reign was a return to order. Qing Reconstruction
1861-76 Abdul Aziz ruled the Ottoman empire.
1861-1908 Dowager Empress Cixi ruled China. Qing Qing
1862.6 Zeng Guofan began siege of Nanjing. Taiping Revolution
1862 Moses Hess wrote Rome and Jerusalem. Zionism
1862 Crowther became bishop of Niger.
1862 Ahmad Khan wrote a commentary on the Bible. India
1862 Vietnam ceded three provinces to France.
1862 New Zealand legalized private sale of Maori land.
1862 China made trade treaty with Russia. Opium Wars
1862 Chinese began making explosives, steamships. Qing Reconstruction
1862 Language college opened in Beijing. Qing Reconstruction
1862 Taiping army led by Shi Dakai invaded Sichuan.
1862.10.10 United States signed treaty with Liberia.
1862, 1867 British made trade treaties with Burma.
1862-63 Elgin was viceroy, recalled agent from Kabul. India
1862-73 Khaznadar borrowed money for Tunisia.
1863.6 Christian Afrikaner attacked Otjimbingwe. South West Africa
1863 Bahá’u’lláh founded the Bahá’í religion.
1863 Napoleon III visited Algeria.
1863 Muhammad IV gave privileges to merchants. Morocco
1863 Tewodros II began imprisoning missionaries. Ethiopia
1863 Ramakrishna had a vision of Krishna.
1863 Li Hongzhang's Huai army captured Suzhou. Taiping Revolution
1863 Qing general Senggelinqin defeated Nians. Rebellions
1863 Philippines began free public education. Philippines
1863-68 Afghanistan suffered war over succession. India
1863-75 Robert Hart was customs inspector-general. Qing Reconstruction
1863-79 Isma'il Pasha was viceroy of Egypt.
1864.6 King Hong Xiuquan died at Nanjing. Taiping Revolution
1864 Cambodia made a treaty with France.
1864 Gong distributed Elements of International Law. Qing Reconstruction
1864 Reformer Sakuma Shozan was assassinated. Japan
1864.7 Zeng's troops stormed Nanjing, killed Taipings.
1864-66 Zeng released his army of 120,000. Qing Reconstruction
1864-69 John Lawrence governed British India.
1864-73 Taewon'gun ruled Korea as regent.
1864-88 Brand was president of Orange Free State. South Africa
1864-90 Ahmadu Seku Tall ruled Segu empire. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1864-95 Rainilaiarivony governed Madagascar.
1864-1904 King Norodom ruled Cambodia.
1864-1907 Kojong reigned in Korea. Reforms
1865 Young Ottoman Society was formed.
1865 Palestine Exploration Fund began.
1865 British destroyed the Egba army. Oyo and Nigeria
1865 Livingstone wrote Expedition to the Zambesi. Africa’s Lakes Region
1865 Natal denied vote to Africans. South Africa
1865 Nearly a million died in Orissa famine. India
1865 Devendranath Tagore founded the National Paper. India
1865 Nian rebels killed Qing general Senggelinqin. Rebellions
1865 Li and Zeng began Jiangnan Arsenal. Qing Reconstruction
1865 Empress Cixi chastised Prince Gong. Qing Reconstruction
1865 Cho Tu-sun led revision of Choson code. Korea
1865.11 Bhutan ceded territory to British. India
1865-87 Bankim Chandra Chatterji wrote novels.
1866.2 British centralized 4 colonies in West Africa. Gambia
1866.2 Last 50,000 Taiping surrendered to Qing army.
1866 Syrian Protestant College began in Beirut.
1866 British began using breech-loading rifles. Africa’s Lakes Region
1866 Devendranath founded Adi Brahmo Samaj. India
1866 Ahmad Khan began Aligarh Institute Gazette. India
1866 Burma’s Mindon defeated rebellion by his sons.
1866 Hart and ex-prefect traveled to Europe. Qing Reconstruction
1866 Taylor and missionaries went inside China. Qing Reconstruction
1866 Korea executed 8,000 Catholics.
1866 Fukuzawa wrote Conditions in Western World.
1866 Tahiti Assembly adopted the Code Napoleon. Tahiti
1866, 1871 United States ships encountered Koreans.
1866-89 King Menelik II ruled Shoa.
1867 Sultan Abdul Aziz visited Paris and London. Ottoman Reforms
1867 Bahá’u’lláh sent letters to world leaders.
1867 Dutch and British traded forts on Gold Coast.
1867 British led by General Napier invaded Ethiopia.
1867 Diamonds were discovered in Griqualand West. South Africa
1867 Burma made trade treaty with the British.
1867 Vietnam and Siam divided Cambodia.
1867 France occupied three more Vietnam provinces.
1867.11 Shogun Keiki resigned to serve the Emperor. Japan
1867-69 Zuo Zongtang quelled Shaanxi revolt. Taiping Revolution
1868.1 Keiki surrendered; Tokugawa lands were taken. Meiji Restoration
1868.3 Meiji charter oath was promulgated.
1868.4.13 Tewodros II, defeated by British, shot himself. Ethiopia
1868.4 Meiji regime proscribed Christianity.
1868 Tunisia made treaty giving Italy privileges.
1868 Horton wrote West African Countries. British
1868 Muir changed famine relief policy. India
1868 Punjab and Awadh got tenant rights. India
1868 Sher Ali regained Kabul and Qandahar. India
1868 Russians occupied Samarkand. India
1868 4 Maoris were elected to Parliament.
1868 Li and Zuo Zongtang defeated Nians. Rebellions
1868 USA made treaty protecting Chinese immigrants. Qing Reconstruction
1868-98 Malietoa Laupepa was king of Samoa.
1868-1910 Chulalongkorn ruled and reformed Siam.
1868-1912 Imperial Meiji ruled Japan.
1868-1917 Charles Brooke ruled Sarawak. Malaya
1869 Baghdad’s first newspaper, Al-Zawra’, began. Iraq
1869 Tahtawi wrote Paths of Egyptian Hearts. Egypt
1869 Suez Canal opened. Egypt
1869 Int’l Financial Commission reduced Tunisia debt.
1869 O Progresso was Mozambique’s first newspaper.
1869 Lahore University was founded. Dalhousie
1869 Suez Canal opened. India Netherlands East Indies Australia
1869 Zuo's imperial army pacified Shaanxi. Rebellions
1869 Zeng Guofan wrote “Exhortation to Learning.” Qing Reconstruction
1869 Suez Canal shortened European sea travel. Qing Philippines
1869 Meiji made Edo the capital Tokyo.
1869.9.21 Spain’s new constitution reformed Philippines.
1869-72 Viceroy Mayo governed British India.
1869-99 Kabarega ruled Bunyoro empire. Buganda
1870 Crémieux founded Alliance Israelite Universelle. Zionism
1870 Egypt claimed Somali coast at Bulhar & Berbera.
1870 Wambu led 30,000 Ovimbundu soldiers. Angola
1870 Msiri and Tippu Tip formed an alliance. Angola
1870 Chief Lobengula granted Tati mining concession. Southern Africa
1870 Telegraph lines connected London to British India.
1870 Telegraph lines connected London to Australia.
1870 Mob killed ten Catholic nuns at Tianjin. Qing Reconstruction
1870-72 Clarke published His Natural Life. Australia
1870-77 Ya'qub Beg ruled Kashgaria. Rebellions
1870-88 Sayyid Barghash ibn Sa’id ruled Zanzibar. East Africa
1870-95 Li Hongzhang governed Zhili province. Qing Reconstruction
1871 French took over Kayor. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1871 Fante chiefs agreed to Mankesim Constitution. Asante
1871 Ibadan got first Muslim ruler, Momoh Latosisa. Nigeria
1871 Liberia borrowed £100,000 from Europeans.
1871 Victoria Institution for Women began in Bengal. India
1871 Burma’s Mindon convened 5th Buddhist council.
1871 Reformer Nguyen Truong To died. Vietnam
1871 Dutch gained control over Sumatra. Netherlands East Indies
1871 University of New Zealand began at Otago.
1871 Telegraph reached Shanghai and Hong Kong. Qing Reconstruction
1871 Japan and China agreed to a trade treaty. Qing Reconstruction Meiji
1871 Japan banned the sale of girls as prostitutes. Meiji Restoration
1871 Nakamura translated Self-Help, Mill's On Liberty. Meiji Restoration
1871.7 Kukas murdered Muslim butchers in Amritsar. India
1871.9 Wahhabis were sentenced to life for treason. India
1871.9.20 A Wahhabi assassinated Chief Justice Norman. India
1871.10 Stanley found Livingstone by Lake Tanganyika. Africa’s Lakes Region
1871, 1889 Nasir al-Din Shah visited Europe. Persia 1876-1905
1872.1 Kukas attacked 2 towns; 50 were executed. India
1872.2.8 A Pathan assassinated Viceroy Mayo. India
1872 Blyden founded weekly newspaper in Freetown. Liberia
1872 India census recorded 206,160,000 people. India
1872 Native Marriage Act passed in India.
1872 Bankim founded Bangadarshan.
1872 Burma made trade treaties with France and Italy.
1872 Victoria implemented free public schools. Australia
1872 British passed Pacific Islanders Protection Act. Tahiti
1872 Li founded Chinese Steamship Company. Qing Reconstruction
1872 Mainichi was Japan's first daily newspaper. Meiji Restoration
1872 In Cavite mutiny 3 Filipino priests were executed. Philippines
1872 British passed Pacific Islanders Protection Act. Melanesia
1872-76 Northbrook governed British India.
1872-76 Qing empire had a trade surplus.
1872-76 Fukuzawa published Encouragement of Learning.
1872-89 Emperor Yohannes IV ruled Ethiopia.
1873 Kemal’s play Vatan was performed at Istanbul. Ottoman Reforms
1873 Khayr al-Din replaced Khaznadar in Tunisia.
1873 Christians began Grebo Reunited Kingdom. Liberia
1873 Griqualand West became a British colony. Southern Africa
1873 Shepstone crowned Cetshwayo Zulu king.
1873 Debt evictions provoked Deccan riots. India
1873 French troops attacked Hanoi.
1873 Maori land was divided by individuals. New Zealand
1873 Zuo's imperial army pacified Gansu. Rebellions
1873 Emperor Tongzhi received diplomats. Qing Reconstruction
1873 Qing consulate located at Singapore.
1873 Japan began male conscription. Meiji Restoration
1873 Japan allowed Christian missionaries. Meiji Restoration
1873 Japan built its first railroad. Meiji Restoration
1873-74 Asante in war were defeated by British.
1873-74 Dutch invaded and annexed Acheh. Netherlands East Indies
1873-75 Epidemic destroyed half of Zulu cattle.
1873-77 Khayr ad-Din reformed Tunisia.
1873-94 Mawlay Hasan ruled Morocco.
1874.1 Pangkor Treaty affected Chinese in Malaya.
1874 Horton wrote Diseases of Tropical Climate. Sierra Leone
1874 Bihar famine was prevented by rice shipments. India
1874 Hindu Patriot favored democratic home rule. India
1874 Vietnam’s Tu Duc made a treaty with France.
1874 Many Australians had the 8-hour day.
1874 Japanese invaded Taiwan, accepted money. Qing Meiji Conflicts
1874 Ma’afu and Cakobau ceded Fiji to the British.
1874.7 British established Gold Coast colony.
1874-77 Stanley crossed Africa from east to west.
1874-83 Mensa Bonsu ruled Asante at Kumasi.
1874-87 David Kalakaua ruled Hawaii.
1874-89 King Mbandzeni ruled Swaziland. South Africa
1874-1908 King Tofa ruled Porto Novo. Dahomey
1875.1 Itagaki and Kido began the Society of Patriots. Meiji Conflicts
1875.5 Shen Baozhen began governing Lianjiang. Qing Reconstruction
1875.6 Ahmad Khan founded a Muslim college. India
1875 Ottoman debt reached £200,000,000.
1875 Revolts erupted in Herzegovina, Bosnia, Bulgaria. Ottoman Reforms
1875 Disraeli bought Suez Canal for British.
1875 Greboes, Kru, De, and Bass defeated Liberians.
1875 Ethiopians destroyed invading Egyptian army.
1875 Egyptians occupied Harar. Somaliland
1875 Sayyid Barghash visited Queen Victoria. East Africa
1875 Keshab Chandra Sen met Ramakrishna. India
1875 Dayananda Saraswati founded Arya Samaj. India
1875 Pearson wrote The Higher Culture of Women. Australia
1875 Russia ceded the Kurile Islands to Japan. Meiji Conflicts
1875 Japan’s Press Law jailed 49 newspaper editors. Meiji Conflicts
1875 Fukuzawa published his theory of civilization.
1875 Tonga became a constitutional monarchy.
1875 Hawaii and the U.S. made a reciprocal treaty.
1875.9.7 Theosophical Society was founded in New York.
1875.9.19 Japanese killed 31 Koreans at Kanghwa. Meiji Conflicts
1875.10 Kumasi army attacked Juaben. Asante
1875.10.23 Ethiopia’s Yohannes declared war on Egypt.
1875.11.2 Resident Birch was killed in Perak over taxes. Malaya
1875.11 Cameron finished first trip across Africa. Congo
1875-76 Ethiopians destroyed invading Egyptian army.
1875, 1877 Li Hongzhang ordered 8 gunboats from England. China
1876.2 Korea and Japan agreed to a friendship treaty.
1877 Satsuma rebellion led by Saigo was crushed. Meiji Restoration
1875-77 China recovered Xinjiang.
1875-83 Young J. Allen published The Global Magazine. China
1875-1908 Emperor Guangxu reigned in China. Qing
1876.2 Korea and Japan agreed to a treaty. Meiji Conflicts
1876.5.2 Bulgarians in Serbia rebelled against Ottomans.
1876.5.30 Serbia went to war against Ottomans.
1876.6.2 Abdul Aziz slit his wrist and died. Ottomans
1876 George Eliot published Daniel Deronda. Zionism
1876 Egypt’s debt reached £98,000,000.
1876 British court to enforce pass laws began. South Africa
1876 Banerjea founded Indian Association of Calcutta.
1876 Chinese agreed to let British explore Tibet.
1876 Japanese peasants rebelled against land taxes. Meiji Conflicts
1876.9 Leopold II hosted Geographical Conference.
1876.9 China granted concessions to British.
1876-92 John Fryer edited Chinese scientific magazine. China
1876-1909 Abdulhamid II ruled Ottoman empire. Young Turks
1876-1913 Shaikh Qasim ibn Muhammad ruled Qatar. Arabia
1876-1924 Ziya Gokalp advocated Turkish nationalism. Ottoman War Losses
1877.1.1 Queen Victoria became sovereign over India. Afghan War
1877.1 Japanese land tax was reduced from 3 to 2.5%. Meiji Conflicts
1877.2 Pedi’s Sekhukhune recognized Transvaal law. South Africa
1877.2 Chinese set up embassy in London. China
1877.4.12 British annexed Transvaal. South Africa
1877.4.24 Russia invaded Ottoman empire.
1877 5.5 million people died in a famine in India. Afghan War
1877.5.29 Ya’qub Beg died in Korla. Rebellions China
1877 Ibadan started war against Egbas and Ijebus. Oyo and Nigeria
1877 True Whigs won elections in Liberia.
1877 Shoa took over Wollo, Begember, and Gojjam. Menelik II
1877 Christian missionaries reached Ujiji. Buganda
1877 Madagascar freed African slaves.
1877 British killed 3,500 in last Xhosa war. South Africa
1877 Blavatsky published Isis Unveiled.
1877 Ahmad Khan founded Islamic college in Aligarh. Indian
1877 Australia restricted Chinese immigration.
1877 Guo Songdao began reforming Chinese laws. China
1877 Zuo Zongtang used steam power in a woolen mill. China
1877 Satsuma rebellion led by Saigo was crushed. Meiji Conflicts
1877 Nakae translated Rousseau’s Social Contract. People's Rights
1877-89 Hugh Low governed Perak well. Malaya
1878.3.20 Menelik II agreed to pay tribute to Ethiopia.
1878.5.14 Six samurai killed Okubo with swords. People's Rights
1878.6.10 Albanians formed the Prizen League. Ottoman Empire
1878 Young Ottomans were banned or punished.
1878 Samory Ture founded Wassoulou empire. Futa Jallon and Tukulor Guinea and Ivory Coast
1878 France made Gabon a colony. French Congo
1878 British took land from Ngqika and Gcaleka. South Africa
1878 India’s government gained a monopoly on salt. Afghan War
1878 Japan created elected prefectural assemblies. People's Rights
1878.7 Russian troops went to Kabul. Afghan War
1878.11 British invaded Afghanistan. Afghan War
1878.12 Leopold II hired Stanley for 5 years.
1878.12 Sher Ali fled Kabul for Russian Turkestan. Afghan War
1878-81 British fought their second Afghan War.
1878-81 Maoris nonviolently resisted land confiscation. New Zealand
1879.1.22 British were defeated by Zulus at Isandlwana. South Africa
1879.2-7 Wasudeo led rebellion in Bombay. Afghan War
1879.4 Japan annexed the Ryukyu Islands. People's Rights
1879.5.26 Yakub and Cavagnari signed a treaty. Afghan War
1879 Goldie started United African Company. Oyo and Nigeria
1879 Du Toit brothers founded Afrikaner Bond. South Africa
1879 Fabri published Does Germany Need Colonies? South West Africa
1879 Gribble published “A Plea for the Aborigines.” Australia
1879 Japanese school system was decentralized. People's Rights
1879 Fiji began importing Indian laborers.
1879.9.3 200 British were murdered in Kabul. Afghan War
1879-82 Le Myre de Vilers governed Cochinchina. Vietnam
1879-85 Thibaw ruled Burma.
1879-1908 Swiss engineer Alfred Ilg advised Menelik II.
1880.1 Europeans completed station at Vivi River. Congo
1880.2.15 Fukuzawa called for student military exemptions.
1880.3.12 Rhodes and Rudd began De Beers Mining Co.
1880.5 Blavatsky and Olcott visited Ceylon.
1880 Griqualand West got 4 seats in Cape Parliament. South Africa
1880 Famine Commission made recommendations.
1880 Japanese petitioned for a national assembly. People's Rights
1880 Tahiti became a French colony.
1880.7.20 Afghanistan signed a treaty with England.
1880.7.22 Abdur Rahman became Amir of Kabul. Afghan War
1880.7.27 Ayub Khan defeated British at Maiwand. Afghan War
1880.8 British defeated Ayub Khan near Qandahar. Afghan War
1880.8 Namas and Hereros began a war over cattle. South West Africa
1880.11.11 Bushranger Ned Kelly was hanged for murders. Australia
1880-84 Viceroy Ripon governed British India liberally.
1880-90 Gouveia governed Manica. Mozambique
1880-1901 Abdur Rahman ruled Afghanistan. India
1881.2.24 Russia returned much of Ili to China.
1881.3 Madagascar promulgated law code.
1881.3 Okuma proposed parliamentary constitution. People's Rights
1881.4 30,000 French invaded Tunisia from Algeria.
1881.6 Ahmad ibn ‘Abdallah proclaimed himself Mahdi. Sudan
1881.6 Stanley built Manyanga station.
1881 Futa Jallon became a French protectorate.
1881 Bankim Chandra wrote the novel Anandamath.
1881 Vivekananda met Ramakrishna.
1881 Cambodia’s Norodom abolished tax on French.
1881 New Zealand restricted Chinese immigration.
1881 Itagaki began the Liberal party. People's Rights
1881 Japanese police stopped 282 political meetings. People's Rights
1881 Li Hongzhang founded navy academy at Tianjin. China
1881 Spain abolished tobacco monopoly in Philippines. Filipino Reformers
1882.2 Thibaw abolished Burma’s monopolies. India
1882 Zulu’s Chief Cetshwayo visited England. South Africa
1882 Sirhind Canal was completed. India
1882 Dayananda founded Cow Protection Association. India
1882 Adyar became Theosophist headquarters.
1882 New Zealand began transporting frozen meat.
1882 Chinese navy had fifty steam warships. China
1882 Shanghai Electric Company began. China
1882 United States passed Chinese Exclusion Act. China
1882 Fukuzawa founded News of the Times.
1882 Korean mob attacked the Japanese legation. People's Rights
1882.7 British invaded Egypt.
1882.8.20 Chinese abducted the Taewon’gun from Seoul. Korea
1882.8.29 Chinese and Koreans fought at Seoul.
1882.9 Leo Pinsker published Auto-emancipation. Zionism
1882.9 Korea agreed to pay Japan reparations. People's Rights
1882-85 Vietnamese and Chinese fought the French.
1882-86 Cambon governed Tunisia for French.
1882-86 Korea made treaties with western nations.
1882-86 Matsukata’s deflation caused a recession. People's Rights
1882-1948 British dominated Egypt.
1883.6.8 French protectorate began in Tunisia.
1883 Moloney published West African Fisheries. Oyo and Nigeria
1883 Italians occupied part of Eritrea.
1883 Armed Mandlakazi defeated Cetshwayo. South Africa
1883 Resident Low abolished debt slavery in Perak. Malaya
1883 Queensland annexed part of Papua New Guinea. Australia
1883.8 Vietnam became a French protectorate.
1883.9 Poor People's Party began in Chichibu.
1883.12 French defeated Black Flag army at Sontay. China
1883-1900 Paul Kruger was president of Transvaal. South Africa
1883-1907 Evelyn Baring (Cromer) governed Egypt.
1884.4 Cixi replaced Prince Gong on Grand Council.
1884.5.18 Bismarck sent Nachtigal to Cameroun and Togo.
1884.6.6 Treaty let French occupy Annam.
1884.6 Cambodia gave France a protectorate.
1884.6 Chinese army defeated French near Baché. China
1884 British persuaded Egypt to leave north Somalia.
1884 Mombasa’s Mbarak surrendered to Zanzibar. East Africa
1884 Gouveia suppressed Massingire rebellion. Mozambique
1884 Jabavu began Xhosa newspaper. South Africa
1884 Russians occupied Merv. India
1884 James Pope published Health for the Maori. New Zealand
1884 Japan began an army staff college. People's Rights
1884 5,000 people revolted in Saitama prefecture. People's Rights
1884.8.22 French fleet attacked Fuzhou. China
1884.11 Peters, Pfeil, and Jühlke went to Zanzibar. East Africa
1884.11.15 West Africa conference began in Berlin. Congo
1884.12 Germany claimed northeast New Guinea. Melanesia
1884.12.4 Korean coup was defeated by Chinese. People's Rights
1884.12.6 Yuan Shikai rescued Taewon’gon. China
1884.12 Germany claimed northeast New Guinea. Melanesia
1884-85 Berlin Conference divided up Africa. Togo
1884-89 Mori Arinori reformed Japanese education. Japan
1884-92 President Johnson removed Republicans. Liberia
1885.1.18 Burma made a secret treaty with France. India
1885.1.25 Mahdi army killed Charles Gordon at Khartoum. Sudan
1885.2 Bismarck claimed East Africa for Germany.
1885.2.12 Peters founded German East Africa Company.
1885.2.25 Berlin Act recognized the Congo Free State.
1885.3.30 Russians attacked Afghans at Panjdeh.
1885.4.18 Ito and Li signed the Convention of Tianjin. Korea People's Rights
1885.5.30 Mathews signed 25 treaties with Chagga chiefs. East Africa
1885.6 French withdrew from Taiwan and Pescadores. China
1885.6 Jühlke made 8 treaties in Bondei region. East Africa
1885 Muhammad ‘Abduh visited Tunis.
1885 French claimed protectorate around Djibouti. Somaliland
1885 French took over Madagascar’s foreign relations.
1885 Bechuanaland became British protectorate. Southern Africa South Africa
1885 Gold was discovered in eastern Transvaal. South Africa
1885 British mission went to Sikkim. Tibet
1885 Chinese defeated French at Damsu and Langson. China
1885 Tsubouchi published The Essence of the Novel. Japan
1885 Germany annexed the Marshall Islands.Micronesia
1885.7 Vietnamese rebellion against French began.
1885.7 Fukuzawa praised missionaries’ moral influence.
1885.10 Prince Chun established Navy Yamen in Beijing. China
1885.10.21 Germans made treaty with Kamaherero. South West Africa
1885.11.28 British took over Mandalay. India Burma
1885.12.28 First Indian National Congress met in Bombay.
1885-87 Si Votha led Cambodian rebellion against French.
1885-90 Liu Mingchuan governed Taiwan, built railways. China
1885-96 French fought Vietnamese insurgents.
1885-1901 Bir Shamsher ruled Nepal.
1886.1 British India annexed Upper Burma.
1886 French annexed Kayor. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1886 Tukulor empire was divided into four parts.
1886 Amadou Bamba founded Muridiyya Order. French West Africa
1886 British chartered Goldie’s Royal Niger Company.
1886 Italy obtained east coast of Somalia.
1886 Tippu became a governor in the Belgian Congo. Buganda
1886 Missionary Arnot settled in Katanga. Congo
1886 British recognized South African Republic.
1886 Muslim Educational Congress began.
1886 Tibetans occupied Sikkim.
1886 Burmah Oil Company was founded. Burma
1886 French Indochina annexed Cambodia.
1886 Spence founded the Australian Shearers’ Union.
1886 Woman’s Suffrage League began in Australia.
1886 Futabatei published The Drifting Cloud. Japan
1886.8.6 Ramakrishna died of cancer.
1886.10 British and Germans divided East Africa.
1886.10 François Croillard founded a mission at Sefula. Southern Africa
1886-90 British forces suppressed rebellion in Burma.
1886-91 Moloney governed Lagos for England. Nigeria
1886-94 Alfredo de Aguiar published Clamor Africano. Mozambique
1886-94 Liu Bingzhang governed Sichuan, opposed West. China
1886-97 Brazza was governor-general of Gabon. French Congo
1887.1.6 Abdullahi of Oromo attacked Shoa and lost. Ethiopia
1887.5.12 Tukulor empire became a French protectorate.
1887 Al-Rashid captured Riyadh. Arabia
1887 Blyden wrote Christianity, Islam, and the Negro. Liberia
1887 Ranade began Indian National Social Conference. India
1887 Prince Devawongse suggested reforms in Siam.
1887 French formed the Indochinese Union. Vietnam
1887 Kang wrote Universal Principles of Humanity.
1887 Portuguese annexed Macao. China
1887 Some Japanese objected to ballroom dancing.
1887 Rizal published the novel Noli Me Tangere.
1887.7.4 Monthly Republican began in Sydney. Australia
1887.7.7 Kalakaua accepted the “Bayonet Constitution.” Hawaii
1887.7 Ito based Japan’s exams on a German system.
1887.7.20 British claimed part of Somalia coast.
1887.8 Australian Socialist League formed in Sydney.
1887.11 William Lane began editing Boomerang. Australia
1887.12 Yamagata expelled party members from Tokyo. Japan
1887-89 Mahdi army of Sudan invaded Abyssinia.
1888.1.18 Mahdists from Sudan invaded Gojjam. Ethiopia
1888.2.11 Moffat signed treaty with Lobengula. Southern Africa
1888.3 Prempeh became Asantehene. Asante
1888.3 Ethiopians attacked Italians and retreated.
1888.3 British drove Tibetans out of Sikkim.
1888.5 Louisa Lawson began publishing Dawn. Australia
1888 Railway connected Istanbul to Vienna. Ottoman Empire
1888 Persia gave Caspian fisheries to Russia.
1888 Lagos governor made treaty with Oyo king.
1888 Bankim Chandra wrote Dharmatattva.
1888 Blavatsky published The Secret Doctrine.
1888 Chinese navy got cruisers from Germany. China
1888 Japan began a navy training college. People's Rights
1888 Dominicans dispossessed Calamba tenants. Filipino Reformers
1888 British annexed southeast New Guinea. Melanesia
1888.9 Afghans defeated revolt in Turkestan.
1888.9 British, Muslims & Christians defeated Mwanga.
1888.10.30 Lobengula traded mineral rights to Rudd. Southern Africa
1888.11 Shoa declared war on Ethiopia.
1888.12 Antonelli delivered 10,000 rifles to Shoa. Ethiopia
1888.12 Filipinos began La Solidaridad in Barcelona.
1888-94 Viceroy Lansdowne governed British India.
1888-1911 Amoaka Atta II ruled Akim Abuakwa. Asante
1889.2.11 Mori was murdered by a Shinto fanatic. Japan
1889.3.9 Mahdists defeated and killed Yohannes IV. Ethiopia
1889.5.2 Menelik II signed ambiguous treaty with Italy. Eritrea
1889.5 Stanley helped Emin escape from Germans.
1889 Reindorf published History of the Gold Coast. Asante
1889 Gambia became a British Crown Colony.
1889 Gungunhana moved Ngoni to Limpopo Valley. Mozambique
1889 Rhodes began British South African Company.
1889 Besant reviewed The Secret Doctrine.
1889 Burma Village Act applied headman system.
1889 Yu Kil-chun wrote Observations on a Journey. Korea
1889.7.30 Wilcox led coup attempt in Hawaii that failed.
1889.9 Lobengula killed Lotje and his relatives. Southern Africa
1889.10.18 Okuma lost a leg by a terrorist bomb. Japan
1889.11.3 Matewos crowned Menelik II emperor of Ethiopia.
1889.11 Leopold II hosted anti-slavery conference.
1889-95 La Solidaridad advocated Filipino reforms.
1889-1913 Menelik II was Emperor of Ethiopia.
1890.1.1 Italy claimed Eritrea as its Red Sea Colony. Ethiopia
1890.1 Ndunduma expelled Portuguese force.
1890.2 Peters got Mwanga to sign treaty with Germany. Buganda
1890.3 Portuguese invaded Viye, defeated Ndunduma.
1890.3 Shah gave Major Talbot tobacco monopoly. Persia
1890.5 Samory made treaty with British. Guinea and Ivory Coast
1890 Armenian Revolutionary Federation began.
1890 Brussels Convention protected European arms. Guinea and Ivory Coast
1890 Belgium loaned Leopold II £1,000,000.
1890 British Company built station at Dagoretti. East Africa
1890 Germans fortified Lake Nyasa.
1890 Portuguese invaded Viye, beat Ovimbundu.
1890 British agreed with Chinese on Tibet and Sikkim.
1890 Henry George visited Australia.
1890 Melbourne installed electric street lighting. Australia
1890 Japan had 716 newspapers. People's Rights
1890.7.1 Japan held first national elections.
1890.7 G. W. Williams wrote open letter to Leopold II.
1890.8 Portugal made treaty with England.
1890.10.30 Imperial Rescript on Education began in Japan.
1890.12 Lugard took over Buganda for IBEA Company.
1890-96 Rhodes was prime minister of Cape Colony.
1891.5.9 British made Zambezia a protectorate. Southern Africa
1891 Russians sent rifles to Ethiopia’s Menelik II.
1891 Stanley published In Darkest Africa.
1891 Mozambique Company was chartered.
1891 British made Nyasaland a protectorate. Southern Africa
1891 British forces intervened in Manipur. India
1891 Age of Consent Act prohibited child marriage. Indian
1891 Malaya made smallpox vaccination compulsory.
1891 Australian banks began to fail.
1891 Rizal published his novel El Filibusterismo.
1891.12.20 Msiri in Katanga was killed by a Belgian. Congo
1891-92 Persian boycott ended tobacco concession.
1891-96 Reeves reformed New Zealand labor laws.
1891-97 Governor-General Cambon reformed Algeria.
1891-1911 Liberals dominated New Zealand politics.
1892.1 French invaded Mandinka empire. Guinea and Ivory Coast
1892.5.19 British defeated Ijebu at River Yemoji. Nigeria
1892.5.29 Bahá’u’lláh died, succeeded by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
1892 Jamal al-Din met with Abdulhamid II. Persia
1892 Sultan of Zanzibar leased Mogadishu to Italy. Somaliland
1892 Anglo-Belgian India Rubber Company began. Congo
1892 Zambezia Company began. Mozambique
1892 Rhodesia Herald began publishing. Rhodes
1892 Ceylon abolished grain taxes.
1892 Gilbert Islands became a British protectorate. Micronesia
1892.7.14 Rizal was deported; Bonifacio formed Katipunan.
1892.7.3 Rizal and Bonifacio began Philippine League.
1892-94 Belgian-Arab traders war killed many thousands. Congo
1892-95 Wu Dacheng governed Hunan. Kang's Reforms
1892-96 Ito was Japan’s prime minister again. Japan
1893.1.24 Lugard’s Ingleza defeated Fransa and Mwanga. Buganda
1893.2 Emperor Menelik II declared Ethiopia independent.
1893 Ivory Coast became a French colony.
1893 British drove Lobengula out of Bulawayo. Southern Africa
1893 British made NW and NE Rhodesia protectorates. Rhodes
1893 Riots occurred in Bombay, Bihar, and Assam. India
1893 Tibet blocked trade between China and India.
1893 Southern Solomons became British Protectorate. Melanesia
1893.7 French forced Siam to cede part of Laos.
1893.7 Lobengula sent raiders into Shona. Southern Africa
1893.9 Vivekananda spoke at Chicago Exposition.
1893.9.19 New Zealand enacted woman suffrage.
1893-94 Congo Free State won war in the east Congo.
1893-1906 Seddon led New Zealand’s Liberal government.
1894.3 2 Korean agents assassinated Kim Ok-kyun. China Japan
1894.6.2 Ethiopia took in Mengesha, Ras Alula, Tigray.
1894.6 British declared Uganda a protectorate.
1894 Lugard made treaty with Nikki before French. Nigeria
1894 Al-Hassan studied with Sufi Salih in Mecca. Somaliland
1894 Ronga chiefs rebelled against Portuguese tax. Mozambique
1894 Gandhi founded the Natal Indian Congress.
1894 Spence led Australian Workers’ Union (AWU).
1894 South Australia gave women the vote.
1894 US treaty excluded Chinese immigrants. China
1894 Japanese built a railway from Seoul to Pusan. Korea
1894 Kitasato studied bubonic plague in Hong Kong. Japan
1894.7.4 Dole became president of Hawaii.
1894.7.23 Japan forced Korea’s Kojong to expel Chinese.
1894.8.1 Japan declared war on China.
1894.8 Moor attacked Nana and Itsekiri trading empire. Nigeria
1894.9.16 Japanese army captured P’yongyang.
1894.10.9 Japanese drove Chinese out of Korea.
1894.11 Sun Yatsen began Revive China Society.
1894.11 Japanese attacked Dairen and Port Arthur.
1894.11.22 Japan and the US signed a trade treaty.
1894.12.29 Brass soldiers destroyed British port at Akassa. Nigeria
1894-95 Japanese defeated Tonghak rebellion in Korea.
1894-95 Otori implemented reform laws in Korea.
1894-96 250,000 Armenians were killed.
1894-99 Victor Bruce was viceroy of British India.
1894-1900 Cardew governed Sierra Leone for British.
1894-1906 New Zealand Arbitration Court prevented strikes.
1895.1.7 King Kojong proclaimed “Guiding Principles.” Korea
1895.1.8 Japan made Kojong declare Korea independent.
1895.1 Queen Liliuokalani was arrested and abdicated. Hawaii
1895.1.15 Italians defeated Mengesha. Ethiopia
1895.3.4 Japanese shot Li Hongzhang in the face. China
1895.3 Prempeh sent Asante embassy to London.
1895.4.17 China signed Treaty of Shimonoseki. Korea Japan
1895.5.5 Japan agreed to give up the Liaodong Peninsula.
1895.5-6 Taiwan was independent for one week. China Japan
1895.6.6 Federation of French West Africa began. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1895 28,000 Jews were a majority in Jerusalem. Palestine
1895 First pneumatic car tire was produced. Congo
1895 French took upper Ubangi from Belgians.
1895 Vivekananda visited Max Muller.
1895 Tilak began annual Shivaji festival. Indian
1895 British reinstated Thuthop Namgyal in Sikkim. Tibet
1895 Kang and Liao Qichao submitted memorial.
1895 Sheng Xuanhuai began Beiyang College in Tianjin. China
1895.7.1 British proclaimed East Africa Protectorate.
1895.7.4 Batetela mutiny in Kasai was punished. Congo
1895.8.24 Birsa and Mundas were imprisoned. India
1895.9 Liang Qichao began Chinese Global Magazine. Kang
1895.10.1 Madagascar accepted French protectorate.
1895.10.8 Japanese killed Korea’s Queen Min.
1895.10 British banned Sun Yatsen from Hong Kong.
1895.11.4 Japan retroceded Liaodong to China.
1895.11 Masai attacked caravan, killed many Kikuyu. East Africa
1895.12.29 Jameson raid against Kruger in Transvaal failed. Southern Africa
1895-97 Jiang Biao headed education in Hunan. Kang
1895-1903 Australia suffered a drought.
1895-1910 Laos revolted against the French.
1895-1933 13th Dalai Lama governed Tibet. 1905-33
1896.1.5 British army led by Scott sacked Kumasi.
1896.2.11 King Kojong moved into the Russian legation. Korea
1896.2.14 Herzl published The Jewish State.
1896.3.1 Ethiopian army defeated Italians at Adwa.
1896.3 Jacinto edited Freedom advocating revolt. Filipino Reformers
1896.3.20 Ndebele began killing whites. Southern Africa
1896.4 So Chae-p’il began The Independence. Korea
1896.5.1 Rida assassinated Nasir al-Din Shah. Persia
1896.5 Russia and China made a defense treaty. Japan
1896.6.6 British killed 300 Ndebele. Southern Africa
1896.6 Herzl met with Sultan Abdulhamid II.
1896 French invaded Futa Jallon.
1896 British made treaties with ten tribes.
1896 French began Djibouti-Addis Ababa railway. Ethiopia
1896 Natal denied vote to Indians. South Africa
1896 Chakla and Chinese invaded eastern Tibet.
1896 Russians gained mining and timber in Korea.
1896 Japan abolished duties on cotton.
1896.7.1 British formed Federated Malay States.
1896.7.18 Herzl met with Edmund de Rothschild.
1896.8.30 Bonifacio began Filipino revolution.
1896.8.31 Sierra Leone became a British protectorate.
1896.10 London’s Chinese legation abducted Sun Yatsen.
1896.12.30 Rizal was shot by a Filipino firing squad.
1896, 1898 China borrowed £16 million from Consortium.
1896-97 Tan Sitong wrote On the Study of Humanity. Kang's Reforms
1896-98 Kitchener’s Egyptian army defeated Sudan.
1896-98 Bubonic plague took 193,000 lives in India.
1896-99 More than six million died in famines in India.
1896-1902 Paul Doumer governed French Indochina.
1896-1915 Emir Mubarak ruled Kuwait. Arabia
1897.1 Crete revolted against Ottoman empire. Young Turks
1897.2.20 King Kojong moved back to the Kyongun Palace. Korea
1897.3 Menelik II sent Giyorgis to govern Kaffa.
1897.4.5 Hamud freed slaves in Zanzibar and Pemba. East Africa
1897.5.5 Vivekananda founded Ramakrishna Mission.
1897.5.10 Revolutionary Aguinaldo executed Bonifacio. Filipino Revolution
1897.5.14 Menelik II and British agreed on Ethiopian border.
1897.5 Ashio Copper Mine had to reduce pollution. Japan
1897.6 Waziris rebelled against Afghanistan.
1897 Ottoman empire declared war on Greece. Young Turks
1897 ‘Abduh published Theology of Unity. Egypt
1897 Lagos workers struck for higher pay. Nigeria
1897 Samuel Johnson wrote History of the Yorubas. Nigeria
1897 Aborigines Rights Protection Society began. Sierra Leone
1897 Cape detained for 3 months without trial. South Africa
1897 Natal annexed Zululand. South Africa
1897 Rhodes negotiated peace with Ndebele chiefs.
1897 Ross discovered mosquitoes transmit malaria. Malaya
1897 Kang wrote Study of Confucius as a Reformer.
1897 Sun Yatsen published Kidnapped in London.
1897.8 First Zionist Congress met at Basle.
1897.11 Germans imposed a hut tax in East Africa.
1897.11 Germany seized Jiaozhou and got 99-year lease. China
1897.11 Yan Fu began editing daily National Review. Kang
1897.12 Russia took Dairen and Port Arthur. China
1897.12.27 Aguinaldo was paid to go to Hong Kong. Filipino Revolution
1897-1900 Mutiny led to war in the Congo Free State.
1897-1907 Ferdinando Martini governed Eritrea for Italy.
1898.1 Anti-Semitism persecuted Jews in Algeria.
1898.1 Kang Youwei began advising Emperor Guangxu.
1898.2.9 Independence Club protested Russian influence. Korea
1898.3 Matadi-Leopoldville railway was completed. Leopold II
1898.3 Big Sword Society began killing foreigners. Boxer Uprising
1898.5.1 Dewey sank the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. US Intervention
1898.6.11 Guangxu began decreeing Kang’s reforms.
1898.6.12 Aguinaldo declared the Philippines Independent.
1898.6.14 French and British signed treaty over Borgu. Nigeria
1898.6.20 US Navy took over Guam. Micronesia
1898 Rinderpest epidemic caused Humbe rebellion. Angola
1898 Ross learned mosquito causes malaria. Southern Africa
1898 Besant founded Central Hindu College (CHC).
1898 New Zealand enacted a pension system.
1898 British leased Weihaiwei and Kaulung. China
1898 Zhang Zhidong published Exhortation to Learning. Kang
1898 Yellow River flooded. Boxer Uprising
1898 Tonghak patriarch Ch’oe Si-hyong was executed. Korea
1898 Meiji civil code was enacted. Japan
1898.6-11 Okuma led Japan’s first party cabinet.
1898.8.13 Spaniards in Manila surrendered to the US. US Intervention
1898.8 British defeated Ogaden Somali. East Africa
1898.9.6 Public pressure released Tilak from prison. Indian
1898.9 Revolutionaries made the Malolos constitution. US Intervention
1898.9 Tan Sitong was executed. Boxer Uprising
1898.9.16 Guangxu made Yuan Shikai vice president. Kang
1898.9.21 Cixi took over Qing administration. Kang
1898.9.29 French captured Samory. Guinea and Ivory Coast
1898.11.4 Kojong arrested 17 independence leaders. Korea
1898.12.10 Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. US Intervention
1898-1900 Yamagata was Japan’s prime minister.
1898-1902 Liang Qichao published Public Opinion. Sun Yatsen
1899.1.7 Mundas led by Birsa attacked the Khunti police. India
1899.1.23 Philippine Republic was inaugurated. Filipino Independence
1899.2.4 Americans began war for the Philippines. US Intervention
1899.3 Yuxian began governing Shandong. Boxer Uprising
1899.4 Al-Hassan raised army in Somalia for Islam.
1899.4 British deported Mwanga and Kabarega. Uganda
1899.5.5 Archbishop Nozaleda excommunicated Aglipay. Filipino-American War
1899.5 Tavera founded pro-American La Democracia. Filipino-American War
1899 British appointed governor-general of Sudan.
1899 Conrad published Heart of Darkness. Congo
1899 Dahomey joined the French Federation. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1899 German East Africa took over Rwanda.
1899 Confucian Kang Youwei came to Singapore. Malaya
1899 New Zealand Farmers’ Union began.
1899 Germany bought most of Micronesia from Spain.
1899 French Polynesia annexed the Leeward Islands. Tahiti
1899.7 Kang began Society to Protect the Emperor. Sun Yatsen
1899.9 Al-Hassan led jihad against Ethiopia. Somaliland
1899.10.11 Transvaal and OFS invaded Natal. South Africa
1899.10.22 Mabini founded the Filipino National Church.
1899.11.14 Germany and the US divided Samoa.
1899.11.21 Cixi ordered governors to fight invaders. Boxer Uprising
1899.11.24 Egyptians killed Mahdi successor ‘Abdallahi. Sudan
1899-1902 220,000 Filipinos died in the American war.
1899-1904 British fought al-Hassan’s army in Somalia.
1899-1905 ‘Abduh was Grand Mufti of Egypt.
1899-1905 Viceroy Curzon governed India.
1900.5 Boxers killed 68 Chinese Christians in Zhili.
1900.6.3 Boxers destroyed Beijing-Tianjin railway.
1900.6.10 Boxers stopped British troops.
1900.6.14 Hawaii became a US territory.
1900.6.20 Australians approved a new constitution.
1900.6.21 Cixi declared war on foreigners. Boxer Uprising
1900.6.21 A. MacArthur proclaimed amnesty in Philippines. Filipino-American War
1900 British made Northern Nigeria a protectorate.
1900 Sierra Leone had 34 newspapers.
1900 Rebellion against French in Madagascar ended.
1900 British invaded OFS during Boer War. South Africa
1900 India sent 8,000 British troops to Boer War. Curzon
1900 Samin began protest movement in Central Java. Indonesia
1900 Couperus wrote The Hidden Force. Indonesia
1900 Australian Woman’s Sphere began.
1900 Northern China suffered a severe drought. Boxer Uprising
1900 Japan provided 4 years of schooling.
1900 Nitobe wrote Bushido: The Soul of Japan. Japan
1900 Tonga became a British Protectorate.
1900.7 200,000 Russian troops invaded Manchuria. Boxer Uprising
1900.7.14 Foreign troops took over Tianjin. Boxer Uprising
1900.8 Fourth Zionist Congress met in London.
1900.8 Foreign troops defeated Boxers in Beijing.
1900.9 Ito formed the Seiyukai party. Japan
1900.10 Cixi and Guangxu fled to Tian. Boxer Uprising
1900.10 Huizhou revolt led by Sun Yatsen failed.
1900.12.20 MacArthur proclaimed martial law in Philippines. Filipino-American War
1900-02 Central Java suffered a famine. Indonesia
1900-04 Abad wrote 4 revolutionary plays. Philippines
1900-07 Lugard was High Commissioner of Nigeria.
1900-08 ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ruled Morocco.
1901.1.1 Australia became a commonwealth.
1901.1.16 China agreed to pay foreign nations. Boxer Uprising
1901.1.21 Philippine Commission established public schools. Filipino-American War
1901.2.3 Fukuzawa Yukichi died.
1901.2 Kitchener and Louis Botha began negotiations. South Africa
1901.3 British captured Kumasi, deported leaders.
1901.3.23 Americans captured Aguinaldo.
1901.4 Ronglu led Bureau of Government Affairs. Late Qing
1901 Buber began editing Zionist weekly Die Welt.
1901 Central Native Council began in Lagos. Nigeria
1901 Leopold II started Fondation de la Couronne.
1901 Dutch began Ethical Policy in Java.
1901 Franklin published her novel My Brilliant Career. Australia
1901 New Zealand annexed the Cook Islands.
1901 Palma’s El Renacimiento criticized corruption. Filipino-American War
1901.11 Persia and Russia agreed on customs tariff.
1901.12.29 Zionists set up Jewish National Fund.
1901-08 Turks built railway from Damascus to Medina. Arabia
1901-11 George Denton governed Gambia for the British.
1901-19 Habibullah ruled Afghanistan.
1901-29 Chandra Shamsher governed Nepal .
1902.1.7 Cixi returned to Beijing. Boxer Uprising
1902.1.30 Japan formed an alliance with the British.
1902.2 Ottoman Liberals met in a Paris home. Young Turks
1902.2.2 Union Obrera Democrata began in Philippines.
1902.2.22 Morant and Handcock were executed. Australia
1902.3.26 Cecil Rhodes died of congenital heart problem.
1902.4 Russia promised to evacuate Manchuria. Late Qing Japan
1902.5.31 Boer War ended with amnesty. South Africa
1902 Coppolani and French occupied Mauritania. Futa Jallon and Tukulor
1902 French governed West Africa from Dakar.
1902 British took half of Buganda’s land.
1902 Australia gave women the vote. Australia
1902 Kang Youwei wrote Book of Great Unity.
1902 Ban on Manchu-Chinese marriages ended. Late Qing
1902 Female foot-binding was banned. Late Qing
1902 Zhang Binglin published Urgent Advice. Sun Yatsen
1902 US removed Philippines’ tariff.
1902.8 Siamese army defeated the Shans rebellion.
1902-04 200,000 Filipinos died of cholera. Philippines
1902-06 200,000 died of sleeping sickness. Uganda and the British
1902-07 Liang Qichao published New People’s Miscellany. Sun Yatsen
1902-53 Abdul Aziz ibn Saud ruled Arabia.
1903.1.18 Bishop Aglipay led the Filipino Church. Philippines
1903.6.26 Blyden spoke to Africa Society in London. Liberia
1903 Kahlil Gibran wrote Spirits Rebellious in Arabic.
1903 Ben-Yehuda began teaching Hebrew in Palestine. Zionism
1903 Muhammad ‘Abduh visited Algeria.
1903 Sierra Leone recognized chiefs as judges.
1903 Bruce said tsetse fly spreads sleeping sickness. Uganda and the British
1903 France made Oubangui-Chari a colony. French Congo
1903 Furphy published his novel Such Is Life. Australia
1903 Kotoku and Sakai began Commoner’s Daily. Japan
1903 Russia refused to evacuate southern Manchuria. Sun Yatsen
1903 Zou Rong wrote The Revolutionary Army. Sun Yatsen
1903 China imposed taxes on tobacco and liquor. Late Qing
1903.7 Russians crossed the Yalu River. Korea
1903.7.27 Lugard’s army conquered the Sokoto empire. Nigeria
1903.12 Menelik II and British signed commercial treaty.
1903.12 Huang Xing began China Revival Society. Sun Yatsen
1903, 1909 Nigeria squelched newspapers.
1903-04 British troops invaded Tibet. Curzon
1903-06 Chinese labored in South Africa.
1903-11 Charles Jonnart governed Algeria.
1903-36 Premchand wrote realistic fiction.
1904.2.8 Japanese attacked Port Arthur.
1904.2.23 Korea accepted a Japanese protectorate. Japan
1904.3.23 Congo Reform Association met at Liverpool.
1904.4 British defeated Tibetans at Gyantse.
1904.5.1 Japan’s 1st Army invaded Manchuria.
1904 Yemen’s Imam Yahya revolted against Turks.
1904 Lugard simplified Nigeria’s tax system.
1904 Lewanika brought in black missionaries to teach. Rhodesia
1904 South Africa had one million Europeans.
1904 Gandhi led Indian delegation to London.
1904 Besant published A Study in Consciousness.
1904 Japanese troops occupied Korea.
1904 Shimazaki published The Broken Commandment. Japan
1904.9.7 British and Tibetans signed a treaty.
1904.10 Witbooi revolt was suppressed by Germans. South West Africa
1904-09 13th Dalai Lama was in exile. Tibet
1904-12 Arthur Barclay was president of Liberia.
1904-13 Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II was ill.
1904-59 Sisavangvong was king of Luang Prabang. Laos
1905.1.2 Russia surrendered Port Arthur to Japan.
1905.1 Mustafa Kemal organized Fatherland Society. Young Turks
1905.1 Louis Botha began Het Volk party. South Africa
1905.3 Russia & Japan fought largest battle at Mukden.
1905.3.21 Afghanistan confirmed alliance with British.
1905.5.27 Japan’s navy defeated the Russian fleet.
1905 Hebrew became language of Zionist movement.
1905 Uganda railway began turning a profit. East Africa
1905 Gokhale founded Servants of India Society.
1905 China ended government exams after 1300 years. Late Qing
1905.7 Taft-Katsura Agreement was signed. Korea
1905.8.13 Sun Yatsen began Revolutionary Alliance.
1905.9.5 Russia and Japan signed Treaty of Portsmouth.
1905.10.16 Curzon partitioned Bengal, and boycott began.
1905.11 Japan’s Ito established a Korean protectorate.
1905.11.26 The People’s Report began publishing. Sun Yatsen
1905.12 China recognized Japanese gains in Manchuria. Late Qing
1905.12 Son Pyong-hui changed Tonghak to Ch’ondogyo. Korea
1905-06 Chinese boycotted American goods. Late Qing
1905-07 Germans defeated the Maji Maji rebellion.
1905-08 Phan Boi Chau wrote on Vietnam’s history.
1905-10 Viceroy Minto and Morley offered reforms. British
1906.3 National Council of Education began in Calcutta. India
1906.3 US Army massacred 900 Moros at Bud Dajo. Philippines
1906.5 British made Southern Nigeria a protectorate.
1906.6 Zhang Binglin was released from prison. Sun Yatsen
1906 Young Turks founded CUP.
1906 Liberia borrowed $500,000 from British.
1906 British created four reserves for Kikuyu. East Africa
1906 Vocational schools began in the Congo.
1906 Young Men’s Buddhist Association began. Burma
1906 Yuan Shikai started schools for self-government.
1906 13,000 Chinese were studying in Japan. Late Qing
1906 Qiu Jin began The Chinese Women’s Journal. Sun Yatsen
1906 Hulbert began publishing the Corea Review. Korea
1906 Yi In-jik published his novel Tears of Blood. Korea
1906 Australia took over British New Guinea as Papua. Melanesia
1906.8.5 Muzaffar al-Din Shah agreed to an Assembly. Iran
1906.9 Gandhi first used civil disobedience.
1906.10.1 Viceroy Minto gave Muslims concessions. India
1906.12.30 All-India Muslim League was founded.
1906-08 Saionji was prime minister of Japan.
1906-12 Rechenberg governed German East Africa.
1906-18 Alapetite governed Tunisia for France.
1906-27 French let Sisowath be king of Cambodia.
1907.3 Het Volk won Transvaal election. South Africa
1907.4 Aurobindo wrote “Passive Resistance.” India
1907.5.11 British issued Seditions Meetings Act.
1907.5 Phan Chu Trinh opened the Free School in Hanoi. Vietnam
1907 Hamba organized Young Tunisians.
1907 French troops invaded Morocco.
1907 Africans gained citizenship in Liberia.
1907 Koch explained how to kill tsetse flies. Germans
1907 Portuguese defeated Mbadya rebellion.
1907 Braddon proved brown rice has more vitamins. Malaya
1907 Siam ceded Khmer provinces to Indochina.
1907 Beau founded University of Hanoi. Vietnam
1907 Australia set a minimum wage.
1907 Yuan Shikai and Zhang Zhidong were transferred. Late Qing
1907 China banned students from political meetings. Late Qing
1907 Sun Yatsen promoted southern uprisings.
1907 Japan expelled Sun Yatsen with money.
1907 Japan provided 6 years of schooling.
1907 Kojong sent 3 Yis to The Hague peace meeting. Korea
1907 Nacionalistas won Philippines national election.
1907.7.6 Xu Xilin killed Governor Enming of Anhui. Sun Yatsen
1907.7 30 anarchists were executed with Xu Xilin. Sun Yatsen
1907.7 Russia and Japan divided Manchuria.
1907.9 Moderate Egyptians founded People’s Party.
1907.10 Iran got Fundamental Laws.
1907.12 2nd Young Turk Congress met in Paris.
1907.12 French closed Free School, arrested teachers. Vietnam
1907-10 Portuguese pacified Dembo.
1907-33 Besant was Theosophical Society president.
1908.1 Aurobindo spoke on spiritual nationalism. British Repression
1908.2.3 Smuts promised Gandhi he would repeal Act.
1908.2 2 Koreans assassinated Durham Stevens. Korea
1908.2 Sandhya printer was sentenced to 2 years. British Repression
1908.4 French arrested Vietnamese nationalists.
1908.4 Moderates met separately to change INC. British Repression
1908.5.2 Aligarh Conspiracy arrests were made. British Repression
1908.5.20 Indonesian students began Budi Utomo.
1908.6.8 Explosive Substances Act passed. British Repression
1908.6.23 Muhammad ‘Ali Shah made a coup. Iran
1908 CUP took over Ottoman empire. Revolution
1908 Ethiopia joined International Postal Union.
1908 British defeated Luhya in northern Bugusu. East Africa
1908 Congo Free State had 313 military posts.
1908 Chinese opened a military college in Lhasa. Tibet
1908 Siam adapted the Code Napoleon.
1908 Yi Hae-jo wrote Snow on the Temple Hair. Korea
1908 Yi In-jik published his novel Silvery World. Korea
1908.8.16 Gandhi & 3,000 Indians burned certificates.
1908.8.27 China announced plan for a constitution. Late Qing
1908.9 Klobukowski closed University of Hanoi. Vietnam
1908.10.7 Gandhi was arrested in Transvaal.
1908.11 Guangxu and Cixi died, replaced by Puyi & Chun. Late Qing
1908.11.15 Belgium annexed the Congo Free State.
1908-14 Tilak was in prison for seditious writings. British Repression
1908-18 Angoulvant governed Ivory Coast for France. Futa Jallon
1908-40 Hubert Murray governed Papua. Melanesia
1909.1 Anushilan Samiti was outlawed. British Repression
1909.1 Prince Chun forced Yuan Shikai to retire. Late Qing
1909.2 China held first provincial elections. Late Qing
1909.3 Siam withdrew from Unfederated Malay States.
1909.4.27 Assembly replaced Abdulhamid II with Mehmet V. Revolution
1909 Anglo-Iranian Oil Company formed.
1909 British finally defeated Ekumeku. Nigeria
1909 Cadell from Sierra Leone staged coup in Liberia.
1909 A. C. Doyle helped Morel on the Congo issue.
1909 South African Labour Party began.
1909 Gandhi wrote Hind Swaraj (Indian Self-Rule). British Repression
1909 Krishnamurti wrote At the Feet of the Master.
1909 Siam ceded Malay states to British Malaya.
1909 Korea People’s News began publishing.
1909.7 Assembly replaced Muhammad ‘Ali with Ahmad. Iran
1909.9.17 Indonesian educator Kartini died.
1909.10.3 Chinese National Assembly was half appointed. Late Qing
1909.10 25 million Chinese petitioned for a parliament. Late Qing
1909.10.26 An Chung-gun assassinated Ito Hirobumi. Korea Japan
1910.2 CUP formed People’s Party. Revolution
1910.3 Chinese army occupied Lhasa; Dalai Lama fled. Tibet
1910.3.31 Union of South Africa began with a constitution.
1910.4 Australia’s Labor party won the election.
1910 France gained 40% of Morocco’s customs tax.
1910 Galandou Diouf co-founded Young Senegalese. French West Africa
1910 Afrique Equatoriale Française combined colonies. Equatorial Africa
1910 ARPS stopped the Forestry Bill in England. Gold Coast Colony
1910 Tafari began governing Harar. Haile Selassie
1910 British Somaliland banned missionaries.
1910 Belgian Congo imposed a poll tax on Africans.
1910 Portuguese subdued Swahili and Makua.
1910 Republic of Portugal abolished slavery.
1910 Indian Press Act required security deposit. British Repression
1910.8 Japan annexed Korea.
1910.10 Song Jiaoren began editing People’s Stand. Sun Yatsen
1910-11 2,500,000 Chinese died from floods. Late Qing
1910-16 Viceroy Hardinge governed British India.
1910-16 General Terauchi governed Korea.
1910-25 King Vajiravudh ruled Siam.
1910-28 China used Qing Code of laws. Late Qing
1910-45 Japan governed Korea as a colony.
1910-55 Aurobindo lived in Pondicherry ashram. British Repression
1911.1.9 Japan hanged 12 radicals.
1911.4 French forces occupied Fez. Morocco
1911.4 Huang Xing led rebellion in Guangzhou. Chinese Revolution
1911.5.8 Prince Chun appointed a new cabinet. Chinese Revolution
1911.5 Qing regime nationalized railways. Chinese Revolution
1911.6.4 Chinese People’s Party was organized.
1911 Asir’s al-Idrisi rebelled against Ottomans. Arabia
1911 Young Arab Society al-Fatat began in Paris. Syria
1911 Spanish troops occupied Alcazar. Morocco
1911 Congo census said population was less than half.
1911 Boers formed South African Party.
1911 Mozambique adopted a constitution.
1911 O Africano began publishing in Mozambique.
1911 Kartini’s writings were published. Indonesia
1911 Yi Hae-jo wrote The Peony Screen. Korea
1911 Nishida published Study of the Good. Japan
1911 English became language of the Philippines.
1911.8.24 32 railway protesters were killed in Chengdu. Chinese Revolution
1911.10.4 Italians invaded Tripoli. Revolution
1911.10.10 Wuchang battalion began mutinies. Chinese Revolution
1911.10 Japan sent arms to Manchu regime and rebels.
1911.11 Jiang Kanghu founded Chinese Socialist Party. Yuan Shikai
1911.11.8 Beijing Assembly elected Yuan Shikai premier. Chinese Revolution
1911.12.11 George V ended the Bengal partition. India
1911.12 Revolutionies took Shanghai and Nanjing.
1911.12.29 Nanjing government elected Sun Yat-sen. Chinese Revolution
1911-12 Albania became independent. Revolution
1911-12 War and famine killed a third in British Somalia.
1911-13 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá spoke in Europe and America.
1912.1 South Africa Native National Congress began. ANC
1912.1 Besant began publishing Herald of the Star.
1912.1 Japan loaned 3 million yen to China’s republic.
1912.2.12 Emperor Puyi abdicated to Yuan Shikai. Chinese Revolution
1912.2.14 Parliament elected Yuan Shikai president. Chinese Revolution
1912.2.9 20,000 workers went on strike in Brisbane. Australia
1912.3 British cancelled the partition of Bengal. India
1912.3.1 Coup attempt by officers in Siam failed.
1912.3.10 Yuan Shikai was inaugurated in Beijing. Chinese Revolution
1912.3.30 Morocco became a protectorate of France.
1912.6 13th Dalai Lama returned to Tibet.
1912 Halide Edib wrote The New Turan.
1912 Ikhwan religious movement began in Arabia.
1912 Bouderba led Young Algeria delegates to Paris.
1912 Liberia borrowed $1,700,000 from United States.
1912 Belgian Congo banned selling liquor to Africans.
1912 Sarekat Islam (SI) began appealing to masses. Indonesia
1912.7.8 Russia & Japan secretly divided Inner Mongolia.
1912.9.9 Yuan appointed Sun Yat-sen director of railways.
1912.9 E. D. Dekker founded the Indies Party. Indonesia
1912.10 Balkan states declared war on Ottomans.
1912.10 Sun Yat-sen spoke at Socialist party congress. Yuan Shikai
1912.10.18 Libya made treaty with Italy.
1912.10.26 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá prophesied European war.
1912.12 Guomindang won Chinese elections. Yuan Shikai
1912-19 Lugard governed Nigeria.
1912-20 Daniel Howard was president of Liberia.
1912-24 Lyautey governed Morocco for France.
1912-25 Massey led New Zealand’s government.
1912-26 Ministers governed during Japan’s Taisho Era. Japan
1912-43 Ofori Ata I ruled Akim Abuakwa. Gold Coast
1913.1 Tibet and Mongolia declared independence.
1913.2.22 Franco-indigéne Alliance began in Algeria.
1913.3 South Africa law limited marriage to Christians. Gandhi
1913.3 Muslim League adopted INC goal of self-rule. India
1913.3.20 Song Jiaoren was assassinated. Yuan Shikai
1913.4.26 Yuan Shikai borrowed £25 million.
1913.6.9 Ottoman empire ceded European territory.
1913.6.29 Bulgaria attacked Serbia and Greece and lost. Ottoman War Losses
1913 Afghans put down revolt by Mangals in Khost.
1913 Talib al-Naqib founded Reform Society of Basra. Iraq
1913 Spanish forces occupied Tetuan. Morocco
1913 William Wade Harris baptized 80,000. Asante
1913 South Africa imposed segregation.
1913 Defence of India Act broke Criminal Procedures.
1913 Tagore won the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1913 Yuan Shikai banned the Socialist party.
1913 Liu Sifu founded Consciousness Society. May Fourth Movement
1913 Han Yong-un wrote on revitalizing Buddhism. Korea
1913.7 Rebellion broke out in Jiangxi. Yuan Shikai
1913.9 Yuan Shikai suppressed the rebellion.
1913.10.7 China recognized Tibet’s autonomy. Yuan Shikai
1913.11.4 Yuan Shikai banned Guomindang.
1913.11 Lala Hardayal founded Yugantar Ashram. India
1913.12.23 Viceroy Hardinge was wounded by a bomb. India
1914.1.2 Besant began publishing Commonweal.
1914.1 Hertzog and de Vet began National Party. South Africa
1914.1 Yuan Shikai annulled the 1912 constitution.
1914.5.1 Constitutional Compact gave president power. Yuan Shikai
1914.6. Smuts and Gandhi resolved issues.
1914.6.28 Serbian nationalist killed Ferdinand of Austria. Ottoman War Losses
1914 Diagne was elected to Chamber of Deputies. West Africa
1914 Yoruba began Christian Reformed Ogboni Soc. Nigeria
1914 Nepal recruited 200,000 men for the war.
1914 Tang Xiangming executed 5,000 people in Hunan. Yuan Shikai
1914.7.3 British and Tibet signed Simla agreement.
1914.7.8 Sun Yat-sen formed Revolutionary Party. Yuan Shikai
1914.7.14 Besant began publishing New India in Madras. India
1914.7 Indian Relief Act recognized Indian marriages. Gandhi
1914.7.21 Ahmad Shah Qajar was crowned. Iran
1914.8.2 Ottomans made alliance with Germany.
1914.8.6 British and French invaded Togo.
1914.8.10 Liberia declared neutrality in the war.
1914.8 British seized Lüderitz from Germans. South West Africa
1914.8 Siam declared neutrality.
1914.8 New Zealand took over Western Samoa.
1914.8.15 Aurobindo began publishing Arya.
1914.8.23 Japan declared war on Germany.
1914.9.7 Ottomans cancelled capitulations to Europeans.
1914.9 Japan invaded the Shandong peninsula.
1914.9 Australia took over German New Guinea. Melanesia
1914.10 Japan’s navy occupied eastern Micronesia.
1914.11.2 Russia declared war on Ottoman empire.
1914.11.7 Japanese troops occupied Qingdao. Yuan Shikai
1914.11.11 Mehmet V declared war on British, French, Russia. Ottomans
1914.11 British declared war on Ottoman empire.
1914.11 British occupied Basra. Iraq
1914.12.27 Beha-a-Din expelled 6,000 Jews from Jaffa. Zionism
1914-18 Iran was neutral during the Great War.
1914-18 India sent 1,215,338 men to war overseas.
1915.1 Japan presented China with 21 Demands. Yuan Shikai
1915.2 Muslim soldiers mutinied in Singapore. Malaya
1915.3 15,000 Jews fled to Egypt. Zionism
1915.3.18 Chinese began boycotting Japan. Yuan Shikai
1915.4.30 British paid Idrisi to fight Imam Yahya. Arabia
1915.5 Botha with 50,000 men captured Windhoek. South West Africa
1915.5 Gandhi founded Satyagraha Ashram.
1915.5.25 Yuan Shikai signed treaty with Japan.
1915 British fought Turks at Gallipoli. Ottoman War Losses
1915 Nationalist Party won election in South Africa.
1915 Tilak began Indian Home Rule League.
1915 Iqbal wrote The Secrets of the Self.
1915 Katherine Prichard wrote The Pioneers. Australia
1915 Pak Un-sik published Tragic History of Korea. Korea
1915.7 250,000 Armenians set up a state.
1915.9 Chen Duxiu founded New Youth. May Fourth Movement
1915.10.25 Sun Yatsen eloped with Song Qingling. Yuan Shikai
1915.11 Assembly approved Yuan Shikai as emperor.
1915.12 Cai E in Yunnan led opposition to imperial Yuan.
1915.12.26 Ibn Saud signed treaty with British. Arabia
1915-16 Kru rebelled in Liberia.
1915-18 Turks slaughtered about a million Armenians.
1915-23 Hughes was Australia’s prime minister. Australia
1916.1 Afghanistan declared neutrality.
1916.1 Sykes-Picot made secret pact on Palestine.
1916.2.6 CHC became Benares Hindu University. Gandhi
1916.3 Smuts led invasion of German East Africa. South Africa
1916.3.22 Yuan Shikai cancelled his monarchy.
1916.5.15 Sykes-Picot agreement gave British Iraq.
1916.6.6 President Yuan Shikai died.
1916 Sudan made Darfur a province.
1916 Taxes provoked riots in Oyo. Nigeria
1916 Angola banned Ndaka newspaper.
1916 Belgian forces occupied Ruanda-Urundi.
1916 Tagore lectured in Japan and the United States.
1916 British imposed embargo on arms to Tibet.
1916 Chulalongkorn University was founded. Siam
1916 Dutch PID began spying on Indonesians.
1916 British quelled Iseyin-Okeiho rebellion. Nigeria
1916.7.8 Hussein revolted against Ottoman empire. Arabia
1916.8 Tafari began governing Kaffa. Haile Selassie
1916.8 Jones Law created a Philippines legislature.
1916.9 Besant began another Home Rule League. India
1916.9.27 Iyasu was excommunicated and deposed. Haile Selassie
1916.10 Yamagata replaced Okuma with Terauchi. Japan
1916.10.22 Iyasu’s troops were defeated by Ethiopia’s army.
1916.10.28 Australians vote against conscription.
1916.12 INC and Muslim League united on reforms. India
1916.12 Cai Yuanpei became dean of Beijing University. May Fourth Movement
1916.12.22 British army captured al-Arish. Palestine
1916-17 Li Yuanhong was president of China.
1916-17 Portuguese invaded German East Africa and fled.
1916-18 200,000 Chinese worked for Allies in Europe.
1916-21 Viceroy Chelmsford governed British India.
1917.2 Telegram revealed Germany-Japan-Mexico plot.
1917.2.11 Zewditu was crowned Empress of Ethiopia.
1917.3 British army captured Baghdad. Armenian Genocide Iraq
1917.3 British army occupied Gaza. Palestine
1917.3 Big rebellion began in Barwe. Mozambique
1917.4 Gandhi helped Champaran indigo workers.
1917.5 Besant led Women’s Indian Association. India
1917.5.14 Duan Qirui declared war on Germany. China
1917.6.15 Besant and 2 others were interned for 94 days. India
1917.6.25 Guangzhou declared independence. China
1917 Zionist Organization of America began.
1917 Franco-Egyptian railway reached Addis Ababa. Ethiopia
1917 Revolts broke out in French West Africa.
1917 Western nations backed Japan’s 21 Demands. China
1917 Yi Kwang-su published his novel Heartless. Korea
1917 Japan loaned Duan Qirui 145 million yen.
1917.7.1 Emperor Puyi was restored for 12 days. China
1917.7.6 Lawrence helped Arabs take Aqaba. Syria Trans-Jordan
1917.7 Gandhi got British to abolish indentured labor.
1917.7 Guangzhou elected Sun Yat-sen grand marshal. China
1917.7.22 Siam declared war on Germany.
1917.8.4 Liberia declared war on Germany.
1917.8 Madras committee approved passive resistance. India
1917.8.27 Ethiopia’s army defeated Iyasu again.
1917.11.2 British Balfour Declaration favored Jewish home. Zionism
1917.11.16 British army captured Jaffa. Palestine
1917.12.9 British entered Jerusalem, declared martial law. Palestine
1917.12 Anti-Bolsheviks formed Transcaucasia Republic. Armenian Genocide
1917-19 Sarraut governed Vietnam, improved education.
1917-67 New Zealand bars closed at 6 p.m.
1918.1 New Youth began publishing in baihua. May Fourth Movement
1918.2 Arabs with Lawrence defeated Turks at Tafileh. Arabia
1918.2 Gandhi helped textile workers in Ahmadabad.
1918.3.7 Weizmann met with George V in England. Zionism
1918.3 Soviet Union evacuated eastern Anatolia. War 1915-18
1918.4 Sedition Committee submitted Rowlatt report. Gandhi
1918.4 Mao began New People’s Study Society in Hunan. May Fourth Movement
1918.5 British occupied Iraq. War 1915-18
1918.5 Georgia replaced Transcaucasia Republic. War 1915-18
1918.5 Chinese students demonstrated. China
1918.5.18 Eugene Chen published “Selling Out China.”
1918.6.4 Ottomans made peace with Georgia, Azerbaijan. War 1915-18
1918.6.16 British promised Arabs self-government. Palestine
1918.6.26 Korean Socialist Party was founded. March First Movement
1918.6.28 Mehmet V died, succeeded by Mehmet VI. War 1915-18
1918.6.30 Young China Association was founded.
1918 Gandhi helped suffering peasants in Kaira.
1918 Iqbal wrote The Mysteries of Selflessness.
1918 Influenza killed two million Indonesians.
1918 Korean land survey was completed.
1918 Japan had rice riots; 700 were prosecuted.
1918.7 Viceroy Chelmsford and Montague issued report. India
1918.8.19 Tibet, China, and British signed a treaty.
1918.10.3 Faisal entered Damascus with 1,000 men. Syria
1918.10.6 French occupied Beirut. War 1915-18
1918.11.13 Egypt’s delegation demanded independence.
1918.11.16 Tripolitania declared independence.
1918.11.16 Truce was declared in China’s civil war.
1918.11.2 CUP leaders Talat, Cemal, and Enver fled. War 1915-18
1918.11.7 English & French declared emancipation. Palestine
1918.11.23 Bolsheviks exposed secret Sykes-Picot pact. Syria
1918.12 Allied troops occupied Istanbul. Ottoman
1918-19 250,000 Nigerians died of influenza.
1918-20 Rinderpest killed 20,000 cattle in Uganda.
1918-21 Hmong rebelled against the French in Laos.
1918-22 Japanese troops fought Bolsheviks in Siberia.
1918-25 British and French martial law ruled Syria.
1919.1.3 Faisal and Weizmann signed an agreement. Syria
1919.1.4 Faisal agreed to Jewish rights in Palestine. Zionism
1919.1.21 Kojong died in mysterious circumstances. March First Movement
1919.2 Muslim-Christian Association held first congress. Palestine
1919.2 Soviet Union banned Zionist periodicals, groups.
1919.2 League gave Togo and Cameroun to France. French West Africa
1919.2 Jinnah resigned from the Rowlatt Committee. Gandhi
1919.2 Koreans signed Declaration of Independence. March First Movement
1919.2.27 Amanullah overthrew his uncle Nasrullah. Afghanistan
1919.3.1 Korean independence protests erupted. March First Movement
1919.3 Mustafa and Tha‘alibi organized Parti Tunisien. Tunisia
1919.3 Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act passed. Gandhi
1919.3.30 Satyagraha Sabha began general strike in Delhi. Gandhi
1919.4.6 General strike began in India. Gandhi
1919.4.8 Japan sent 6 battalions to quell Koreans. March First Movement
1919.4.13 Amritsar massacre killed 379, wounded 1,137. Gandhi
1919.4.14 Koreans declared independence in Philadelphia. March First Movement
1919.4.15 Martial law began in Amritsar. Gandhi
1919.4.18 Gandhi suspended the nonviolent campaign. Gandhi
1919.4.30 Wilson et al granted Shandong to Japan. May Fourth Movement
1919.5.4 Beijing students began demonstrations. May Fourth Movement
1919.5.6 British declared war on Afghanistan.
1919.5 Greek army invaded Anatolia. Ottoman
1919.5 Barzinji proclaimed Kurdistan independent. Iraq
1919.5-8 Afghan Amanullah led rebellion against British. Gandhi
1919.6.1 President Xu declared martial law in Beijing. May Fourth Movement
1919.6.13 Premier Qian resigned. May Fourth Movement
1919.6 Shanghai students and workers went on strike. May Fourth Movement
1919 Mustafa Kemal organized Turkish resistance.
1919 Zaghlul founded the Wafd Party in Egypt.
1919 Pan-African conference drafted charter of rights. French West Africa
1919 Thiraud’s novel portrayed Senegalese. French West Africa
1919 National Congress of British West Africa began. Gold Coast Colony
1919 Small founded Gambia Native Defensive Union.
1919 African Progress Union began. Sierra Leone
1919 Liberian court applied constitution to hinterland.
1919 100,000 died of influenza in Madagascar.
1919 Aurobindo published Ideal of Human Unity.
1919 Gandhi edited Young India and Navajivan.
1919 Ceylon National Congress was founded.
1919 YMBA sponsored mass meetings in Burma.
1919 Ngo Van Chieu founded Cao Dai religion. Vietnam
1919 Literary magazine Creation began in Korea. March First Movement
1919 Okawa began Japan National Essence Society.
1919 Semaun wrote A Story of Kadirun. Indonesia
1919.7.25 Soviet Union renounced factories in China. May Fourth Movement
1919.8.8 British recognized Afghanistan’s independence.
1919.8 Sun Yat-sen founded Reconstruction. China
1919.9 National Congress elected Kemal president. Ottoman
1919.9 New Zealand veterans marched on Parliament.
1919.10.10 Sun Yatsen reorganized Guomindang.
1919.11 All-India Khilafat Conference met at Delhi. Gandhi
1919.12 Government of India Act passed. Gandhi
1919.12 Nationalists won Australia’s elections.
1919-20 Droughts devastated northern China.
1919-21 John Dewey taught in China.
1919-22 Lugard wrote Dual Mandate in Tropical Africa. Nigeria
1919-27 Guggisberg governed Gold Coast colony.
1919-27 Admiral Saito governed Korea. March First Movement
1919-29 Amanullah Khan ruled Afghanistan. India
1920.1 Fiji cancelled its indentured labor system.
1920.1.20 Kemal founded National Sovereignty newspaper. Turkish
1920.2 Arabs protested in Palestine’s cities. Zionism
1920.3 Al-‘Ahd al-‘Iraqi proclaimed Iraq independent.
1920.3.7 Syrian Congress proclaimed Faisal king. Palestine
1920.3.10 Gandhi planned a non-cooperation campaign.
1920.3.18 British dissolved parliament in Istanbul. Ottoman
1920.4 League gave Palestine mandate to British.
1920.4 League of Nations gave Syria mandate to France.
1920.4.23 Turkish parliament met at Ankara, elected Kemal.
1920.4.25 British were given mandate for Iraq.
1920.5.28 Khilafat committee adopted non-cooperation. Gandhi
1920 Yahya conquered Lower Yemen.
1920 British declared Kenya a colony.
1920 Portugal gave colonies financial autonomy.
1920 RGA won Southern Rhodesia election.
1920 Aurobindo published War & Self-Determination.
1920 Joshi began All-India Trade Union Congress.
1920 Siam improved its treaty with the United States.
1920 Women began attending Beijing University. May Fourth Movement
1920 Pak wrote on Korean independence movement. Korea
1920 Yi Tong-hwi founded Korean Communist Party. March First Movement
1920 Korean Independence Army fought Japanese. March First Movement
1920 Japan began subsidizing Korean rice production.
1920 New Women’s Association began in Japan.
1920.7 Zionists elected Weizmann president. Palestine
1920.8.1 Khilafat non-cooperation began. Tilak died. Gandhi
1920.8 Faisal left Syria and went to England.
1920.9.4 INC adopted non-cooperation for independence. Gandhi
1920.10 Australian Communist Party began.
1920.11 Percy Cox organized Iraq’s government.
1920.11 Elections for Legislative Councils were held. Gandhi
1920.11.17 A crowd of 20,000 caused a riot in Bombay. Gandhi
1920.12 25,000 people were arrested in Calcutta. Gandhi
1920-21 500,000 Chinese died in famine. China
1920-21 Bertrand Russell lectured in China.
1920-26 Samuel governed Palestine. Trans-Jordan Palestine
1920-26 Abd al-Karim led rebellion in Morocco.
1920-48 British had mandate for Palestine.
1921.1 British implemented dyarchy reforms in India. Gandhi
1921.1 Lawyers in India went on strike. Gandhi
1921.1.20 Turkey Assembly passed a constitution.
1921.2.12 Reza Khan arrested 60 politicians in Tehran. Iran
1921.2 Jews began electing Rabbinical Council. Palestine
1921.3 Cairo conference made Faisal king of Iraq.
1921.3.16 Turkish-Soviet Treaty was signed at Moscow.
1921.4.1 British made ‘Abdullah emir of Trans-Jordan.
1921.5 Soldiers massacred 163 blacks on “white land.” South Africa
1921.5 China made treaty with Weimar Republic.
1921.5 Japan Socialist Federation was banned.
1921 Guellaty founded Parti Réformiste in Tunisia.
1921 Mozambique banned African languages in school.
1921 René Maran published Batouala. French Congo
1921 Rangoon University students were on strike. Burma
1921 GCBA began demanding home rule for Burma.
1921 Frank Anstey published Money Power. Australia
1921 Wu Peifu crushed federalist efforts. China
1921.5-10 Ibn Saud besieged and took over Ha’il. Arabia
1921.7 Moroccon rebels defeated Spanish army.
1921.7 Khilafat Conference adopted non-cooperation. Gandhi
1921.7 Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was founded. China
1921.8 Afghanistan made treaty with Soviet Union.
1921.8.23 Faisal became king of Iraq. Syria
1921.9.12 Kimbangu was imprisoned for life for sedition. Belgian Congo
1921.9.14 Ali brothers were arrested and got 2 years. Gandhi
1921.9 103 Chinese students in Lyons were deported. China
1921.11 Afghanistan’s Amanullah & British signed treaty. Gandhi
1921.11.17 Prince of Wales visit caused riots in Bombay. Gandhi
1921.11.23 Gandhi cancelled planned protests in Bardoli.
1921.11.28 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá died, succeeded by Shogi Effendi.
1921.12.10 C. R. Das led by getting arrested. Gandhi
1921.12 British recognized Supreme Muslim Council.
1921-22 Sun Yatsen & Chen Jionming governed Canton.
1921-24 Norton de Matos governed Angola.
1921-25 Viceroy Reading governed British India. Gandhi
1921-33 Faisal was king of Iraq.
1921-35 Ben-Gurion led Histadrut. Palestine
1921-50 Shaikh Ahmed ruled Kuwait. Saudi Arabia
1922.2.1 Gandhi wrote to Viceroy that 87,000 were ready.
1922.2.5 A mob killed 22 police in Chauri Chaura. Gandhi
1922.2.6 China signed the Nine-Power Treaty.
1922.2 Governor Armitage visited Gambia’s chiefs.
1922.3.1 Afghanistan made treaty with Turkey.
1922.3.10 British arrested Gandhi and gave him 6 years.
1922.3.14 British arrested Kikuyu activist Harry Thuku. Kenya
1922.6 General Gouraud formed Federal Council in Syria.
1922.6.22 Afghanistan made treaty with Iran.
1922 Karaosmanoglu published Nur Baba.
1922 Güntekin published Çalıkusu (The Wren).
1922 Tajiks, Uzbeks, Turkmen fled to Afghanistan.
1922 Jewish homeland limited to west of Jordan River. Palestine
1922 British ended martial law in Egypt.
1922 British gave Nigeria a constitution.
1922 Committee of Educated Aborigines began. Sierra Leone
1922 Makerere College was founded near Kampala. Uganda
1922 Apprenticeship Act favored whites over blacks. South Africa
1922 Ceylon ended poll tax, formed a Labor Union.
1922 Sun Yat-sen founded Overseas Affairs Bureau. Malaya
1922 China had 91 major strikes.
1922 Japan accepted navy limits, open China.
1922.7 Druze began rebellion in Lebanon. Syria
1922.7 League of Nations gave Tanganyika to British.
1922.8.30 Turkish army defeated Greek army.
1922.11.1 Turkish Assembly abolished the sultanate.
1922.12.6 Kemal organized the People’s Party. Turkish
1922, 1926 Lawrence published Seven Pillars of Wisdom. Arabia
1922-36 Fu’ad was king of Egypt.
1923.1 Rhodesian Bantu Voters Association began.
1923.1 British began dyarchy government in Burma.
1923.1 Communists joined the Guomindang.
1923.2 Shaikh Mahmud became king of Kurdistan. Iraq
1923.4.9 Afghanistan adopted Fundamental Law.
1923.4.19 Egypt’s King Fu’ad promulgated a constitution.
1923.5 Hindu-Muslim riots erupted in Calcutta. India
1923.6 CCP congress formulated many goals. China
1923 Kahlil Gibran wrote The Prophet in English.
1923 Spanish Morocco became a dictatorship.
1923 Tafari began publishing Light and Peace. Haile Selassie
1923 SANNC became African National Congress (ANC).
1923 Motilal Nehru founded the Swarajya party. India
1923 Bengal revolutionaries committed robberies. India
1923 Hindu Mahasabha reconverted 450,000 Muslims. India
1923 Iqbal wrote The Message of the East.
1923 Nepal and British signed a treaty of friendship.
1923 Phan Boi Chau wrote O Heaven, O God. Vietnam
1923 Rabindranath Tagore lectured in China.
1923 Hawaiian legislature gained equal treatment.
1923.7.24 Turkey signed Treaty of Lausanne.
1923.9.1 Earthquake devastated Tokyo and Yokohama. Japan
1923.9.28 League of Nations admitted Ethiopia.
1923.10.1 Southern Rhodesia became a Crown colony.
1923.10 Borodin began advising Sun Yatsen.
1923.10 British troops evacuated Istanbul. Turkish
1923.10.29 Turkey accepted a constitution, elected Kemal.
1923.12 League gave Rwanda-Urundi to Belgium. Tanganyika
1923, 1928 Nigerian National Democrat Party won elections.
1923-25 Governor Merlin cut education in Vietnam.
1923-28 Fascist Vecchi governed Italian Somaliland.
1923-38 Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) was president of Turkey.
1923-43 Italian Fascists occupied Tripolitania.
1924.1 Wafd Party won Egypt’s elections.
1924.2.11 Revival Party reformed Iran.
1924.2 British released Gandhi after appendicitis. India
1924.3.5 Hussein claimed the caliphate. Saudi Arabia
1924.3 Mangals and Jajis rebelled against Afghanistan.
1924.3 Iraq Assembly began meeting.
1924.3.31 Tafari decreed emancipation of slaves. Haile Selassie
1924.4.9 Tafari decreed weapons control. Haile Selassie
1924.4 Northern Rhodesia became a Crown colony.
1924.5 GCBA stopped paying taxes in Burma.
1924.5 China and Soviet Union made concessions. China
1924.5 Sun Yatsen appointed Jiang on Huangpu.
1924 Turkish Women’s Union was founded. Turkey Republic
1924 Halide Edib published Shirt of Fire.
1924 British ended subsidies to Arab leaders. Saudi Arabia
1924 Karnou began preaching nonviolent resistance. French West Africa
1924 Sierra Leone got a new constitution.
1924 Kikuyu Central Association (KCA) was formed. Kenya
1924 Belgium accepted mandate for Rwanda-Urundi.
1924 Bhagavan Das finished Science of the Emotions.
1924 Tagore lectured in China.
1924 Jinnah revived the All-India Muslim League. India
1924 Warlords battled in northern China.
1924 Sun Yatsen lectured on three principles.
1924 Lu Xun published a book on Chinese fiction.
1924 League of Korean Labor and Agriculture formed.
1924 US excluded Japanese immigrants. Hawaii
1924.8 U Ottama got 3 years for sedition in Burma.
1924.9 Muslims killed 36 Hindus at Kohat. India
1924.10.3 Hussein abdicated and went into exile. Saudi Arabia
1924.11.9 Progressive Republican Party founded in Turkey.
1924-27 65,000 Poles emigrated to Palestine.
1925.2 Tunisia arrested CGTT union leaders.
1925.3 King Fu’ad dissolved Egyptian parliament.
1925.3.12 Sun Yatsen died of liver cancer.
1925.3.15 Japan arrested 1,568 radicals.
1925.3 Sierra Leone Aborigines Society formed.
1925.4 Jabotinsky founded Revisionist Party. Palestine
1925.5.30 Police fired on Shanghai students. May 30th Movement
1925.6 Iraq held first general elections.
1925.6 Shahbandar founded People’s Party in Syria.
1925.6 Hebrew University began in Jerusalem. Palestine
1925.6 Ho began Revolutionary Youth League. Vietnam
1925.6 160,000 went on strike in Shanghai. May 30th Movement
1925 Iran enacted criminal and commercial codes.
1925 Buber helped found Brit Shalom. Zionism
1925 Firestone Rubber Company leased Liberian land.
1925 Wage Act protected white workers. South Africa
1925 Kandyan National Assembly was founded. Ceylon
1925 People’s Party won 45 seats in Burma.
1925 Russians sent weapons to Feng Yuxiang. May 30th Movement
1925 Kim Ku replaced Rhee as provisional president. Korea
1925 Japan greatly increased those eligible to vote.
1925 Japan rejected germ warfare Geneva Protocol.
1925.7.1 Wang Jingwei was president in Guangzhou. May 30th Movement
1925.8 New Zealand began Radio Broadcasting Co.
1925.8.20 Guangdong governor Liao Zhongkai was killed. May 30th Movement
1925.12 Iran Assembly made Reza Shah king.
1925.12 Swarajya members walked out of Councils. India
1925.12 Japan jailed students for dangerous thoughts.
1925-26 Druze led Great Revolt in Lebanon and Syria.
1925-26 Siam improved its treaties.
1925-27 Socialist Varenne governed Vietnam.
1925-31 Cameron governed Tanganyika for British.
1925-31 Edward Grigg governed Kenya for the British.
1925-32 King Prajadhipok ruled Siam. Siam
1925-33 Le Van Trung led Cao Dai religion. Vietnam
1925-37 Inonü was prime minister of Turkey.
1925-40 Phan Boi Chau was under house arrest. Vietnam
1925-41 Reza Shah Pahlavi ruled Iran.
1925-44 Katznelson edited Davar newspaper. Palestine
1926.1.1 Turkey adopted European calendar and time.
1926.1.8 Ibn Saud became king of the Hijaz.
1926.2 Gambia Representative Committee began.
1926.2 ANC condemned segregation, began boycott.
1926.3 Phan Chu Trinh’s funeral lasted a week. Vietnam
1926.3 Jiang declared martial law in Guangzhou. May 30th Movement
1926.3.18 47 students were killed in Beijing. May 30th Movement Lu Xun
1926.4 Hindu-Muslim riots killed 44 in Calcutta. India
1926.4 Peasant Movement held first national congress. Nationalist
1926.5-10 Mao Zedong lectured on the peasant movement.
1926 Kurdish rebellion began on Mount Ararat. Turkey Republic
1926 Prempeh became Kumasihene. Gold Coast Colony
1926 Ethiopia began 6% education tax on trade.
1926 Portugal imposed censorship on colonies.
1926 Smuts published Holism and Evolution. South Africa
1926 All-India Women’s Conference began. India
1926 Huynh began Voice of the People in Annam. Vietnam
1926 Indonesia imprisoned 4,500 Communists.
1926 Lu Xun published a collection of stories.
1926 Han Yong-un published The Silence of Love. Korea
1926.7 Jiang began Nationalist northern expedition. May 30th Movement
1926.10.10 Jiang’s Nationalist army entered Wuchang. May 30th Movement
1926.12 A Muslim assassinated Swami Shraddhananda. India
1926.12 Spratt revived India’s Communist party. India
1926-31 Viceroy Irwin governed British India. Civil Disobedience
1927.1.1 Guomindang moved from Guangzhou to Wuhan. Nationalist
1927.1 Chinese broke into Hankou foreign concessions. Nationalist
1927.1 Hunan peasant unions had 1,300,000 members. Nationalist
1927.1 Provincial Federation of Unions held congresses. Nationalist
1927.2 Congress of Oppressed Nationalities met. India
1927.2 Pridi and Phibun founded the People’s Party. Siam
1927.2.10 League Against Imperialism began at Brussels. Nationalist
1927.2.15 Communists and nationalists formed Sin’ganhoe. Korea
1927.2.16 Lu Xun spoke in Hong Kong on “Silent China.”
1927.2.19 O’Malley-Chen Agreement made on Shanghai. Nationalist
1927.3.11 General Labor Union (GLU) leader was executed. Nationalist
1927.3.14 Shanghai fleet went over to the Guomindang. Nationalist
1927.3 Mao wrote on Hunan peasant movement. Communism
1927.3.18 Shanghai GLU fought Zhang Zongchang. Nationalist
1927.3.19 Samoan League (Mau) was formed.
1927.3.23 Jiang’s Nationalist troops occupied Nanjing.
1927.3.24 Thousands of Vietnamese were imprisoned.
1927.3.24 Nationalist army ended strike in Shanghai.
1927.3.28 Guomindang (GMD) expelled Communists. Nationalist
1927.4.3 Jiang appointed Wang Jingwei in Shanghai.
1927.4.9 Jiang declared martial law in Nanjing.
1927.4.12 Green Gang attacked unions in Shanghai. Nationalist
1927.4 Iran abolished foreign capitulations.
1927.4 Secret Moroccon League began.
1927.4 Zhang Zuolin killed 19 CCP in Russian embassy. Nationalist
1927.4 Jiang’s army arrested and killed Communists.
1927.4.15 GLU was banned and ended strike in Shanghai. Nationalist
1927.4.17 Wuhan government dismissed Jiang.
1927.4.18 Jiang formed Nationalist government in Nanjing.
1927.5.9 Canberra became Australia’s capital.
1927.5 Mao led attack on towns near Changsha. Nationalist
1927.5 Hubei peasant movement claimed 2.4 million. Communism
1927.5.18 Xia’s army fought Communists in Wuhan. Nationalist
1927.5.21 Xu’s Changsha garrison raided leftists. Nationalist Communism
1927.6.1 Stalin ordered CCP to take over Guomindang. Communism
1927.6.2 Jiang’s forces took Xuzhou.
1927.6 Feng Yuxiang accepted subsidy from Nanjing. Nationalist
1927.6.24 Mao Zedong led CCP in Hunan. Communism
1927 Delegates formed the United Kibbutz. Palestine
1927 Histadrut began Palestine Labor Confederation. Palestine
1927 Taha Haddad published Tunisian Workers.
1927 Senghor was at League Against Imperialism. French West Africa
1927 Solanke published United West Africa. Gold Coast Colony
1927 Guggisberg founded Achimota College. Gold Coast Colony
1927 Gold Coast elected municipal councils.
1927 League Against Imperialism was founded. Gambia
1927 Gambia made slavery illegal.
1927 André Gide published Voyage au Congo. French Congo
1927 ANC began protesting pass laws.
1927 Goonesinha began Ceylon Trade Union Congress.
1927 Malaya ended immigration of Japanese women.
1927 Malay became the Indonesian language.
1927 Australian Council of Trade Unions began.
1927.7.4 Sukarno founded Nationalist party (PNI). Indonesia
1927.7 Communists resigned from the Guomindang.
1927.7 Warlord Sun Chuanfang defeated Jiang’s army.
1927.7.15 Wang Jingwei expelled Communists from GMD. Nationalist
1927.8.1 Zhou Enlai led Nanchang revolt. Nationalist
1927.8 20,000 Communists in Jiangxi were defeated. Nationalist
1927.8 Li Zongren and Bai Chongxi forced out Jiang.
1927.10 Jiang went to Japan, took a second wife.
1927.10 Mao led a peasant revolt in Hunan. Nationalist
1927.11.5 Jiang met with Japan’s prime minister Tanaka.
1927.11 Simon Commission excluded Indians. India
1927.12.10 Wang Jingwei accepted Jiang and resigned.
1927.12 Communist revolt in Guangzhou failed. Nationalist
1927.12 Vietnam National Party was founded in Tonkin.
1927, 1929 Gandhi published his Autobiography. India
1927-29 Tanaka was Japan’s prime minister.
1927-41 Sisowath Monivong was king of Cambodia.
1927-53 Muhammad V was sultan of Morocco.
1928.1.1 Knesset Israel began representing Jews. Palestine
1928.1 Hirohito was ceremoniously enthroned. Japan
1928.2 Simon Commission was met with protests. India
1928.2 Jiang reorganized the Nationalist government.
1928.2.20 12,409,078 men voted in Japan.
1928.4 Mao & Zhu set up Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet base. Communism
1928.4.18 Japan sent 5,000 troops to Shandong. Nationalist
1928.5.11 Japan’s forces defeated Chinese at Jinan. Nationalist
1928.5.18 Tanaka let Zhang Zuolin go to Manchuria. Nationalist
1928.6.4 Japanese killed Zhang Zuolin near Mukden. Nationalist
1928.6.8 Nationalists let Yan Xishan occupy Beijing.
1928 Güntekin published The Green Night.
1928 National Bank of Iran was established.
1928 Afghanistan’s Amanullah visited Europe.
1928 KCA elected Jomo Kenyatta general secretary. Kenya
1928 Patel led a nonviolent campaign in Bardoli. India
1928 Strike closed Bombay textile mills. India
1928 Congress of Indonesian Women began.
1928 Sukarno and PPPKI demanded independence. Indonesia
1928 China made treaties with 5 European nations. Nationalist
1928 Nelson published The Truth About Samoa. Samoa
1928 Mead published Coming of Age in Samoa. Samoa
1928.7 CCP congress met in Moscow under Li Lisan. Communism
1928.7.25 US signed tariff treaty with T. V. Soong. Nationalist
1928.8.2 Tafari signed a friendship treaty with Italy. Haile Selassie
1928.8 Conference accepted Nehru’s constitution. India
1928.8 Nehru began Independence for India League.
1928.8 Japan signed Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawing war.
1928.10.3 Nationalists adopted a provisional constitution.
1928.10.6 Ethiopia’s Zewditu made Tafari her heir. Haile Selassie
1928-29 Bacha-i-Saqao led revolt in Afghanistan.
1928-29 Famine in Belgian Congo killed 300,000.
1928-32 Mubarak al-Mili wrote History of Algeria.
1928-33 T. V. Soong was Nationalist Finance minister. Nationalist
1928-34 Pasquier governed Vietnam for the rich.
1928-39 U Ottama was in prison until he died. Burma
1929.1.1 Turkey adopted Roman alphabet.
1929.1.1 China abrogated all unequal treaties. Nationalist
1929.1.10 Zhang Xueliang had 2 former advisers shot. Nationalist Japan
1929.3 GMD congress was mostly appointed. Nationalist
1929.3.20 India government arrested 31 Communists.
1929.4.8 Revolutionaries bombed the Lahore Assembly. India
1929.5 Iran arrested 500 striking oil workers.
1929.5 E. F. Small organized Bathurst Trade Union. Gambia
1929.5 Civil war led to Amanullah’s abdication. India
1929.5 Women’s News began in Saigon. Vietnam
1929.5 Feng Yuxiang lost his army to bribes. Nationalist
1929 Dr. Danquah organized Gold Coast Youth.
1929 Young People’s Progressive Union began. Sierra Leone
1929 Tanganyika African Association was formed.
1929 Tanganyika authorized native courts.
1929 French arrested and deported André Matswa.
1929 Nationalists won election in South Africa.
1929 Krishnamurti disbanded the Order of the Star.
1929 500,000 workers were on strike in India.
1929 Trade Union Congress affiliated with Moscow. India
1929 Damkoeng wrote the novel Circus of Life. Siam
1929 Wichit wrote Universal History about Thais. Siam
1929 Tran Trong Kim published Confucianism. Vietnam
1929 Indonesian sugar industry collapsed.
1929 Australia abolished compulsory military service.
1929 Mao Dun published his novel Rainbow.
1929 Ba Jin published his novel Destruction.
1929.7 Bathurst Ratepayers’ Association began. Gambia
1929.10 Labor party won Australia’s elections.
1929.10 27 generals rebelled against Jiang. Nationalist
1929.11 Kwangju student movement began. Korea
1929.12 Jiang defeated rebellion in Henan and Hebei. Nationalist
1929.12 Mao Zedong began rectification campaigns. Communism
1929.12.28 Police killed Tupua Tamasese and 10 Samoans.
1929.12.29 Dutch imprisoned Sukarno and PNI leaders. Indonesia
1929, 1932 Qashqa’is rebelled against Iran.
1929-30 Census provoked Ibo Women’s War. Nigeria
1929-33 Nadir Khan was king of Afghanistan.
1930.1.26 India declared its independence.
1930.2 League of Leftist Writers began. Communism Lu Xun
1930.2 Mao appointed Liu Shaoqi to expel dissidents. Communism
1930.3.2 Gandhi wrote letter warning Viceroy Irwin. India
1930.3.12 Gandhi began the salt march. India
1930.3 New Zealand sent marines to Samoa.
1930.3.31 Ethiopia’s army quelled Gugsa’s rebellion.
1930.4.6 60,000 Indians were arrested for making salt.
1930.4.10 Gandhi asked women to picket. India
1930.4 Haile Selassie became emperor of Ethiopia.
1930.4.18 Revolutionaries used force in Chittagong. India
1930.4.23 Abdul Ghaffar Khan led Peshawar protest. India
1930.4.27 British passed Emergency Ordinance. India
1930.5.4 British arrested Gandhi. India
1930.5 Civil war began among Nationalists.
1930.5 Many Indians died during a Rangoon strike. Burma
1930.6.7 Simon Commission Report was published. India
1930.6.12 Madeleine Slade reported police brutality. India
1930.6 Kurds rebelled against Iran.
1930.6.17 French executed 439 Vietnamese without trials.
1930 I. W. Johnson organized African Workers Union. Nigeria
1930 Angola’s taxes on Africans doubled.
1930 Tagore published The Religion of Man.
1930 Chinese founded the Malayan Communist Party.
1930 Malaya closed brothels.
1930 Ho founded Indochinese Communist Party. Laos Vietnam
1930 Palmer wrote Men Are Human and The Passage. Australia
1930 30 Japanese universities passed 15,000 students.
1930 Japan recognized Jiang’s Nationalist government.
1930 Dionisio founded Tangulan secret society. Philippines
1930.7 Mao and Zhu De were defeated at Nanchang. Communism
1930.7.27 Peng Dehuai captured Changsha for 9 days. Communism
1930.8.25 Communist Party of the Philippines began.
1930.9.12 French aerial bombing of Vinh killed 157 people. Vietnam
1930.9 Nationalists banned left-wing groups.
1930.10 Communists took over abandoned Jian.
1930.10 Jiang was baptized as a Christian. Nationalist
1930.11.12 Round Table Conference began in London. India
1930.12 Iqbal proposed a state for Indian Muslims. India
1930.12 Li Shaojiu used torture to get names. Communism
1930.12.29 Zhu De’s army defeated 100,000 Nationalists. Communism
1930-34 Gambia’s Governor Palmer opposed elections.
1930-36 Yi Kiyong wrote novels about peasants. Korea
1930-39 Leon Cayla governed Madagascar for France.
1930-44 Edwin James Barclay was president of Liberia.
1931.1.19 MacDonald announced recommendations. India
1931.2.7 Police killed 24 leftist writers. Communism Lu Xun
1931.2.27 Police killed revolutionary Chandrasekhar. India
1931.3.5 Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed at Delhi. India
1931.3 Patriotic Brotherhood Party formed in Iraq.
1931.3 Pearl Buck published her novel The Good Earth.
1931.3.23 166 died in Kanpur riot. India
1931.3.23 3 Lahore conspirators were executed. India
1931.4.1 Carter Commission land law favored whites. Rhodesia
1931.5 Communists fought 200,000 Nationalists.
1931.5 Wang Jingwei led government in Guangzhou. Nationalist
1931 Turkey adopted European measurements.
1931 Revisionist youths formed Irgun A’vai Le’umi. Palestine
1931 Kitawala Watchtower led Elisabethville boycott. Belgian Congo
1931 Pende rebelled in Kwango and were suppressed. Belgian Congo
1931 Ceylon constitution gave women the vote.
1931 French soldiers crushed revolution in Vietnam.
1931 CCP executed 4,000 democrats in north Fujian. Communism
1931 Nationalists abolished the transit tax.
1931 Jiang sponsored fascist Blue Shirts. Nationalist
1931 Yangzi flood caused 14 million refugees. Nationalist
1931 Shen Congwen wrote Remembering Hu Yepin.
1931 Korean Independence Party formed.
1931.7.1 Haile Selassie started the Bank of Ethiopia.
1931.7 CCP executed 400 men in 20th Army. Communism
1931.7 Jiang led 300,000 men against Communists. Nationalist
1931.7.16 Ethiopia adopted constitution based on Japan’s.
1931.9.15 Zhang Xueliang moved troops south. Nationalist
1931.9.18 Japanese attacked Mukden. Nationalist
1931.9.21 Japanese invaded Manchuria from Korea. Nationalist
1931.9.23 League of Nations asked for cease-fire. Nationalist Japan
1931.9-11 Gandhi conferred in London. India
1931.10 League told Japan to leave Manchuria. Nationalist
1931.10.31 Afghanistan adopted a constitution.
1931.11.3 Ethiopia’s first parliament met.
1931.11.7 Chinese Soviet Republic began under Mao. Communism
1931.12.10 League sent Lytton commission to Manchuria. Nationalist
1931.12.13 Inukai became Japan’s prime minister.
1931.12 Nehru led no-rent campaign in United Provinces. India
1931.12 United Australia party won elections.
1931-32 Burman troops killed 3,000 rebels.
1931-34 Haidara led peasants revolt in Sierra Leone.
1931-35 Donald Cameron governed Nigeria for British.
1931-36 Viceroy Willingdon governed British India.
1931-37 Burma divided over separation from India.
1931-47 Malaya restricted immigration.
1932.1.4 Moderates won elections in Syria.
1932.1.4 Gandhi was arrested, imprisoned without a trial. India
1932.1 Zhou Enlai replaced Mao Zedong. Communism
1932.1.28 Japanese deployed in Shanghai. Nationalist
1932.1.29 Japanese navy bombed Chapei. Nationalist
1932.2.20 Inukai’s Seiyukai party won elections. Japan
1932.3 Ding Ling joined the Communist Party.
1932.3 Puyi became head of Manzhouguo. Nationalist Japan
1932.4 CCP declared war on Japan. Communism
1932.4.20 Mao Zedong led capture of Zhangzhou. Communism
1932.5.12 Ethiopia’s army subdued Abba Jifar II of Jima.
1932.5.15 Naval officers assassinated Inukai. Japan
1932.5 Armistice set up neutral zone around Shanghai. Nationalist
1932.6.24 Pridi’s People’s Party took over Siam.
1932 Karaosmanoglu wrote The Alien (Yaban).
1932 University of Kabul was founded. Afghanistan
1932 Al-Madani published Book of Algeria.
1932 Haile Selassie bought weapons for Ethiopia.
1932 Das wrote The Essential Unity of All Religions.
1932 Iqbal wrote The Song of Eternity.
1932 Dai Li took over Zhejiang Police Academy. Nationalist
1932 Nationalists executed 24,000 urban Communists.
1932 Japanese planes destroyed Commercial Press. Lao She
1932 Korean Provisional Gov’t moved to Nanjing.
1932 Japan registered 11,118 periodicals.
1932.7 Turkey joined the League of Nations.
1932.9 Gandhi fasted for Harijans’ rights. India
1932.9.15 Japan promised to defend Manzhouguo.
1932.10.3 League of Nations admitted Iraq.
1932.10.10 Japan arrested 2,200 dangerous thinkers.
1932.10 Lytton report criticized Japan in Manchuria. Nationalist
1932.11.17 Congress boycotted London conference. India
1932.12 Palestinians formed a Youth Congress.
1932, 1935 Hutu tax revolts were crushed. Belgian Congo
1932-39 275,000 German Jews emigrated to Palestine.
1932-46 Juddha Shamsher ruled Nepal.
1932-70 Sultan Said ben Taimur ruled Oman. Persian Gulf
1933.1 Lu Xun joined civil rights alliance.
1933.2 Mao headed Land Investigation Movement. Communism
1933.2 League of Nations rejected Manzhouguo. Nationalist Japan
1933.2.20 Police tortured writer Kobayashi to death. Japan
1933.3 Hertzog and Smuts formed coalition ministry. South Africa
1933.3.27 Japan withdrew from the League of Nations. Nationalist
1933.5.4 Ding Ling was arrested in Nanjing.
1933.5.8 Fasting Gandhi was released from prison. India
1933.5 Japanese invaded northern Hebei. Nationalist
1933.5.31 Tanggu Truce made demilitarized zone in Hebei. Japan
1933.6 Siam’s military rejected Pridi’s economic plan.
1933 Turkey adopted 5-year economic plan.
1933 Ibn Saud gave SOCAL a lease to drill oil.
1933 Nigeria deported Isaac Wallace Johnson.
1933 Nnamdi Azikiwe edited African Morning Post. Nigeria
1933 Rahmat founded Pakistan National movement. India
1933 India, Ceylon, Indonesia limited tea exports.
1933 Red Army reached 500,000. Communism
1933 Lao She published his novel Cat Country.
1933 Mao Dun published his novel Midnight.
1933 Ba Jin published his novel The Family.
1933.8 Gandhi was arrested, fasted, and was released. India
1933.10 People’s Party put down military coup in Siam.
1933.11 People’s Party won elections in Siam.
1933.11 Cai Tingkai’s Fujian lasted 2 months. Nationalist
1933-35 Yu Ch’i-jin wrote plays about colonial Korea.
1933-38 Ho Chih Minh studied and taught in Moscow. Vietnam
1933-42 Sukarno was exiled. Indonesia
1933-46 P. M. Hashim Khan governed Afghanistan.
1933-53 Huggins was prime minister of South Rhodesia.
1933-73 Muhammad Zahir Shah was king of Afghanistan.
1934.3.1 Puyi was proclaimed Emperor Kangde. Nationalist Japan
1934.3 Neo-Dustur party emerged in Tunisia.
1934.5 All-India Congress cancelled civil disobedience.
1934 Iranian women gained more freedom.
1934 Afghanistan joined the League of Nations.
1934 Diouf won seat in French National Assembly. French West Africa
1934 Governor Thomas banned Negro Worker. Gold Coast Colony
1934 Iyo Ita organized Nigerian Youth Movement.
1934 Azikiwe published Liberia in World Politics.
1934 Verbeken began Ngonga newspaper for Africans. Belgian Congo
1934 Afrikaners formed Purified Nationalist Party. South Africa
1934 Communist party in India was banned.
1934 Tibetan ministers imprisoned Lungshan for life.
1934 Tibetan troops kept Chinese Communists away.
1934 Siam’s Press Act censored the press and radio.
1934 Jiang signed a secret treaty with Germany. Nationalist
1934 Jiang banned labor unions in 5 provinces. Nationalist
1934 Sheng Shicai took over Xinjiang. Nationalist
1934 Mao Zedong wrote Guerrilla War.
1934.7 Zhou Enlai proposed joining Jiang against Japan. Communism
1934.10.16 First Army began long march from Jiangxi. Communism
1934.12 Mussolini accused Ethiopia of aggression.
1934.12.2 Palestinians formed National Defense Party.
1934.12.4 Women voted in Turkey’s elections.
1934-38 Nations restricted rubber production. Ceylon Malaya Indonesia
1934-38 John A. Lee wrote on labor and socialism. New Zealand
1934-39 Wichit wrote self-help books & patriotic plays. Siam
1934-41 Arnold Hodson governed Gold Coast colony.
1935.1 Mao became chairman of Military Council. Communism
1935.2.19 Kikuchi accused Minobe of blasphemy. Japan
1935.3 Husaynis founded Palestine Arab Party.
1935.3.2 Siam’s King Prajadhipok abdicated.
1935.4.6 Japan banned Minobe’s writings.
1935.5.14 Philippines ratified a constitution.
1935.5 Iraqi Communist Party was founded.
1935.6 90,000 marching Communists met in Sichuan.
1935 Gueye founded socialist party in Senegal. French West Africa
1935 Somali National League was formed.
1935 Pan-Angolan Evangelical Alliance began.
1935 Government of Burma Act passed.
1935 Trotskyists won Saigon council elections. Vietnam
1935 Australia imposed trade sanctions against Italy.
1935 Dai Li had 1,700 secret operatives. Nationalist
1935.8 England passed the Government of India Act.
1935.10.7 League Nations declared Italy the aggressor. Ethiopia
1935.10.11 Gugsa of Tigray defected to Italians. Ethiopia
1935.10 Italian forces invaded Ethiopia.
1935.10.20 Long march ended in Wuqizhen, Shaanxi. Communism
1935.11.12 2nd Army began long march from Hunan-Hubei. Communism
1935.11 Jiang nationalized silver & issued paper money. Nationalist
1935.12.9 Beijing students were arrested. Nationalist
1935.12 Red Army opposed Japan and Jiang. Communism
1935-38 New Zealand’s Labour party made reforms.
1935-44 Quezon was Philippines President.
1936.1.10 Thousands of Ethiopians fled and were killed.
1936.1 Zhang Xueliang and Mao agreed on cease-fire. Communism
1936.1.27 Nationalists began general strike in Syria.
1936.2 CCP attacked Japanese in Hebei and Rehe. Communism
1936.2 Liu Shaoqi began National Student Vanguard. Communism
1936.2.20 Democratic Minseito party gained seats. Japan
1936.2.26 Ultranationalists fomented a mutiny and coup. Japan
1936.2.29 Japan’s army defeated the coup attempt.
1936.3 Mao proposed truce with Nationalists. Communism
1936.4.4 Italians bombed Ethiopia with gas.
1936.4.9 Premchand spoke at a writers’ conference.
1936.4 Faruq became king of Egypt.
1936.4 Jiang attacked a Soviet during negotiation. Communism
1936.4.25 Mufti Hajj Amin formed Arab Higher Committee. Palestine
1936.5 Haile Selassie fled from Ethiopia to England.
1936.6 Guangdong and Guangxi challenged Nationalists.
1936.6.30 Haile Selassie spoke to League of Nations.
1936 Algerian Communist Party was founded.
1936 Joyce Cary published novel, The African Witch. Nigeria
1936 Kenya imposed income tax on Europeans.
1936 Native Registration Act began in South Rhodesia.
1936 Aung San led student strike in Rangoon. Burma
1936 Nagara Vatta was first Khmer newspaper. Cambodia
1936 Bathurst Young Muslims Society began. Gambia
1936.7.16 Mao predicted Japanese would invade SE Asia. Communism
1936.10 Japanese forces invaded Suiyuan. Nationalist
1936.10.19 Writer Lu Xun died of tuberculosis.
1936.11 Nationalists won elections in Syria.
1936.11.25 Japan signed Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany.
1936.12.12 Zhang Xueliang’s guards captured Jiang. Nationalist
1936.12.25 Jiang promised not to attack Communists. Nationalist
1936-39 Liberal Jules Brevié governed Vietnam.
1936-43 Nogues governed Morocco for France.
1936-43 Viceroy Linlithgow governed India. India during World War II
1937.1 Algerian government banned ENA.
1937.2.19 GMD & CCP formed a united front against Japan. Nationalist
1937.3.11 Unions became legal in French West Africa.
1937.3 AICC voted to accept offices. India
1937.5.21 Italians killed 297 monks in Shoa. Ethiopia
1937 Egypt removed foreign judges.
1937 Azikiwe began publishing West African Pilot. Nigeria
1937 Sierra Leone gave chiefs administrative power.
1937 Italians killed thousands in Addis Ababa. Ethiopia
1937 Native Laws Act intensified segregation. South Africa
1937 Australia stopped selling iron to Japan.
1937 Lao She published his novel Rickshaw Boy.
1937 Filipino women gained the right to vote. Philippines
1937.7.7 Marco Polo Bridge incident led to war. China Japan
1937.7.8 4 nations signed Sa‘adabad Pact. Turkey Iran Afghanistan Iraq
1937.8.13 Japanese and Chinese fought in Shanghai.
1937.8 Mao Zedong wrote “On Practice.”
1937.9 CCP agreed to cooperate with the Nationalists. China
1937.10 All-India National Education Conference met.
1937.10.29 Morocco arrested 650 at Qarawiyin.
1937.11.9 Japanese captured Taiyuan. China
1937.11.11 Chinese began retreating from Shanghai. Japan
1937.12.8 Jiang moved his capital to Chongqing. China
1937.12.12 Japanese army began raping Nanjing. China
1937.12.14 Japanese set up a government in Beijing.
1937.12.30 Philippines made Tagalog its official language.
1937-44 Caldecott governed Ceylon under a constitution.
1937-45 14 million Chinese men were drafted. China
1937-46 Ryckmans governed Belgian Congo.
1938.1.22 Jiang and Yan Xishan approved a CCP base. China
1938.2.18 Indian Congress elected Subhas Bose president.
1938.4.9 10,000 attended Neo-Dustur rally in Tunis.
1938.5 Mao Zedong wrote “On Protracted War.” China
1938.5.19 Chinese gave up Xuzhou to the Japanese.
1938 British renounced privileges in Morocco.
1938 Nigerian Youth Movement won elections.
1938 Kenyatta published Facing Mount Kenya.
1938 Leftists formed the Young Malaya Union.
1938.7.26 Rangoon mass meeting became a riot. Burma
1938.7.29 Japanese troops attacked USSR.
1938.8.11 Japan and USSR made a truce.
1938.10.21 Japanese troops took Guangzhou. China
1938.10.25 Japanese troops captured Wuhan. China
1938.12.2 Chinese opened the Burma Road.
1938.12.2 Hirohito approved “Burn all; kill all; steal all.” Japan
1938.12.26 Phibun became prime minister of Siam.
1938-50 Inonü was president of Turkey.
1939.1.23 Burma arrested Thakin leaders.
1939.3 CCP began governing Shaan-Gan-Ning. Japanese Occupation
1939.5.11 Guandong Army invaded Outer Mongolia. Japan
1939.5 Huynh Phu So founded Hoa Hao religion. Vietnam
1939.5 Japan began bombing Chongqing. Japan
1939.6 Siam became Thailand.
1939 Iran took over religious property.
1939 Cary published novel, Mister Johnson. Nigeria
1939 SLYL organized Mabella Works strike. Sierra Leone
1939 Kenya Teacher Training College began.
1939 Shridharani published War Without Violence. India
1939 Freedom Bloc demanded an assembly in Burma.
1939 Vietnam’s army increased to 100,000.
1939 John Mulgan published his novel Man Alone. New Zealand
1939 Pearl Buck published her novel The Patriot.
1939 Japanese occupied Guangxi and Jiangxi.
1939.7 US stopped selling oil and iron to Japan.
1939.7 Liu Shaoqi taught Communism at Yan’an. Japanese Occupation
1939.8 Hindus and Muslims fought over Sukkur mosque. India
1939.8 Zhukov’s army defeated Japanese in Mongolia. Japan
1939.9.3 Australia went to war against Germany.
1939.9.9 Italian planes bombed Tel Aviv. Palestine
1939.9 Trans-Jordan declared war on Germany.
1939.9 Indian Congress refused to support British war.
1939.9 Muslim League cooperated with British war. India
1939.9 Burma Revolutionary Party published program.
1939.9 GAPI demanded an Indonesian parliament.
1939.9.15 Japan and USSR signed a truce.
1939.9.26 French outlawed Communists in Vietnam.
1939.10 Mao began The Communist newspaper. Japanese Occupation
1939.10.19 Turkey agreed on aid with Britain and France.
1939-41 Fitzpatrick wrote on British imperialism. Australia
1939-44 British interned Isaac Wallace Johnson. Sierra Leone
1939-45 Turkey did not fight in World War II.
1939-45 Afghanistan was neutral in World War II.
1940.1 Mao published On New Democracy. Japanese Occupation
1940.1.30 Japan inaugurated government in Nanjing.
1940.2.22 14th Dalai Lama was enthroned in Tibet.
1940.3 Muslim League favored independent states. India
1940.5.10 Dutch declared martial law in Indonesia.
1940.6.14 Franco’s forces took over Tangier. Morocco
1940 Bombay strike led to 480 Communist arrests. India
1940 Nehru published Toward Freedom. India
1940 US sent 100 P-40 fighters to China. Japanese Occupation
1940.7.2 British arrested Subhas Bose. India
1940.7.12 British declared Haile Selassie an ally.
1940.7.16 Government closed Burma Road to stop arms.
1940.8-12 Communists attacked Japanese in north China. Japanese Occupation
1940.9.19 Free French took control of New Caledonia. Melanesia
1940.9.27 Japan, Germany and Italy signed Tripartite Pact.
1940.10.12 Premier Konoe began fascist IRAA. Japan
1940.10 Italian planes bombed Bahrain oil fields. Saudi Arabia
1940.10.17 Indian Congress began civil disobedience.
1940.11.30 Japan and Wang Jingwei signed Basic Treaty.
1940-44 Wang Jingwei helped Japan govern China. Japanese Occupation
1940-45 Vichy French ruled Indochina. Cambodia Laos Vietnam
1940-47 Bettencourt governed Mozambique.
1941.1.7 Nationalists attacked Communist troops. Japanese Occupation
1941.1 Japan helped Thailand defeat Indochina.
1941.1 Thailand invaded French Cambodia.
1941.1.17 Subhas Bose escaped and went to Moscow. India
1941.3. United States extended Lend-Lease to Australia.
1941.3 Federation of Democratic Parties began in China. Japanese Occupation
1941.3.28 Subhas Bose met Ribbentrop in Berlin. India
1941.4.13 Japan and USSR signed a neutrality pact.
1941.4 USSR stopped loaning money to China. Japanese Occupation
1941.5.5 Haile Selassie went to Addis Ababa.
1941.5.9 Tokyo treaty gave Laos land to Thailand. Vietnam
1941.5 Ho Chih Minh formed the Viet Minh. Vietnam
1941.5 Indian Congress had 14,000 in prison.
1941.6.8 British army invaded Syria.
1941.6 Communist Party of India (CPI) backed the war.
1941 Iran refused to expel German nationals.
1941 Cary wrote The Case for African Freedom. Nigeria
1941 British liberated Somalis from Italian Fascists.
1941 British took over Eritrea from Italian Fascists.
1941 University of Batavia was founded. Indonesia
1941 Communists held elections in the Yan’an zone. Japanese Occupation
1941 Syngman Rhee published Japan Inside Out. Korea
1941.7 Japan occupied most of Vietnam.
1941.7 Liu Shaoqi lectured “On Inner-Party Struggle.” Japanese Occupation
1941.7.24 Japan’s army occupied Saigon.
1941.7.26 Roosevelt combined US and Philippine forces.
1941.7.26 Roosevelt froze Japanese assets in US banks. Japan
1941.8.1 US embargoed oil, gas and metals from Japan.
1941.8 Chinese imprisoned Ho Chih Minh for a year. Vietnam
1941.8.25 British and Soviets invaded and occupied Iran.
1941.10.4 Sorge told Moscow that Japan was going south.
1941.10 Tuda Party formed in Iran.
1941.10.16 Premier Konoe opposed war and resigned. Japan
1941.11.9 Japanese took over Indochinese businesses. Vietnam
1941.11 American-Japanese negotiations failed.
1941.12.3 Viceroy Linlithgow released political prisoners. India
1941.12.7 Japanese planes attacked Pearl Harbor. Hawaii
1941.12.8 Japan invaded Malaya.
1941.12.8 Japan invaded Thailand.
1941.12.8 Japan attacked Malaya and Hong Kong.
1941.12.8 Japan invaded the Philippines.
1941.12.9 Australia declared war on Japan.
1941.12.11 Japanese forces took Guam from US. Micronesia
1941.12 Miners went on strike in Katanga. Belgian Congo
1941.12 Japan invaded Burma.
1941.12 Japan invaded Cambodia.
1941.12.16 Japanese troops invaded British Borneo.
1941.12.22 Japan invaded Luzon.
1941.12.25 British surrendered Hong Kong to Japanese.
1941.12.25 Japan invaded Borneo. Malaya Invaded
1941-44 Nuri al-Sa’id was prime minister of Iraq again.
1941-44 Eboué governed French Equatorial Africa.
1941-44 Tojo Hideki was Japan’s prime minister.
1941-45 Curtin led Australia’s Labor government.
1941-53 Norodom Sihanouk was king of Cambodia.
1942.1.2 Japanese forces captured Manila. Philippines
1942.1.10 Japan invaded Tarakan and Palembang. Indonesia
1942.1 Pearl Buck published her novel Dragon Seed.
1942.1.25 Thailand declared war on the UK and US.
1942.1.29 Iran signed treaty with Britain and Soviet Union.
1942.1.31 British recognized Ethiopia’s sovereignty.
1942.2 British fought Japanese at Sittang River. Burma
1942.2 Mao began his Rectification Campaign. China
1942.2.14 Japanese paratroopers invaded Sumatra.
1942.2.15 Japanese forces captured Singapore. Malaya Australia
1942.2.15 Japan took Singapore and 85,000 prisoners.
1942.2.19 Japanese planes bombed Darwin. Australia
1942.3.8 Dutch surrendered to Japanese in Borneo.
1942.3.8 Japanese forces captured Rangoon.
1942.3.9 Dutch surrendered Java to the Japanese.
1942.3 Indian Independence League formed in Tokyo.
1942.3 Japanese invaded Java & interned Dutch. Indonesia Australia
1942.4.5 Japan's Navy bombed Colombo. Ceylon
1942.4.6 Japanese planes bombed India.
1942.4 Japanese disrupted Burma Road at Lashio. China
1942.4 Japanese forces took Bataan.
1942.4 Imperial candidates won Japanese elections.
1942.4.18 Col. Doolittle led bombing of Tokyo. Japan
1942.5.7 Corregidor fell to the Japanese.
1942.5 Mao Zedong lectured on literature and art.
1942.5 US and Japan fought in the Coral Sea.
1942.6.1 Japanese forces captured Mandalay.
1942.6 British imposed martial law in Sind. India
1942.6 US navy defeated Japanese at Midway.
1942 Sierra Leone had 12 registered unions.
1942 South Africa took over Madagascar from French.
1942 British suppressed the “Quit India” campaign.
1942 Indian National Army (INA) formed.
1942 University of Ceylon was founded.
1942 2 million died in famine in Henan. China
1942 500,000 Chinese soldiers defected to Japan. China
1942 Koreans were conscripted into Japan’s army.
1942.7.17 French arrested monk Hem Chieu in Cambodia.
1942.8.9 British arrested Gandhi, Azad, and others. India
1942.8 Military occupied Benares University. India
1942.8 Australians defeated Japanese at Milne Bay.
1942.8 Americans invaded Guadalcanal. Japan
1942.12.20 Japanese planes raided Calcutta. India
1942-45 Ba Maw governed Burma with the Japanese.
1942-45 Sukarno, Hatta and Sjahrir helped Japanese. Indonesia
1942-45 Hukbalahaps fought the Japanese. Philippines
1942-46 Gandhi’s Harijan was banned. India
1942-47 Alan Burns governed Gold Coast colony.
1943.1 Allied forces captured Tripoli.
1943.1 Free French took over Madagascar.
1943.1 Allies ended unequal treaties with China.
1943.1.16 Iraq declared war on Germany, Italy & Japan.
1943.2 Japanese evacuated Guadalcanal.
1943.3 Jiang published China’s Destiny. China
1943.5.13 Somali Youth Club began at Mogadishu.
1943.5-10 Ethiopia suppressed rebellion in Tigray.
1943.5 200,000+ Axis soldiers surrendered in Tunisia.
1943.6.1 General de Gaulle took over Algeria.
1943.6.13 Tojo promised Bose independence for India.
1943.6 MacArthur led US attack on New Guinea. Japan
1943 United States began aiding Iran.
1943 Communists organized GEC in West Africa.
1943 Indian armed forces had 2 million men.
1943 Japanese attacked the Hubei rice region. China
1943 Nationalists replaced Soviets in Xinjiang. China
1943 Japan lost 6,203 planes and 4,824 airmen. Japan
1943.7.4 Subhas Bose became leader of the INA. India
1943.7 Leftist Quwwatli won elections in Syria.
1943.8.1 Japan declared Burma independent.
1943.8.9 USA signed lend-lease treaty with Ethiopia.
1943.8 Japan ceded 4 Malay states to Thailand.
1943.8 Australian Labor Party won elections.
1943.9 Aung San named the Burma National Army.
1943.9 Lebanon’s Chamber elected Bishara president.
1943.10 Pearl Buck published her novel The Promise.
1943.10.23 Azad Hind’s Bose declared war on Britain & US. India
1943.11.1 China signed the Moscow Declaration.
1943.11.5 Tojo presided at Greater East Asia Conference. Japan
1943.11 Nimitz led US attacks on Gilbert Islands. Japan
1943.12 ANC published African Claims.
1943.12.20 Morrison Committee proposed a Jewish state. Palestine
1943-44 Japanese crushed Borneo uprisings. Malaya
1943-47 Viceroy Wavell governed British India. India Divided
1943-48 Arthur Richards governed Nigeria for British.
1943-48 Gerald Fisher governed Somalis progressively.
1943-52 Bishara al-Khuri was president of Lebanon.
1944.1.11 Moroccon nationalists declared independence.
1944.1 Ba Maw approved Azad Hind’s move to Rangoon. Burma
1944.1.21 Australia-New Zealand Pact was signed.
1944.2 Kananga garrison at Luluabourg mutinied. Belgian Congo
1944.2 US Marines invaded Marshall Islands. Japan Micronesia
1944.3 Japanese army invaded Manipur. India
1944.3 Japanese and Indians invaded Assam.
1944.5.5 British released Gandhi from prison. India
1944.5 INA with Japanese invaded India from Burma.
1944.6 US B-29s began bombing Japanese targets. China
1944.6 Henry Wallace visited Chongqing. China
1944.6.15 US Marines invaded Saipan. Japan Micronesia
1944 ANC began Youth League.
1944 Ho Chih Minh revived the Viet Minh. Vietnam
1944 Japanese forces invaded southern China.
1944.7.18 General Koiso replaced resigning Tojo. Japan
1944.7.24 Thai Assembly removed Phibun from power.
1944.7-8 US troops defeated Japanese on Guam. Micronesia
1944.10.12 US B-29s attacked Japan’s planes on Taiwan.
1944.10 Menzies formed the Liberal Party of Australia.
1944.10.19 Roosevelt recalled General Stilwell. China
1944.10.23 US-Japanese naval battle for Leyte Gulf began.
1944.10.23 Americans landed on Leyte. Philippines
1944.10.24 Roosevelt ended martial law in Hawaii.
1944.11 British Blue-Print for Burma was published.
1944.11 Gen. Hurley signed an agreement with Mao. China
1944.11 Qasimi proclaimed Eastern Turkestan Republic. China
1944.12 Jiang rejected an alliance with the Communists. China
1944.12.19 Ethiopia signed better treaty with British.
1944.12.22 Giap organized Vietnamese People’s Army.
1944-45 Lao Seri fought the Japanese. Laos
1944-45 2,400,000 died in Indonesian famine.
1944-45 Communist counter-offensive expanded. China
1944-46 Hamdi al-Pachachi was prime minister of Iraq.
1944-71 William Tubman was president of Liberia.
1945.2 Mountbatten sent weapons to Aung San. Burma
1945.2 Americans captured Manila. Japan Philippines
1945.3.1 Saudi Arabia declared war on Germany.
1945.3.8 Indian troops entered Mandalay.
1945.3.9 Japan took Indochina from the French. Cambodia Laos Vietnam
1945.3.9 US B-29s killed 90,000 people in Tokyo. Japan
1945.3.13 Sihanouk proclaimed Cambodia independent.
1945.3 Yemen joined the Arab League.
1945.3 Congress gained ministries in Assam and Sind. India
1945.3.16 US Marines secured Iwo Jima. Japan
1945.3.22 Arab League became effective. Syria Trans-Jordan
1945.3.27 Burma National Army attacked the Japanese.
1945.4.5 USSR cancelled neutrality pact with Japan.
1945.4 Guomindang congress met in Chongqing. China
1945.4 Jiang (Kai-shek) sent weapons to Tibet.
1945.4.29 British defeated Japanese at Pegu. Burma Invaded
1945.4-6 CCP held a national congress at Yan’an. China
1945.4-6 548,000 Americans invaded Okinawa. Japan
1945.5.1 AML organized marches in Algeria.
1945.5.1 Allies invaded eastern Borneo. Indonesia
1945.5.5 British and Indian forces entered Rangoon. India Burma
1945.5.6 French invaded Beirut. Lebanon
1945.5.18 British army captured INA in Rangoon. India Burma
1945.5.25 AFPFL called for new Burma constitution.
1945.6.1 Sukarno spoke about five principles. Indonesia
1945.6.2 Mountbatten announced amnesty for Burmans.
1945.6.14 Viceroy Wavell proposed Executive Council. India
1945.6.22 Hirohito authorized peace negotiation. Japan
1945 NCNC supported general strike in Nigeria.
1945 1,300,000 died of hunger in Vietnam.
1945 US increased its aid to China.
1945 Dai Li directed 50,000 spies in China. Japanese Occupation
1945 France granted Tahiti an elected Assembly.
1945 Ban on farm workers’ unions in Hawaii ended.
1945.7.4 MacArthur proclaimed the Philippines liberated. Philippines
1945.7 Filipino workers began Democratic Alliance. Philippines
1945.7.26 Allies’ Potsdam Declaration warned Japanese.
1945.7.28 Premier Suzuki ignored Potsdam offer. Japan
1945.8.6 US dropped a uranium bomb on Hiroshima. Japan
1945.8.8 Soviet forces invaded Manchuria. China
1945.8.9 US dropped a plutonium bomb on Nagasaki. Japan
1945.8.10 Mao, Jiang, and Hurley met in Chongqing.
1945.8.11 Sukarno and Hatta met Terauchi in Saigon. Indonesia
1945.8.11 Lin Biao’s PLA began occupying Manchuria. Jiang
1945.8.14 Japan agreed to Allies’ surrender terms.
1945.8.15 USSR began occupying north Korea.
1945.8.15 Hirohito spoke on Japanese radio.
1945.8 US and USSR divided Korea at 38th parallel.
1945.8.16 Viet Minh took over Hanoi. Vietnam
1945.8.17 Sukarno declared Indonesian independence.
1945.8.17 Japan’s government began burning documents.
1945.8.17 Prince Higashikuni replaced resigning Suzuki. Japan
1945.8.27 Phetxarat took Viang Chan from Japanese. Laos
1945.9.2 Ho Chih Minh declared the DRV independent. Vietnam
1945.9.2 US and Japan formally signed surrender terms.
1945.9.5 Sukarno announced his cabinet. Indonesia
1945.9.6 British troops occupied southern Vietnam.
1945.9.8 US 8th Army began occupying south Korea.
1945.9 British occupied Malaya.
1945.9.12 French returned to govern Cambodia.
1945.9.20 Stalin ordered liberal policies in north Korea.
1945.9.24 Nationalists organized general strike in Saigon. Vietnam
1945.10.4 MacArthur abolished repressive Japanese laws.
1945.10.11 Spanish forces withdrew from Tangier. Morocco
1945.10.14 Kim Il Sung was welcomed in P’yongyang. Korea
1945.10 Meeting in Rangoon voted for a Karen state. Burma
1945.10 French troops returned to southern Vietnam.
1945.10 Surabaya revolted against British occupation. Indonesia
1945.10.16 Dorman-Smith began governing Burma.
1945.10.20 Pathet Lao Assembly deposed Sisavangvong. Laos
1945.10.20 Syngman Rhee was welcomed in Seoul. Korea
1945.10.22 Militarist Japanese teachers were dismissed.
1945.11.10 Sjahrir published “Our Struggle” on socialism. Indonesia
1945.11.14 Sukarno replaced his cabinet with Sjahrir. Indonesia
1945.11.16 236 of 455 Japanese films were banned. Films
1945.12.1 4 anti-war protesters were killed in Kunming. Civil War
1945.12.8 “History of the Pacific War” was published. Japan
1945.12.15 SCAP disestablished Shinto in Japan.
1945.12 Congress & Muslim League won Indian elections. India
1945.12.17 Japanese women gained the right to vote.
1945.12.22 Japan’s Diet passed a Trade Union Law.
1945-46 Chinese troops occupied northern Vietnam.
1945-49 Chifley led Australia’s Labor government.
1945-49 Japan had Civil Censorship Detachment.
1946.1.2 USSR accepted trusteeship in north Korea.
1946.1.6 Viet Minh won elections. Vietnam
1946.1.7 Democratic Party formed in Turkey.
1946.1.10 Marshall mediated a truce in China. Jiang
1946.1 Aung San called for land reform. Burma
1946.1 Pridi parties won Thailand’s election.
1946.1 Dutch reoccupied Jakarta. Indonesia
1946.1.15 Marxist Tan Malaka formed Popular Front (PP). Indonesia
1946.1.24 Shidehara proposed a “no-war” article. Japan
1946.2 Bombay police killed looters during strikes. India
1946.2.20 France abolished indigénat law code. French West Africa
1946.2.25 CCP and Guomindang made an agreement.
1946.3.2 National Assembly convened in Hanoi. Vietnam
1946.3.6 Viet Minh and French signed an agreement. Vietnam
1946.3.21 French defeated Lao Issara at Thakhaek. Laos
1946.3.27 Japan disbanded brothels for occupiers.
1946.3-5 US-Soviet Joint Commission in Korea failed.
1946.4.1 British began Malayan Union.
1946.4.10 Jinnah and Muslim League demanded Pakistan. India
1946.4 Lin Biao’s PLA captured Changchun and Harbin. Jiang
1946.4 Japanese elected 39 women to the Diet.
1946.4 US Congress passed Philippine Trade Act.
1946.4.23 Philippines elected Roxas president.
1946.4.24 French reoccupied Viang Chan. Laos
1946.4.25 Parliament proclaimed ‘Abdullah king of Jordan.
1946.5 Soviet forces withdrew from Manchuria. USSR
1946.5.16 Cabinet Mission proposed Union of India.
1946.6 2 million Nationalists attacked Communists. Civil War
1946.6 UDMA won elections in Algeria.
1946.6.17 Haganah destroyed 10 bridges in Palestine
1946 French troops withdrew from Syria & Lebanon.
1946 Margai began Sierra Leone Organisation Society.
1946 Protectorate Assembly began in Sierra Leone.
1946 Muslim League was formed in Eritrea.
1946 United National Party formed in Ceylon.
1946 Australian National University began.
1946 Pearl Buck published Pavilion of Women.
1946 Kurosawa directed No Regrets for Our Youth.
1946 US began testing nuclear bombs at Bikini Atoll. Micronesia
1946.7.4 Independent Philippines made treaty with US.
1946.7.6 Indian Congress elected Nehru president.
1946.7 Sukarno imprisoned Tan Malaka for 2 years. Indonesia
1946.8 Kamei’s film The Tragedy of Japan was banned. Censorship
1946.8.16 Muslim League began direct action; 5,000 died. India
1946.8.21 Japan’s Diet approved the new constitution.
1946.8.23 North Korean Workers Party formed.
1946.8.27 Laos monarchy joined French Indochina.
1946.9.1 Democrats won Cambodian election.
1946.9 Gov’t. employees in Rangoon went on strike. Burma
1946.10 Gandhi went to Noakhali to stop violence. India
1946.10 Muslim League joined the Interim Government. India
1946.10 US declared martial law in south Korea.
1946.10 Japan’s Diet passed the Farm Land Reform Law.
1946.11.15 China’s new National Assembly met. Civil War
1946.11.20 Fighting began in Haiphong. Vietnam
1946.12.9 Muslims boycotted Constituent Assembly. India
1946.12 Ben-Gurion replaced Weizmann as leader. Palestine
1946.12 Cambodia gave Issaraks amnesty.
1946.12 Dutch created state of Eastern Indonesia.
1946.12.19 French-Vietnam War began.
1946.12.25 Nationalists adopted a constitution. Civil War
1946-47 Prime Minister Qavam governed Iran.
1946-49 Japanese war criminals were tried.
1946-53 P. M. Mahmud Shah governed Afghanistan.
1947.1 Marshall left China to civil war.
1947.1.31 MacArthur prohibited a general strike in Japan.
1947.3 United States began aiding Turkey.
1947.3 ANC and Indian Congresses cooperated.
1947.3 Nationalist army captured Yan’an. Civil War
1947.3 US secured 22 bases in the Philippines.
1947.3.23 Mountbatten became last viceroy of India.
1947.4 Aung San’s PVO won Burma elections.
1947.4 Ex-regent Rating’s coup attempt failed in Tibet.
1947.4 Katayama’s socialist coalition lasted 9 months. Japan
1947.5.3 Japan’s new constitution took effect.
1947.5 Mountbatten’s plan was approved. India
1947.5 Nationalists banned strikes, protest & petitions. Civil War
1947.6.10 Burma’s elected Assembly severed the British.
1947.6 Congress and Muslim League agreed to partition. India
1947 UNSCOP recommended Palestine partition.
1947 Nationalists formed Bureau du Maghreb Arabe. Tunisia
1947 Kenyatta led Kenya African Union.
1947 Rebels fought French in Madagascar.
1947 Australia began aiding European immigration.
1947 Australia gained the 40-hour week.
1947 Shanghai had 2,538 labor strikes. Civil War
1947 Mao issued Manifesto of the CCP. Civil War
1947.7 Amir Sjarifuddin became Indonesian premier.
1947.7.18 US began UN trusteeship of Micronesia.
1947.7.19 Aung San and 8 other leaders were murdered. Burma
1947.7.21 Dutch began police action in Indonesia.
1947.8.4 Sukarno and Dutch agreed to a cease-fire. Indonesia
1947.8 Danquah began United Gold Coast Convention.
1947.8 Laos adopted constitution and held elections.
1947.8 UGTT led general strike in Tunisia.
1947.8.11 Pakistan Assembly elected Jinnah president. India
1947.8.15 India and Pakistan became independent. India
1947.8.17 British began withdrawing troops from India.
1947.8.29 Punjab Boundary Force was abolished. India
1947.9.7 Riots broke out in Delhi. India
1947.9 Pridi founded the Southeast Asia League. Thailand Laos
1947.10 Communists implemented agrarian reform. Civil War
1947.10 MTLD won 110 local elections in Algeria.
1947.10.26 India sent troops to defend Kashmir.
1947.11 E. F. Small won Gambia’s elections.
1947.11.8 Thailand’s military put Phibun back in power.
1947.12.4 Nehru announced non-aligned foreign policy. India
1947-50 Mons negotiated with nationalists in Tunisia.
1948.1.4 Burma became an independent nation.
1948.1 Amir accepted van Mook Line and resigned. Indonesia
1948.1 Nkrumah became general secretary of UGCC. Gold Coast Colony
1948.1.17 UN Security Council formed UNCIP for Kashmir. India
1948.1.26 Accra’s chief led boycott of European imports. Gold Coast Colony
1948.1.30 Gandhi was assassinated in Delhi. India
1948.2.1 British began Federation of Malaya.
1948.2.4 Ceylon became independent Sri Lanka.
1948.2 French appointed Naegelen to govern Algeria.
1948.2 UNTCOK authorized elections in Korea.
1948.2 Japan had 123,510 homeless children.
1948.2.18 Last British regiment left India. India
1948.3.6 Roxas outlawed the Hukbalahaps. Philippines
1948.3 British troops left Cairo, stayed at Suez Canal.
1948.3 Sheikh Abdullah became Kashmir prime minister. India
1948.3 Van Mook claimed federation presidency. Indonesian
1948.3.28 Communist uprising began in Burma.
1948.4.8 Phibun became prime minister of Thailand again.
1948.4.9 Begin led attack on Deir Yasin village. Israel
1948.4.15 Roxas died and was succeeded by Quirino. Philippines
1948.4.19 Burma entered the United Nations.
1948.4.19 Nationalists elected Jiang president. Civil War
1948.5.10 South Korea held democratic elections.
1948.5.14 Ben-Gurion proclaimed Israel independent.
1948.5.14 Jews captured Jaffa; 70,000 Arabs fled. Israel
1948.5.15 Egyptian army invaded Palestine.
1948.5.16 British army advisors withdrew from Iraq.
1948.5.16 Syrians invaded Galilee. Israel
1948.5.29 Arab Legion took Jerusalem. Israel
1948.6.11 One-month truce began in Palestine. Israel
1948 Aramco sold shares to Standard Oil and Mobil. Saudi Arabia
1948 Iraq sent 18,000 soldiers to Palestine.
1948 Radio Tunis gained broadcasting monopoly.
1948 Rioting broke out in the Gold Coast colony.
1948 Luthuli lectured in the United States for ANC.
1948 Nationalists began implementing apartheid. ANC
1948 Ding Ling wrote Sun Shines over Sanggan River.
1948 Communists’ PLA went on the offensive. Civil War
1948 Kurosawa directed Drunken Angel.
1948.7 Malaya outlawed and arrested Communists.
1948.7.20 ROK National Assembly elected Rhee president. Korea
1948.8 PKI Communists killed 240 Muslim leaders. Indonesia
1948.8.18 PKI Communists took over Madiun. Indonesia
1948.8.19 Nationalists issued new currency in emergency. Civil War
1948.8.19 Sukarno denounced PKI rebels, arrested 200. Indonesia
1948.8.25 DPRK held elections in north Korea.
1948.9 Palestinian government began in Gaza. Israel
1948.11.13 KNU leaders proposed a Karen-Mon state. Burma
1948.12.18 Dutch began 2nd police action in Yogyakarta. Indonesia
1948.12.22 US stopped financial aid to Dutch Indonesia.
1948.12.23 7 major Japanese war criminals were hanged.
1948.12.31 Dutch complied with UN cease-fire. Indonesia
1948-50 Communists and Karens rebelled in Burma.
1948-54 Yoshida was Japan’s prime minister.
1948-57 Phibun was prime minister of Thailand.
1949.1.2 Israel withdrew troops from the Sinai.
1949.1.14 Mao announced 8 surrender conditions. Civil War
1949.1 African-Indian race riot in Durban killed 142. South Africa
1949.1 Karen rebellion began at Bassein and Toungoo. Burma
1949.1 Lin Biao’s army captured Tianjin and Beijing. Civil War
1949.1.21 Jiang resigned as president. Civil War
1949.1.28 Kim Il Sung praised the People’s Economic Plan. Korea
1949.2.14 Israel Assembly elected Weizmann president.
1949.2 Pridi’s coup attempt failed in Bangkok. Thailand
1949.3.7 Pakistan Assembly adopted objectives.
1949.3.17 USSR and DPRK made Assistance agreement. Korea
1949.3.25 Mao entered Beijing in triumph. Civil War
1949.3.30 Col. Za’im overthrew President Quwwatli. Syria
1949.4.1 East Punjab cut off water to Pakistan.
1949.4.3 Armistice left West Bank to Jordan.
1949.4 South Korea arrested 80,710 Communists.
1949.4.21 Communist army crossed the Yangzi. Civil War
1949.5 Israel became a member of the United Nations.
1949.6.1 Sayyid Idris proclaimed Cyrenaica independent. Libya
1949.6.14 Bao Dai was inaugurated in Saigon. Vietnam
1949.6 Convention People’s Party began in Gold Coast.
1949 Israel made terms with Lebanon, Jordan, Syria.
1949 Nigerian Women’s Union formed.
1949 Japan began 167 new universities.
1949 Japan had 6,500,000 members in 35,000 unions.
1949 Kurosawa directed Quiet Duel and Stray Dog.
1949.7 UNCIP established cease-fire line in Kashmir. India
1949.7 Tibet expelled Chinese officials from Lhasa.
1949.8 Afghanistan recognized Pashtunistan.
1949.8 South and North Koreans fought in North Korea.
1949.8.14 Col. Hinnawi removed Za’im in Syria.
1949.9.24 Xinjiang’s Burhan went over to Communists. Civil War
1949.10.1 Mao proclaimed the People’s Republic of China. Civil War
1949.10.11 Cyrenaica promulgated a constitution. Libya
1949.10 Morocco’s Muhammad V visited Paris.
1949.10 University of Malaya formed.
1949.11 Shah Muhammad Reza visited United States. Iran
1949.11 Nuri organized Constitutional Union Party in Iraq.
1949.11.21 United Nations gave Somalia trusteeship to Italy.
1949.11.26 India adopted a new constitution.
1949.12.8 Jiang fled to Taiwan. Civil War
1949.12 Menzies won Australian election.
1949.12 National Party won New Zealand’s election.
1949.12.11 UN Palestine Conciliation Commission began. Israel
1949.12.16 Sukarno was elected president of Indonesia.
1949.12.19 Col. Shishakli removed Hinnawi in Syria.
1949.12.21 United Nations favored independence of Libya.
1949.12.27 Republic of United States of Indonesia began.
1949-74 Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric project began. Australia
1950.1.1 Israel moved capital to Jerusalem.
1950.1.6 Trade Union Congress began general strike. Gold Coast Colony
1950.1.18 Communist China recognized the DRV. Vietnam
1950.1.24 Rajendra Prasad was elected president of India.
1950.1.26 Hyderabad joined the Indian Union.
1950.4.11 Palestinian Arabs voted in Jordan’s election.
1950.4 Jordan annexed West Bank. Israel
1950.5.1 Communists, Indian Congress led general strike. Dissent in South Africa
1950.5.14 Democratic Party won Turkey’s election.
1950 Iran’s Prime Minister Razmara favored Soviets.
1950 US began aiding French Indochina. Cambodia Laos Vietnam
1950 West Pakistan had 8 million Muslim refugees.
1950.7 Thailand offered troops for the Korean War.
1950.8.17 Unitary Republic of Indonesia began.
1950.9.5 Syria’s Assembly adopted a new constitution.
1950.10.7 Chinese troops invaded Tibet.
1950.11.11 Tibet appealed Chinese aggression to UN.
1950.12.2 UN approved Italian Trust Admin. for Somalia.
1950.12.2 UN voted to federate Eritrea with Ethiopia.
1950.12 14th Dalai Lama fled from Lhasa. Tibet
1950.12 Menzies won Australian election.

Copyright © 2005, 2010 by Sanderson Beck

World Chronology to 30 BC
World Chronology 30 BC to 750 CE
World Chronology 750-1300
World Chronology 1300-1588
World Chronology 1588-1715
Chronology of Mideast & Africa to 1950
Chronology of South Asia to 1950
Chronology of East Asia to 1950
Chronology of Asia & Africa to 1800
Chronology of Asia & Africa 1800-1950
Chronology of Europe to 1400
Chronology of Europe 1400-1588
Chronology of Europe 1588-1715
Chronology of America to 1817

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